Home | Covers | 1993-2012 | 1970-1992 | Mind | Special | Presents | Online
|May 1948||The Future of the Amazon||
keywords: Amazon; developing countries; economic planning; electric power; forest management; mineral resources; resource prospecting; tropical rain forest
|May 1948||The Man-apes of South Africa||
keywords: Australopithecus Paranthropus; human evolution; man-apes; Plesianthropus; primates
|May 1948||Concerning `Social Physics'||
keywords: `social physics'; physical sciences; social sciences; statistics
|May 1948||Vesalius: Discoverer of the Human Body||
keywords: human anatomy; medical history; Renaissance; Vesalius
|May 1948||The Dust Cloud Hypothesis||
keywords: cosmology; dust cloud hypothesis; gravitational collapse; gravity; light pressure; solar system; Sun; thermonuclear reaction
|May 1948||The Luminescence of Living Things||
keywords: `cold light'; abyssal fish; bioluminescence; firefly; glow worm; luciferase
|May 1948||Davisson and Germer||
keywords: Davisson-Germer experiment; diffraction; electron; electron diffraction; interference fringes; wave-particle duality
|May 1948||Smelting under Pressure||
keywords: blast furnace; iron ore; smelting; steel production
|Jun 1948||The National Science Foundation||
keywords: fundamental research; National Science Foundation (NSF); science education; science funding; university research
|Jun 1948||Histoplasmosis: the Unknown Infection||
keywords: airborne infection; coccidioidomycosis; epidemiology; fungal infection; histoplasmosis; respiratory infection
|Jun 1948||The Army Ant||
keywords: ants; army ant; comparative psychology; feedback; insect behavior; natural history; pheromones; philosophy of science; reproduction; social insect; trophallaxis
|Jun 1948||The Ultimate Particles||
keywords: electron; elementary particles; mesons; neutrino; neutron; nuclear binding force; particle accelerator; particle counters; photon; positron; proton
|Jun 1948||The Biology of Old Age||
keywords: aging; death; life expectancy
|Jun 1948||If a Slave Girl Fled...||
keywords: cuneiform script; Hammurabi; law code; Lipit-Ishtar; Sumer
|Jul 1948||Recovery of Europe (C.E. Report)||
keywords: East-West trade; Economic Commission for Europe; economic development; European economy; industrial reconstruction; trade deficit
|Jul 1948||Antiquity of Modern Man||
keywords: Charente skull; Galley Hill skull; Homo sapiens; Neanderthal man; Swanscombe cranium
|Jul 1948||Galaxies in Flight||
keywords: `synthetic' elements; cosmology; element abundance; galactic recession; red shift; universe expansion
|Jul 1948||Allergy: A Definition||
keywords: allergy; antibodies; antigens; hypersensitivity; immune reaction; serum sickness
|Jul 1948||Physics and Music||
keywords: acoustics; harmony; musical scale; physics; piano; string instruments; voice; wind instruments
|Jul 1948||Insect Vision||
keywords: color perception; compound eye; insect behavior; insect eye; optical resolution
|Jul 1948||The Beginnings of Coal||
keywords: Carboniferous period; coal; flora; fossil; Mississippian period; Pennsylvanian period; tropical flora
|Jul 1948||The Philips Air Engine||
keywords: external combustion engines; heat engines; hot-air engine; Philips air engine; Stirling engine
|Aug 1948||Measurement by Mercury||
keywords: interference fringes; interferometry; mercury 198; standard of length
|Sep 1948||The Transistor: Basic research in the electrical properties of solids has opened up an entirely new way of manipulating electrons to do useful work|
|Nov 1948||Gulliver was a bad biologist|
|Jan 1949||The Invention of Analytic Geometry||
keywords: analytic geometry; conic sections; Descartes; Euler; Fermat; mathematics; mathematics history
keywords: Galileo; gravity; inertia; moons of Jupiter
|Dec 1949||The Nobel Prizes|
|May 1950||An Imitation of Life||
Reports experiments with two autonomous, electronic ``turtles'' --- Elmer & Elsie --- equipped with various sensors and simple control circuitry which wander around their environment and interact with one another.
keywords: ai-history; ai-philos; ai-robotics; history
|Jul 1950||The Limits of Measurement||
keywords: Brownian motion; measurement; Planck's constant; time; uncertainty principle; velocity
keywords: `coppering'; Coulomb; friction; Leonardo; molecular cohesion; sliding surfaces; technology history
|Jul 1951||The Theory of Numbers||
keywords: binary arithmetic; composite numbers; magic squares; number theory; prime number
|Aug 1951||A Machine that Learns||
Further experiments with Elmer & Elsie.
keywords: ai-history; ai-philos; ai-robotics; history
|Mar 1952||Stream Pollution||
keywords: biological oxygen demand; radioactive waste disposal; sewage treatment; stream pollution; water pollution
|Nov 1952||Is There an Infinity?||
keywords: Cantor; cardinal number; equivalent sets; infinity; set theory
|Nov 1953||How Children Form Mathematical Concepts|
|Nov 1954||The Origin of Meteorites|
|Jan 1955||Projective Geometry||
keywords: Desargue's theorem; Duer; Leonardo; mathematics; Pascal's theorem; projective geometry; Renaissance paintings
|Feb 1955||Game Theory and Decisions||
keywords: decision theory; games theory; minimax; mixed strategy; pure strategy; worst-case analysis
|Apr 1955||Man Viewed as a Machine||
keywords: man-machine; refs-general
|May 1955||The Monte Carlo Method||
keywords: Buffon needle problem; mathematics; Monte Carlo method; probability; random numbers
|Oct 1955||Maupertuis, A Forgotten Genius|
|Dec 1955||Isaac Newton|
|Jun 1956||The Chemistry of Jupiter||
keywords: frozen free radicals; hydrazine radical; imine radical; Jupiter
|Sep 1956||The Distribution of Galaxies||
keywords: cosmology; galactic clusters; gravitation; Monte Carlo method; probability; universe
|Oct 1956||Artificial Living Plants||
Proposal for a species of self-reproducing machines which would mine and refine raw materials to construct offspring, and which would then be harvested for the materials from which they constructed themselves.
keywords: alt-mat; applications; automata-biol; plants
|Jan 1957||Chemical Milling|
|Nov 1957||Subjective Probability||
keywords: decision making; gambling; Monte Carlo fallacy; probability; psychology; subjective probability
|Jan 1958||Experiments in Discrimination|
|Sep 1958||The Creative Process||
keywords: creativity; Leonardo; philosophy of science; Renaissance; scientific revolution
|Dec 1958||Mathematical Sieves||
keywords: mathematics; prime number; science history; sieve of Eratosthenes
|Apr 1959||The Solar System Beyond Neptune||
keywords: Neptune; orbital motion; Pluto; solar system
|Jun 1959||Self-Reproducing Machines||
Self-reproducing machines constructed out of simple mechanical blocks which can hook onto one another to form chains.
keywords: history; self-rep
|Dec 1959||Computer Music||
keywords: computer music; information theory; music; redundancy
|Jan 1960||The Green Flash|
|Jan 1961||The Growth of Snow Crystals|
|Jan 1962||The fine structure of the gene|
|Jun 1962||The Schooling of Fishes||
Study of the development of schooling behavior in young fish.
|Jan 1963||The Lesson of the Pygmies|
|Jul 1963||The Voyage of Mariner II||
keywords: Mariner 2; navigation; orbital motion; space exploration; telemetry; Venus
|Jul 1964||Radio Waves from Jupiter||
keywords: Jupiter; magnetic field; radio emissions; Van Allen belts
|Jul 1964||Computer Experiments in Chemistry||
keywords: computer modeling; gas kinetics; mathematical model; Monte Carlo method
keywords: Brownian motion; combinatorial analysis; Markov chain; mathematics; normal curve; Pascal's triangle; probability; statistics
|Sep 1964||Mathematics in the Biological Sciences||
Moore predicts that the most significant applications of mathematics in the biological sciences will stem from the analysis of problems in the theory of computing machines.
|Aug 1965||Infrared Astronomy||
keywords: atmospheric windows; extraterrestrial life; infrared astronomy; Jupiter; Mars; moon; spectrometry; Venus
|Sep 1965||The superellipse: A curve that lies between the ellipse and the rectangle|
keywords: electronic components industry; integrated circuits; microelectronics; silicon `chips'; transistor
|Jan 1966||The Ranger Missions to the Moon||
keywords: lunar exploration; lunar surface; moon; space exploration; spacecraft design
|Mar 1966||The Voyage of Mariner IV||
keywords: artificial satellite; Mariner 4; Mars; space exploration; spacecraft; spacecraft navigation; telemetry
|Apr 1966||The Photographs from Mariner IV||
keywords: computer enhancement; computer graphics; Mariner IV photographs; Mars; Martian topography; space exploration; telemetry; television camera
|Apr 1966||Early Metallurgy in the New World||
keywords: copper; gold; lost-wax casting; metallurgy; New World archaeology; Old Copper culture; Peru
|May 1966||The Scientific Experiments of Mariner IV||
keywords: atmosphere; cosmic radiation; interplanetary space; magnetosphere; Mariner 4; Mars; micrometeorites; solar wind; space exploration; trapped radiation
keywords: binary arithmetic; computer applications; computer industry; computer privacy; computer technology; information theory
|Sep 1966||Information Storage and Retrieval||
keywords: computer technology; electronic scanner; information retrieval; information storage; library science; microfiche; microrecording
|Jan 1967||Electric Currents in Organic Crystals|
|Nov 1967||The Sociology of the Nobel Prizes||
keywords: education; Nobel prizes; scientific careers; sociology; university education
|Jul 1968||Radar observations of the planets||
keywords: astronomical observations; general relativity; planets
|Jul 1968||X-ray crystallography||
keywords: teaching; X-ray crystallography
|Aug 1968||High-power carbon dioxide lasers||
keywords: carbon compounds; gas lasers
|Aug 1968||The infrared sky||
keywords: astronomical observations; astronomical telescopes
|Aug 1968||Movements of the eye||
keywords: cameras; eye
keywords: radiofrequency cosmic radiation
keywords: batch-processing; load dispatching; materials handling
|Oct 1968||How fast can computers add?||
keywords: computer facilities
|Nov 1968||Strong and ductile steels||
keywords: alloys; brittleness; mechanical strength; steel
|Nov 1968||Artificial plasma clouds in space||
keywords: ionosphere; magnetosphere; space research
|Dec 1968||Radio signals from hydroxyl radicals||
keywords: free radicals; oxygen compounds; radiofrequency cosmic radiation
|Dec 1968||Sea-floor spreading||
|Jan 1969||Seyfert galaxies||
|Mar 1969||Brownian Motion and Potential Theory||
keywords: Brownian motion; harmonic functions; potential theory; probabilistic potential theory
|Mar 1969||The Atmospheres of Mars and Venus||
keywords: atmosphere; Mars; space exploration; Venus
keywords: cathode-ray tube; computer applications; digital computer; electronic typesetting; mechanical composition; photographic typesetting; printing
|Jul 1969||Systems analysis of urban transportation||
keywords: engineering applications of computers; simulation; transportation
|Jul 1969||Neutrinos from the sun||
keywords: cosmic ray apparatus; cosmic ray neutrinos; solar cosmic ray particles
|Jul 1969||Liquid metals||
keywords: liquid metals
keywords: diffusion in solids; electrolysis; metallurgy
|Aug 1969||The size and shape of atomic nuclei||
keywords: nuclear size
|Sep 1969||The origin of the oceans||
|Sep 1969||The atmosphere and the ocean||
keywords: atmospheric movements; atmospheric pressure and density; atmospheric temperature; oceanography
|Oct 1969||Acoustical holography||
|Nov 1969||Amorphous-semiconductor switching||
keywords: amorphous state; semiconductor devices; semiconductor switches
|Nov 1969||Magnetic recording||
|Dec 1969||New methods for approaching absolute zero||
keywords: low-temperature production; reviews
|Dec 1969||Measuring Earth strains by laser||
keywords: laser beam applications; light interferometers; seismology
|Jan 1970||Aerodynamic whistle||
keywords: acoustic noise; acoustic waves; aerodynamics
|Jan 1970||The shapes of organic molecules||
keywords: molecular rotation; organic molecule configurations and dimensions; reaction kinetics
keywords: Australopithecus; Gigantopithecus; hominid; human evolution; pongids
|Feb 1970||Large-scale integration in electronics||
keywords: circuits; large scale integration
|Feb 1970||Particles that go faster than light||
keywords: elementary particles; general relativity
|Mar 1970||The lunar laser reflector||
keywords: laser beam applications; length measurement; Moon
|Mar 1970||Monomolecular layers and light||
keywords: light absorption; light interference; luminescence; organic compounds
|Apr 1970||Liquid-crystal display devices||
keywords: colour; display systems; electric field effects; liquid crystals
|May 1970||The Surface of Mars||
keywords: cratering; Mariner 6; Mariner 7; Mars; orbital motion; polar cap; telemetry; television camera
|May 1970||`Second sound' in solid helium||
keywords: solid helium
|May 1970||How We Remember What We See||
keywords: image processing; linguistic material; memory; perception; visual memory
|Jun 1970||The origin of galaxies||
|Jun 1970||Computer Displays||
keywords: computer graphics; display systems
|Jul 1970||Globular-cluster stars||
keywords: age; globular clusters; stars; stellar evolution
|Jul 1970||Network analysis||
keywords: computer networks; cost reduction; critical path analysis; digital computers; effectiveness; flow; flow handling systems; gas pipelines; mathematics; network analysis; power grids; power transmission; reliability
|Jul 1970||Negative viscosity||
keywords: eddies; fluid systems; hydrodynamics; negative viscosity; nonuniform flows; rotating systems; viscosity
|Aug 1970||The lunar soil||
|Aug 1970||Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators||
keywords: linear accelerators
|Oct 1970||The breakup of Pangaea||
|Oct 1970||The fundamental physical constants||
keywords: physics fundamentals
|Oct 1970||Mathematical Games: The Fantastic Combinations of John Conway's New Solitaire Game `Life'||
The original description of Conway's game of LIFE. See Bays:1987:CGL.
|Nov 1970||Fast breeder reactors||
keywords: nuclear reactors
|Nov 1970||Superdense water||
keywords: liquid structure; water
|Nov 1970||Why the sea is salt||
|Dec 1970||The absorption lines of quasi-stellar objects||
keywords: absorption line shifts; astronomical spectra; emission lines; quasars; quasi-stellar objects; red shift; red shifts; spectra
|Dec 1970||Optical interference coatings||
keywords: film stacks; light interference; optical components; optical films; optical interference coatings; optical materials
|Dec 1970||Permanent magnets||
keywords: alloys; cobalt compounds; cobalt-rare earth alloys; ferromagnetic properties of substances; magnetic materials; magnetic properties; magnets; permanent magnets
|Jan 1971||The nature of pulsars||
keywords: Crab Nebula; neutron stars in rapid rotation hypothesis; pulsars
|Jan 1971||Circuit breakers||
keywords: circuit breakers; circuit breaking arc dousing; circuit-breaking arcs
|Feb 1971||Solid stars||
keywords: density; matter; neutron stars; pulsars; rigidity; solid stars; stars; white dwarfs
|Feb 1971||The prospects of fusion power||
keywords: feasibility; fusion power; fusion reactors; nuclear power; nuclear reactors; plasma containers
|Feb 1971||The fastest computer||
keywords: computer; ILLIAC IV; multiprocessing systems; overlapping; pipelining; processing units; simultaneous operation; ultimate limitations
|Feb 1971||Leonardo on Bearings and Gears||
keywords: bearing; friction; gears; Leonardo; technology history
|Feb 1971||Mathematical Games: On Cellular Automata, Self-Reproduction, The Garden of Eden and the Game of `Life'||
Follow-up article on LIFE and other CA rules.
keywords: automata-selfrepro; automata-theory; CA; CA-LIFE
|Mar 1971||The magnetic structure of superconductors||
keywords: magnetic field effects; magnetic fields; magnetic structure; superconducting materials; superconducting metals
|Apr 1971||A high-resolution scanning electron microscope||
keywords: electron microscopy; high resolution scanning electron microscopy
|Apr 1971||Advances in pattern recognition||
keywords: character recognition equipment; experimental reading machine; pattern recognition
|Apr 1971||Superconductivity at high pressure||
keywords: high pressure; high-pressure phenomena and effects; metals; pressure chamber; superconductivity
|May 1971||Mercury in the Environment||
keywords: mercury cycle; mercury poisoning; mercury pollution; Minamata disease
|May 1971||The detection of gravitational waves||
keywords: galactic centre; gravitational radiation bursts; gravitational waves; gravitational waves detection; theory of relativity
|May 1971||The evolution of quasars||
keywords: evolution of quasars; quasars
|May 1971||The induction coil||
keywords: coils; induction coil
|Jun 1971||Fusion by laser||
keywords: fusion reactions; fusion reactors; laser applications; laser beam applications; nuclear fusion
|Jun 1971||The structure of the proton and the neutron||
keywords: electron-proton scattering; neutron; neutron scattering; proton; proton scattering; scattering; ultrahigh energy electrons
|Jun 1971||Magnetic bubbles||
keywords: computer memory; cylindrical domains; domains; ferromagnetic garnets; ferromagnetic properties of substances; magnetic bubbles; magnetic devices; magnetic film stores; magnetic storage devices; magnetic thin film devices; magnetisation; thin films
|Jul 1971||A new class of diode lasers||
keywords: carrier wave generators; communications; diode lasers; heterostructures; semiconductor lasers
|Jul 1971||Supernova remnants||
keywords: catastrophic stellar explosions; debris; emitted radiation; novae; supernova remnants
|Jul 1971||Photons as hadrons||
keywords: hadrons; photons
|Aug 1971||The magnetism of the Moon||
keywords: Apollo 12; Apollo 14; astronauts; electric currents; fossil magnetic material; lunar interior; lunar magnetic field; lunar surface; magnetic field measurement; magnetism; magnetometers; Moon; permanent magnetic fields; rock magnetism; solar wind magnetic field; transient fields
|Sep 1971||Energy in the universe||
keywords: cosmology; energy flows; gravitation; nuclear reactions; nuclear reactions and scattering; radiation; universe
|Sep 1971||The energy resources of the earth||
keywords: Earth; earth; earth's heat; energy resources; fission fuels; fossil fuels; fusion fuels; solar energy; the tides
|Sep 1971||The conversion of energy||
keywords: automobile engines; conversion of energy; demand for energy; earth's heat load; energy resources; energy source; furnaces; light bulbs; steam turbines
|Sep 1971||Energy and information (thermodynamics and information theory)||
keywords: energy; information; information theory; thermodynamics
|Nov 1971||New superconductors||
keywords: alloys; high superconducting transition temperatures; intermetallic compounds; layered materials; organic molecules; structural and chemical conditions; superconducting materials; superconductor anisotropy; superconductors
|Dec 1971||The Gum nebula||
keywords: Gum nebula; nebulae; reviews
|Dec 1971||The rotation of the Earth||
keywords: Earth rotation; Earth rotation nonuniformities; earthquakes; seismology; wobble
|Jan 1972||The scanning electron microscope||
keywords: cathode ray picture tube; electron microscopes; electron tubes; scanning electron microscope; three dimensional pictures
|Jan 1972||Geothermal power||
keywords: Earth's heat; energy resources; explorings; geophysical prospecting; geothermal power; hot water; steam; terrestrial heat
|Jan 1972||The spectrum of the airglow||
keywords: airglow; airglow spectrum; chemical processes; physical conditions; upper atmosphere
|Feb 1972||Technology assessment and microwave diodes||
keywords: economic and sociological effects; EM spectrum efficient use; health hazards; microwave devices; microwave diodes; microwave technology; social complications; technology assessment; telecommunication
|Feb 1972||The synthesis of speech||
keywords: acoustics; data communication systems; digital computers; speech synthesis; synthesis of speech; voices for computers
|Feb 1972||The pressure of laser light||
keywords: applications; focused beam; laser beam applications; laser light; radiation pressure
|Feb 1972||Intercontinental radio astronomy||
keywords: electromagnetic wave interferometry; interferometers; radio astronomy; radio sources; radioastronomy; radiotelescopes; structures of quasars
keywords: charged body; contact electrification; corona discharge; electrostatics; field; fly ash precipitators; meteorological effects; modern applications; paint sprayers; particles of matter; photography; Xerography; Xerox copying machines
|Mar 1972||How did Kepler discover his first two laws?||
keywords: celestial mechanics; distance; distances; ellipse; epicycle theory; first two laws; initial hypothesis; Kepler; Mars; orbit of Mars; planet; planetary motion; planets; Ptolemy; sun; Sun; Tycho Brahe
|Apr 1972||Collective-effect accelerators||
keywords: collective effect accelerators; particle accelerators; proton accelerators
|Apr 1972||Tides and the Earth-Moon system||
keywords: Earth; Earth Moon system; evolution; Moon; oceanography; origin; tidal friction
|Apr 1972||Superconductors for power transmission||
keywords: power cables; power transmission; superconducting devices; superconductors; underground cables; underground lines
|May 1972||How we control the contraction of our muscles||
keywords: automatic feedback system; biocontrol; man-machine systems; muscle contraction; power assisted steering; servomechanism; voluntary muscular movements
|May 1972||Black holes||
keywords: black holes; gravitational collapse; gravitational waves; massive star collapse; radiation of gravitational waves; stellar radiation
|Jun 1972||Organic matter in meteorites||
keywords: carbonaceous chondrites; meteorites; organic matter
|Jun 1972||Contour and contrast||
keywords: contour; contrast; neural mechanisms; vision
|Jul 1972||The X-ray sky||
keywords: celestial X-ray sources; clouds of Magellar; Crab Nebula; galaxies; neutron star; pulsar; pulsars; quasar; quasars; state of the art; X-ray sources (astronomical)
|Jul 1972||The Tokamak approach in fusion research||
keywords: confinement; controlled fusion; diffuse pinch; fusion research; heating; high temperature plasmas; nuclear reactors; plasma confinement; thermonuclear reactor feasibility; Tokamak approach; toroidal plasma
|Sep 1972||Communication channels||
keywords: coaxial cables; communication channels; optical channels; optical links; radio waves; reviews; telecommunication; telecommunications; wires
|Sep 1972||Communication networks||
keywords: branch minimization; capacity; communication networks; reviews; switching
|Sep 1972||Communication terminals||
keywords: communication networks; communication terminals; reviews
|Oct 1972||Acoustic surface waves||
keywords: acoustic surface waves; acoustoelectric effects; electronic devices; piezoelectric devices; semiconductor devices; signal recognition; signal separation; signal storage
|Oct 1972||The carbon chemistry of the moon||
keywords: analysis; Apollo samples; carbon chemistry; life origin; moon; Moon; organic compounds
|Oct 1972||The texture of the nuclear surface||
keywords: alpha particles; cluster; neutrons; nuclear cluster model; nuclear size; nuclear surface; nuclei of atoms; protons; texture
|Nov 1972||Microcircuits by Electron Beam||
keywords: circuit components; computer technology; computer-controlled fabrication; electron beam applications; electron beam tracing; electron optics; electronic circuits; integrated circuits; microcircuit fabrication; monolithic integrated circuits; Si chips; silicon `chips'; transistors
|Nov 1972||Pictorial perception and culture||
keywords: Africa; culture; learning; pictorial perception; pictures; vision
|Nov 1972||Exotic atoms||
keywords: 6.2 BeV accelerator; exotic atoms; kaonic atoms; mesic and muonic atoms; reviews; X-ray photons
|Dec 1972||The tensile strength of liquids||
keywords: liquids; tensile strength
|Jan 1973||Mars from Mariner 9||
keywords: erosion; evidence; information; internal heating; Mariner 9; Mariner 9 results; Mars; Martian atmosphere; Martian topography; planets; polar cap; solar system; space exploration
|Jan 1973||The control of sensitivity in the retina||
keywords: ambient illumination; eye; high contrast; nerve cell interactions; neural image; neurophysiology; response range; retina; sensitivity; sensitivity control
|Jan 1973||Conduction electrons in metals||
keywords: band structure; conduction electrons; crystal; crystal electron states; electrical properties; electrical properties of substances; energy structure; metal theory; metals; quasi-particles; quasiparticles
|Jan 1973||Snow crystals||
keywords: arrangement; crystal growth; formation conditions; natural environment; snow; snow crystals; specific appearance; water molecules
|Feb 1973||The microstructure of the ocean||
keywords: mapping; microstructure; ocean; oceanography; saltiness; seawater; stirred; temperature; temperature distribution; tides; wind; winds
|Feb 1973||Metal-vapor lasers||
keywords: continuous laser radiation; gas; gas lasers; laser light; metal vapour lasers; power levels; vaporized metal; wide range of wavelengths
|Feb 1973||Rotation in high-energy astrophysics||
keywords: energy; enormous magnetic fields; gravitational collapse; gravitational contraction; high energy astrophysics; magnetohydrodynamics; pulsars; quasars; radiosources; radiosources (astronomical); rapid rotation; rotating bodies; rotation
|Mar 1973||The fine structure of the earth's interior||
keywords: core; Earth interior; earth's interior; fine structure; seismic wave analysis; seismology; solid kernel
|Mar 1973||Interstellar molecules||
keywords: formation mechanisms; interstellar matter; interstellar molecules; review; reviews; spectroscopy
|Mar 1973||Bicycle Technology||
keywords: bicycle technology; economic development; technology history
|Apr 1973||The brightest infrared sources||
keywords: brightest; celestial objects; debris; infrared astronomy; infrared sources; review; reviews; stars
|Apr 1973||Science and the citizen|
|Apr 1973||The control of the water cycle||
keywords: atmosphere; control; general circulation; hydrologic studies; terrestrial atmosphere; water; water cycle
|Apr 1973||Ion implantation||
keywords: accelerator; doping; impurity atoms; ion implantation; ionized atoms; microelectronic devices; precision; technique; theory
|May 1973||Cryptography and Computer Privacy||
keywords: code security; computer privacy; cryptography
|May 1973||Galileo's Discovery of the Law of Free Fall||
keywords: falling-body velocity; free fall; Galileo; Merton rule; science history
|Jun 1973||The dynamics of the Andromeda Nebula||
keywords: Andromeda galaxy; dust; dynamics; galaxies; gas; M31; NGC 224; spectrographic observations; spiral galaxy; stars; stellar spectrophotometry
|Jun 1973||Ultrafast phenomena in liquids and solids||
keywords: fluorescence; frequency spectra; laser beam applications; laser pulses; liquids; relaxation time; solids; ultrafast phenomena
|Jun 1973||Electronic numbers||
keywords: diodes; display systems; electronic calculators; electronic numbers; integrated circuit; reviews; transistors
|Jun 1973||An advice-taking chess computer||
keywords: arithmetical operation of the computer; chess computer; computer aided instruction; games of skill; logical operations of the computer
|Jul 1973||The physics of brasses||
keywords: acoustic energy; acoustic impedance; brasses; fundamental; harmonics; impedance patterns; instrument; instrument's bell; musical acoustics; musical instruments; musical tones; player's lips; playing frequency; standing waves; trumpet; vibrations
|Jul 1973||Advanced composite materials||
keywords: advanced materials; composite materials; properties
|Jul 1973||Meteorites and cosmic radiation||
keywords: bombarded; cosmic radiation; cosmic ray particles; cosmic rays; exposure age; history; meteorites; nuclear products; origin; size; solar system; space vacuum
|Jul 1973||Plate tectonics and mineral resources||
keywords: continental drift; deposits; location; metals; mineral resources; minerals; oil; plate tectonics; sea floor spreading; tectonics
|Aug 1973||Experiments with neutrino beams||
keywords: accelerators; neutrino beams; neutrino interactions; neutrinos
|Aug 1973||Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Technology||
keywords: electronic calculators; integrated circuits; metal-oxide semiconductors; microelectronics; monolithic integrated circuits; MOS fabrication technique; pocket calculators; silicon `chips'; silicon chip; transistor
|Aug 1973||The evolution of the Andes||
keywords: Andes; Earth crust; Earth's crust; evolution; geology; mountain belts; seismology
|Oct 1973||Electromagnetic flight||
keywords: electromagnetic flight; high speed ground transportation; magnetic levitation; transportation
|Oct 1973||The solar corona||
keywords: solar corona
|Oct 1973||Electron-positron collisions||
keywords: annihilation; electron positron collisions; positron annihilation
|Nov 1973||Communication by optical fiber||
keywords: fibre optics; optical communication; optical fibres
|Nov 1973||Proton interactions at high energies||
keywords: CERN colliding beam accelerator; energy dependence; interaction probability; proton interactions at high energies; proton-proton interactions
|Nov 1973||The recognition of faces||
keywords: machine recognition; pattern recognition; perception; recognition of faces
|Nov 1973||The evolution of the Pacific||
keywords: crust movement; deep sea drilling; eastern basin; evolution; oceanography; sea floor sediments; Western Pacific basin
|Nov 1973||Mathematical Games: Fantastic patterns traced by programmed `worms'||
Description of Patterson's Worm system. Also see Beeler:1973:PW.
keywords: lattice-model; pattern-formation
|Dec 1973||Violent tides between galaxies||
keywords: computational physics; computer models of galaxies; galaxies; interaction of galaxies; multiple galaxy systems; simulation; tidal distortions; violent tides between galaxies
|Dec 1973||Laser spectroscopy||
keywords: extremely narrow resonances; laser beam applications; laser spectroscopy; molecular spectra; optical absorption spectra of gases; optical emission spectra of gases; spectral line breadth; spectroscopy
|Jan 1974||The age of the elements||
keywords: chemical elements age; chemical elements formation; cosmology; element origin; formation of radioactive nuclei; radioactive dating; spontaneous decay of radioactive nuclei; universe age
|Jan 1974||The physics of the bowed string||
keywords: acoustic noise; acoustic waves; acoustics; bowed string physics; circuit concepts; electromagnetic method of observing string motion; musical acoustics; oscillations; vibrating bodies; vibration measurement; violin string
|Feb 1974||Charge-coupled devices||
keywords: charge-coupled devices; computer memories; image sensors; information storage elements; semiconductor electronics
|Feb 1974||The nature of comets||
keywords: Comet Kohoutek (1973f); comets; Oort cloud; solar nebula
|Feb 1974||The Batavia accelerator||
keywords: 400 GeV; Batavia accelerator; Illinois synchrotron; proton accelerator; proton accelerators; superconducting magnet ring; superconducting magnets; synchrotrons
|Mar 1974||A dynamic model of cell membranes||
keywords: cell membranes; cell nuclei; cell organelles; cells; cellular biophysics; dynamic model; lipid molecules; membrane proteins; membranes; protein molecules
|Mar 1974||The chemistry of the solar system||
keywords: cloud; planetary satellites; planets; solar system; Sun; sun
|Mar 1974||Inorganic polymers||
keywords: inorganic polymers; macromolecular configurations and dimensions; polymerisation; silicon compounds; sulphur compounds
|May 1974||Computer Graphics in Architecture|
|Jun 1974||Rotating Chemical Reactions||
keywords: pacemaker, chemical, spiral, reaction
|Jul 1974||Unified theories of elementary-particle interaction||
keywords: electron; elementary particle interaction; elementary particle interactions; elementary particle symmetry; force; graviton; mutual interactions; neutrino; neutron; photon; physical phenomena; proton; unified theories
|Jul 1974||The glory||
keywords: atmospheric optics; glory; prismatic colours; sunlight scattering; water droplets
|Aug 1974||The cosmic background radiation||
keywords: astronomical spectra; big bang; cosmic background radiation; cosmology; galactic cosmic rays; gamma rays; microwaves; radio waves; sky brightness; X rays
|Aug 1974||Superhard materials (crystal binding)||
keywords: bonds; boron compounds; crystal binding; cubic BN; diamond; hardness; orientation; strength; superhard materials
|Oct 1974||The structure of emission nebulas||
keywords: cloud of interstellar gas; emission nebulas; ion distribution; nebulae; structure; three colour photography
|Dec 1974||The search for black holes||
keywords: binary stars; black holes; Cygnus X-1; massive star; orbit; X-ray source; X-ray sources (astronomical)
|Dec 1974||The solidification of castings||
keywords: cast metal; castings; solidification
|Dec 1974||The detection of neutral weak currents||
keywords: detection of neutral weak currents; electromagnetic force; elementary particle weak interactions; neutral currents; neutrino interactions; weak force
|Jan 1975||The nature of asteroids||
keywords: asteroids; astronomical spectra; evolution; meteorites; mineralogical composition; minor planets; origin
|Feb 1975||Computer-managed parts manufacture||
keywords: automatic control; batch-processing; computer managed parts manufacturing; control engineering applications of computers; cost reduction; machining parts; manufacturing processes; process control; small batches
|Feb 1975||The most primitive objects in the solar system (carbonaceous chondrites)||
keywords: carbonaceous chondrites; condensed; grains of material; meteorites; mixtures; origin; planets; solar nebula; solar system; unaltered minerals; wide range of temperatures
|Feb 1975||Dual-resonance models of elementary particles||
keywords: dual resonance models; duality and dual models; elementary particles; hadrons; massless strings; multidimensional space; strongly interacting particles
|Feb 1975||Alfred Wegener and the hypothesis of continental drift||
keywords: Alfred Wegener; continental drift hypothesis; geophysics; history; migrations; tectonic theory; tectonics
|Mar 1975||X-ray-emitting double stars||
keywords: binary stars; X-ray emitting double stars; X-ray sources (astronomical)
|Mar 1975||Interactive human communication|
|Mar 1975||The Earth's mantle||
keywords: Earth mantle; earth mantle
|Mar 1975||Visual Pigments and Color Blindness||
keywords: colour blindness; colour vision; cone cell; visual pigments
|Apr 1975||The rotation of the Sun||
keywords: rotating bodies; solar wind; Sun; Sun rotation
|Apr 1975||The deformation of metals at high temperatures||
keywords: deformation of metals; heat treatment; high temperatures; high-temperature phenomena and effects; hot working; metals; plastic deformation
|May 1975||Earthquake prediction||
keywords: Earth crust; Earth crust resistivity; earthquake prediction; plate tectonics; reviews; rock cracks; rock dilatancy; rocks; seismic wave velocities; seismic waves; seismology; terrestrial electricity
keywords: computer applications; integrated circuits; metal-oxide semiconductors; microcomputer; microcomputers; microelectronic chips; microelectronic circuits; microelectronics; microprocessors; minicomputers; reviews; silicon `chips'
|Jun 1975||Electron-positron annihilation and the new particles||
keywords: electron positron annihilation; meson production; meson resonances; particle production; positron annihilation; psi particles
|Jun 1975||Pulsating stars||
keywords: composition; fundamental vibration; harmonics; internal architecture; pulsars; pulsating stars; stellar composition; stellar internal processes; stellar structure
|Jun 1975||Visual motion perception||
keywords: vision; visual motion perception
|Jul 1975||Positrons as a probe of the solid state||
keywords: atomic structure; crystal defects; crystalline substance; gamma rays; positron annihilate; positron annihilation in liquids and solids; solid state
|Aug 1975||Giant radio galaxies||
keywords: energetic radio sources; galaxies; giant radio galaxies; radio telescope; radiosources (astronomical)
|Aug 1975||The floor of the Mid-Atlantic Rift||
keywords: continents; Earth crust; lava; Mid Atlantic Rift; ocean floor; tectonics
|Sep 1975||The solar system||
keywords: reviews; solar system; space probes
|Sep 1975||The origin and evolution of the solar system||
keywords: cosmogony; evolution; meteorites; origin; solar system
|Sep 1975||The Sun||
keywords: atmosphere; reviews; solar surface; spacecraft observations; Sun
keywords: Mariner 10; Mercury; Mercury (planet); reviews; structure
keywords: atmosphere; clouds; cratering; Earth; planets; reviews; solar system; surface; temperature; Venus
|Sep 1975||The Earth||
keywords: atmosphere; crust; dynamic activity; Earth; living organisms; reviews
|Sep 1975||The Moon||
keywords: geological record; geologically active outer layers; lunar geology; Moon; reviews; satellite
keywords: closeup photographs; cratering; Mars; planetary surfaces; reviews
keywords: atmospheric circulation; Great Red Spot; H; He; Jovian moons; Jupiter; liquid layers; liquid planets; massive planets; reviews; solar system; turbulent atmosphere
|Sep 1975||The outer planets||
keywords: composition; Neptune; outer planets; planets; Pluto; remote unexplored planets; reviews; Saturn; Uranus
|Sep 1975||The smaller bodies of the solar system||
keywords: asteroids; collisions; meteoroids; planetesimals; reviews; solar system
|Sep 1975||Interplanetary particles and fields||
keywords: charged particles; energetic bursts; interplanetary fields; interplanetary magnetic fields; interplanetary matter; interplanetary particles; magnetic fields; planets; solar wind
|Oct 1975||Natural-uranium heavy-water reactors||
keywords: U235 enrichment; CANDU system; heavy water; nuclear power station; nuclear power stations; nuclear reactors; unenriched U
|Oct 1975||Quarks with color and flavor||
keywords: charm; colour; elementary particles; flavour; quarks
|Oct 1975||Image reconstruction from projections||
keywords: cross section; image reconstruction; internal organs; mathematical technique; patient diagnosis; projections; radiography; X-ray exposures
|Nov 1975||The protein switch of muscle contraction||
keywords: conformation; macromolecular configurations and dimensions; molecular biophysics; muscle contraction; protein switch; proteins; regulatory proteins; tropomyosin; troponin
|Nov 1975||High-gradient magnetic separation||
keywords: generation; high gradient magnetic separation; strong magnetic fields; very weakly magnetic particles; wastewater purification; water treatment
|Nov 1975||The subduction of the lithosphere||
keywords: Earth crust; Earth mantle; earthquakes; island arcs; lithosphere; mountain ranges; oceanic trenches; subduction; tectonics; volcanoes; volcanology
|Nov 1975||The synthesis of diamond at low pressure||
keywords: crystal growth from vapour; diamond; low pressure gas rich in C; synthesis
|Dec 1975||X-rays from supernova remnants||
keywords: exploding supernova; interstellar medium; supernova remnants; supernovae; X-ray emission; X-ray sources (astronomical)
|Dec 1975||The microstructure of polymeric materials||
keywords: mechanical properties; mechanical properties of substances; microstructure; noncrystalline state structure; polymeric materials; polymers; thermoplastic polymers
|Jan 1976||The Volcanoes of Mars||
keywords: Mariner 9; Mars; planetary surface; size; volcanoes
|Jan 1976||The search for new families of elementary particles||
keywords: elementary particles; high energy neutrinos; hypothetical particles; neutrino interactions; new families
keywords: atmosphere; atmospheric optics; light refraction; mirages; optical properties of fluid medium
|Feb 1976||Is gravity getting weaker?||
keywords: cosmology; eclipses of stars; gravitation; gravitational constant; gravitational experiments; gravity; Moon; occultations
|Feb 1976||Robot systems||
keywords: artificial intelligence; automatic control; automatic control mechanisms; control engineering applications of computers; environmental uncertainties; factories; feedback; industrial robots; instructable machines; robots
|Mar 1976||The meteorology of Jupiter||
keywords: atmospheric circulation; Great Red Spot; Jovian meteorology; Jupiter; meteorology; model; planetary atmosphere; planetary atmospheres; planets; solar system; visible features
|Mar 1976||Will the Universe expand forever?||
keywords: average density of matter; big bang; chemical elements age; cosmology; D abundance; recession of distant galaxies; Universe expansion
|Mar 1976||The resources of binocular perception||
keywords: binocular perception; depth information; motion information; stereograms; vision; visual input
|Mar 1976||The small electronic calculator||
keywords: chip circuits; digital integrated circuits; electronic calculators; information processing system; monolithic integrated circuits; single microelectronic chip; small electronic calculator
|Mar 1976||Fluorescence-activated cell sorting||
keywords: animal cells; biological techniques and instruments; cell biology; cellular biophysics; fluorescence; fluorescence activated cell sorting; new technique
|Apr 1976||Subjective contours||
keywords: subjective contours; vision; visual system
|Apr 1976||The analysis of materials by X-ray absorption||
keywords: crystal atomic structure; X-ray absorption; X-ray crystallography technique
|May 1976||The mass of the photon||
keywords: limit of accuracy; mass; photon mass; photons; rest mass
|May 1976||The Galilean Satellites of Jupiter||
keywords: Callisto; Europa; Galilean satellites; Galileo; Ganymede; Io; Jovian satellites; Jupiter; planetary satellites; solar system
|May 1976||Mechanical alloying||
keywords: alloys; cold welding; high energy ball mill; mechanical alloying; metal powders; powder metallurgy; welding
|Jun 1976||An electron-hole liquid||
keywords: electron hole liquid; electron-hole drops; glowing droplets; low temperature; luminescence of inorganic solids; phase diagram; photoluminescence; quantum mechanical fluid; semiconductor crystal; semiconductors; thermal expansion
|Jun 1976||Navigation between the planets||
keywords: aerospace applications of computers; computing methods; Mars; navigation; planets; radionavigation; space communication links; space vehicles; tracking; Viking spacecraft
|Jun 1976||Historical supernovas||
keywords: history; stars; stellar evolution; stellar explosions; supernovae
|Jul 1976||A natural fission reactor||
keywords: U235 abundance; dormant remains; geology; geophysics; minerals; natural fission reactor; nuclear reactors; Oklo deposit; U ore deposit; uranium; West Africa
|Jul 1976||The geometry of soap films and soap bubbles||
keywords: bubbles; configurations; disperse systems; films; geometry; mathematical model; soap bubbles; soap films
|Aug 1976||Hot spots on the Earth's surface||
keywords: Earth surface; fracturing of continents; hot spots; ocean floor spreading; plate tectonics; terrestrial heat; volcanic activity; volcanology
|Aug 1976||The photographic lens||
keywords: aberrations; antireflection coatings; glasses; high performance lenses; optical materials; photographic lens; photographic lenses; plastics; production methods
|Aug 1976||The Curvature of Space in a Finite Universe||
keywords: cosmology; curvature of space; distortion of distances; Einstein's general theory of relativity; finite universe; general relativity; infinity; relativity theory; space curvature
|Oct 1976||The photovoltaic generation of electricity||
keywords: construction; electric power generation; electricity generation; fabrication; operation; photovoltaic devices; Si solar cell; solar cells
|Oct 1976||Cosmic gamma-ray bursts||
keywords: cosmic gamma ray bursts; cosmic ray origin; cosmic ray photons; gamma-ray sources (astronomical); gamma-rays; models; satellite observations
|Oct 1976||White-light holograms||
keywords: holography; incoherent light; light coherence; reviews; white light holograms
|Oct 1976||Dust storms||
keywords: dust; dust storms; Earth; mechanisms; storms; surface; wind
|Nov 1976||The confinement of quarks||
keywords: confinement within particles; forces; quark confinement; quarks
|Nov 1976||Convection currents in the Earth's mantle||
keywords: convection currents; Earth mantle; Earth's mantle; plates; steady motion; tectonics; terrestrial heat
|Dec 1976||The Pluralistic Economy of the U.S.||
keywords: employment; not-for-profit sector; pluralistic economy; private-enterprise sector; productivity; public sector; U.S. economy
|Dec 1976||The reprocessing of nuclear fuels||
keywords: economics; fission power; fission products removal; fission reactor fuel preparation and reprocessing; nuclear fuels; Pu removal; Purex process; reprocessing; spent fuel; U reclamation; USA needs
|Dec 1976||Negative aftereffects in visual perception||
keywords: contingent aftereffect; curve aftereffect; illusions; negative aftereffects; perceptual systems; spiral aftereffect; tilt aftereffect; visual perception
|Dec 1976||Superfluid helium-3||
keywords: electronic structure; frictionless flow; liquid helium-3; magnetic effects; nuclear properties; superconductivity; superfluid He3; superfluid transition; superfluidity
|Dec 1976||Supernovas in other galaxies||
keywords: external galaxies; galaxies; stellar cataclysms; supernovae
|Dec 1976||Fission-track dating||
keywords: age; fission track dating; geophysical techniques; minerals; radioactive dating; spontaneous fission; U traces
|Jan 1977||The quantum mechanics of black holes||
keywords: black holes; laws of thermodynamics; quantum effects; quantum theory; tunnelling
|Jan 1977||The perception of moving targets||
keywords: human visual system; moving targets; nerve circuits; neurophysiology; visual perception
keywords: crack detection; cracking; exoelectron emission; exoelectrons; metal fatigue; metal surface; wear
|Jan 1977||Cratering in the solar system||
keywords: craters; inner solar system; planetary history; planets; solar system
|Feb 1977||Phobos and Deimos||
keywords: Deimos; Mariner spacecraft; Mars; Phobos; planetary satellites; Viking spacecraft
|Feb 1977||Global satellite communications||
keywords: global satellite communications; microwave pathways; satellite relay systems; transoceanic communications
|Feb 1977||Laser separation of isotopes||
keywords: isotope separation; laser beam applications; laser separation of isotopes
|Feb 1977||The response to acetylcholine||
keywords: acetylcholine; biomembrane transport; cell membrane; cellular transport and dynamics; muscle cell; muscle contraction; nerve; neuromuscular synapse; neurophysiology; receptors
|Mar 1977||Superphenix: a full-scale breeder reactor||
keywords: 1200 MW power station; construction in France; FBR; fission reactors; full scale breeder reactor; joint European project; nuclear power stations; Superphenix
|Mar 1977||Waves in the solar wind||
keywords: solar wind; velocity waves
|Mar 1977||The acoustics of the singing voice||
keywords: acoustics; larynx; lungs; mouth; musical acoustics; oscillator; pharynx; power supply; resonator; singing voice; speech; vocal folds
|Mar 1977||The oldest rocks and the growth of continents||
keywords: continental crust; dating; Earth age; Earth crust; growth of continents; oldest rocks; tectonic processes; tectonics
|Apr 1977||The collision between India and Eurasia||
keywords: climate; collision; Earth crust; earthquakes; Eurasia; geology; Indian subcontinent; land forms; tectonics; topography
keywords: algorithm; algorithm theory; computer language; computer memory; information retrieval; nonnumerical algorithms
|Apr 1977||The companions of sunlike stars||
keywords: binary stars; multiple star combinations; multiple stars; planetary systems; planets; spectra; stellar spectra; sunlike stars
|Apr 1977||The theory of the rainbow||
keywords: arcs; atmospheric optics; complex angular momentum; geometric optics; history; light reflection; light refraction; light scattering; rain; rainbow; raindrops; reviews; scattered; sunlight
|May 1977||Amorphous-semiconductor devices||
keywords: amorphous semiconductor devices; chalcogenide glasses; electrical conductivity transitions; electronic switches; glassy materials; memory devices; semiconductor devices; semiconductor switches
|May 1977||The case of the missing sunspots||
keywords: 1645 to 1715 period; history; Maunder minimum; missing sunspots; solar activity; sunspots
|May 1977||The ``jump proof'' and its similarity to the toppling of a row of dominoes|
|Jun 1977||The disposal of radioactive wastes from fission reactors||
keywords: deep geological formations; disposal; fission reactors; radioactive waste; radioactive wastes; US nuclear power plants; waste disposal
|Jun 1977||The uses of synchrotron radiation||
keywords: synchrotron radiation; ultraviolet radiation; X-rays
|Jun 1977||Bok globules||
keywords: gas collapse stellar evolution; interstellar dust; interstellar gas; interstellar matter; spherical clouds; stellar evolution
|Jul 1977||The atmosphere of Mars||
keywords: atmosphere; clouds; Mars; planet surface shape; planetary atmospheres; winds
|Jul 1977||Biological Regeneration and Pattern Formation||
Discusses the role of cellular interactions in development.
keywords: biol-behavior; pattern-formation
|Jul 1977||Anions of the alkali metals||
keywords: alkali metal anions; alkali metals; ionisation of atoms; negative ions; very reactive anions
|Jul 1977||The compound eye of insects||
keywords: compound eye; eye; insects; ommatidium
keywords: applied physics; astronomy; biographies; biography; Gauss; mathematician; number theory
|Aug 1977||BL Lacertae objects||
keywords: BL Lac-type objects; BL Lacertae objects; intense radiation; nature; radiosources; small nucleus
|Aug 1977||Light-wave communications||
keywords: glass fibres; laser; light wave communications; light wave telephone service; optical communication; solid state light sources; telephone systems
|Aug 1977||The flow of heat from the Earth's interior||
keywords: continental crust; Earth interior; Earth's interior; global heat flow map; heat flow pattern; oceanic crust; plate tectonics; tectonics; terrestrial heat
|Aug 1977||`Second messengers' in the brain||
keywords: brain; chemical messages; long lasting physiological actions; nerve cell communication; neurophysiology; neurotransmitters; second messengers; transient physiological actions
keywords: economics; electronic circuitry; electronic functions; integrated circuits; microelectronics; monolithic integrated circuits; reviews; silicon `chips'; technological innovation; technology
|Sep 1977||Special Issue on Microelectronics|
|Sep 1977||Microelectronic circuit elements||
keywords: integrated circuits; microelectronic circuit elements; monolithic integrated circuits; reviews; transistor; transistor circuits
|Sep 1977||The large-scale integration of microelectronic circuits||
keywords: Boolean logic; field effect integrated circuits; integrated logic circuits; large scale integration; logic gates; microelectronic circuits; n-MOS technology; reviews
|Sep 1977||The fabrication of microelectronic circuits||
keywords: cost; fabrication; integrated circuit technology; integrated circuits; microelectronic circuits; photolithography; reviews
|Sep 1977||Microelectronic memories||
keywords: charge coupled devices; information storage; integrated circuit memories; integrated memory circuits; magnetic bubble devices; reviews; transistors
keywords: complete computer systems; microcomputers; microcomputing system; microprocessor; single chip
|Sep 1977||The role of microelectronics in data processing||
keywords: computer architecture; computer systems; data processing; digital integrated circuits; integrated circuits; microelectronics; reviews
|Sep 1977||The role of microelectronics in instrumentation and control||
keywords: automatic control; control; digital instrumentation; digital integrated circuits; industrial processes; instrumentation; integrated circuits; machinery; microelectronics; reviews
|Sep 1977||The role of microelectronics in communication||
keywords: circuit technologies; communication; computerised signal processing; digital integrated circuits; integrated circuits; microelectronics; radio; reviews; signal processing; telephone; television
|Sep 1977||Micro-electronics and computer science||
keywords: computer architecture; computer science; integrated circuits; microelectronics; reviews
|Sep 1977||Microelectronics and the personal computer||
keywords: microelectronics; minicomputers; personal computer
|Oct 1977||X-ray stars in globular clusters||
keywords: accretion; binary stars; black hole; black holes; dense central cores; double stars; globular star clusters; neutron star; neutron stars; stellar radiation; X-ray sources (astronomical); X-ray stars
|Oct 1977||Fundamental particles with charm||
keywords: charm; charm particles; electron positron annihilations; electron-positron inclusive interactions; fundamental particles; high energy physics; quantum mechanical properties; quark models
|Oct 1977||Side-looking airborne radar||
keywords: 1 to 30 cm wavelength; all weather imaging system; cartography; Earth surface topography; geophysical techniques; microwave antennas; microwave images; radar antenna; radar antennas; radar applications; remote sensing; SHF; side looking airborne radar; terrain evaluation; UHF
|Nov 1977||The Search for Life on Mars||
keywords: biological experiments; chemistry; extraterrestrial life; life processes; Mars; planet; space research; surface; Viking landers
|Nov 1977||The clustering of Galaxies||
keywords: clusters of galaxies; cosmology; galaxy clustering; Local Supercluster
|Dec 1977||The nucleotide sequence of a viral DNA||
keywords: bacterial virus phi X174; coding ability; DNA; molecular biophysics; nucleotide sequence; viral DNA
|Dec 1977||The motion of the ground in earthquakes||
keywords: earthquake prediction; earthquakes; fault; ground motion; seismic waves; slippage
|Dec 1977||The Retinex Theory of Color Vision||
keywords: colour vision; retina and cortex system; retinex theory
keywords: disclinations; thin periodic structures; twisted materials; virus shells; warped materials
|Jan 1978||The carbon dioxide question||
keywords: air pollution; atmospheric composition; carbon compounds; climate; climatology; CO2 content; Earth's atmosphere; forests; ocean
|Jan 1978||The surgical replacement of the human knee joint||
keywords: artificial knee; design; human knee joint; materials; prosthetics; Spherocentric knee; surgical replacement
|Jan 1978||The structure of the interstellar medium||
keywords: galactic structure; interstellar gas; interstellar matter; interstellar medium; pictorial analysis; radio signals; radioastronomical observations; structure
|Jan 1978||The efficiency of algorithms||
keywords: algorithm theory; algorithms; computational complexity; efficiency; operations research; travelling salesman problem
|Feb 1978||The origin of metal deposits in the oceanic lithosphere||
keywords: Earth crust; geochemical processes; geochemistry; metal deposits; mid ocean ridges; minerals; oceanic crust; oceanic lithosphere; plates; spreading centres
|Feb 1978||Computer-controlled assembly||
keywords: assembling; computer controlled; computerised materials handling; high volume products; machines; process computer control; product assembly; production control; robot; robots
|Feb 1978||Microcircuits in the nervous system||
keywords: behaviour; bioelectric phenomena; dendrites; microcircuits; nerve circuits; nervous system; neurophysiology
|Feb 1978||Supergravity and the unification of the laws of physics||
keywords: basic forces; elementary particle gravitational interactions; elementary particle symmetry; gravitational force; physics fundamentals; quantum field theory of gravitation; supergravity; supersymmetry; unified theory
|Mar 1978||Heavy leptons||
keywords: antiparticle; antitau; heavy leptons; lepton family; SPEAR electron positron storage ring; tau
|Mar 1978||The electronic telephone||
keywords: advanced electronic telephone set; technological forecasting; telephone sets
|Mar 1978||The surface of Mars||
keywords: cratered terrain; flowing water; high velocity wind; Mars; Martian atmosphere; planetary atmospheres; rocks; soil; surface temperature; visible astronomical observations; volcanic activity; water vapour content
|Mar 1978||How cells make ATP||
keywords: adenosine triphosphate; ATP synthesis; biomembrane transport; carrier molecules; cellular biophysics; chemiosmotic theory; closed envelope; energy metabolism; light; membrane; organic compounds; oxidation; proton gradient; topological properties
|Mar 1978||The combinatorial mathematics of scheduling||
keywords: combinatorial mathematics; combinatorial theory; finite sets of quantities; productive interaction; scheduling; scheduling models; set theory; subroutines; theory of algorithms
|Apr 1978||Mathematical games: White and brown music, fractal curves and 1/f fluctuations||
|Apr 1978||The Tracks of Moving Cells||
Description of similarities in the behavior of the daughter cells resulting from a cell-division.
|Apr 1978||The birth of massive stars||
keywords: cool interstellar gas clouds; interstellar dust; interstellar matter; massive stars; molecular clouds; OB-type stars associations; shock wave effects; shock waves; star formation; stars; stellar clusters and associations; stellar evolution
|Apr 1978||Kimberlite pipes||
keywords: calcite; coesite; diamonds; Earth mantle; Earth mantle rocks; eclogite; fossil volcanoes; kimberlite pipes; mantle source volcanism; olivine; peridotite; phlogopite mica; reviews; rocks; sheared nodules; ultramafic nodules; upper mantle; volcanology
|Apr 1978||Atmospheric halos||
keywords: atmospheric halos; atmospheric humidity; atmospheric light propagation; atmospheric optics; coloured halos; ice; ice crystals shapes; lunar halos; mock Moons; mock Suns; refraction halos; solar halos; spinning ice crystals
|May 1978||When the Black Sea was drained||
keywords: Black Sea; oceanography
|May 1978||The cosmic background radiation and the new aether drift||
keywords: cosmic background radiation; cosmology; new aether drift; special relativity
|May 1978||Ultrasound in medical diagnosis||
keywords: biological effects of acoustic radiation; biomedical ultrasonics; medical diagnosis; patient diagnosis; US imaging
|May 1978||The adjacency principle in visual perception||
keywords: adjacency principle; visual perception
|Jun 1978||Mathematical Games: A Mathematical Zoo of Astounding Critters, Imaginary and Otherwise||
Organisms with mathematically interesting structure.
|Jun 1978||Exotic light nuclei||
keywords: exotic atoms; exotic light nuclei; light elements; nuclear decay theory; nuclear structure; radioactive decay; unequal numbers of protons and neutrons
|Jun 1978||Cosmic masers||
keywords: interstellar matter; maser action; masers; microwave frequencies; nebulae; nebular regions; stellar atmospheres
|Jun 1978||Complexity Theory||
keywords: complex systems; complexity theory; computers; simple components; system theory; systems analysis; telephone exchanges
|Jul 1978||The highest-energy cosmic rays||
keywords: cosmic ray showers and bursts; EAS; extensive air showers; fast particles; high-energy cosmic ray interactions; highest energy cosmic rays; showers
|Jul 1978||Computer poker||
keywords: computer poker; computer science; decision making model; games of skill
|Aug 1978||The gas centrifuge||
keywords: centrifuges; fission reactor fuel preparation and reprocessing; gas centrifuge; gaseous uranium compound; isotope separation; radioisotopes; spinning; U isotopes; uranium
|Aug 1978||Stellar winds||
keywords: mechanisms; steady matter ejection; stellar atmospheres; stellar winds
|Aug 1978||Negative absolute temperatures||
keywords: absolute scale; negative absolute temperature; negative temperature; temperature
|Aug 1978||The tektite problem||
keywords: glass; meteorites; origin; tektite problem
|Oct 1978||Brain function and blood flow||
keywords: blood flow; brain; brain energy metabolism; brain function; haemodynamics; human cerebral cortex; radioactive isotope; radioisotope scanning and imaging
|Oct 1978||The upsilon particle||
keywords: massive new quark; meson resonances; quark models; unobserved elementary subparticles; upsilon particle
|Oct 1978||Did a supernova trigger the formation of the solar system?||
keywords: cosmogony; cosmology; developing solar system; formation; isotope relative abundance; isotopes; massive star; meteorites; primitive meteorites; solar system; supernova; supernovae
|Oct 1978||Fermat's Last Theorem||
keywords: Euler; Fermat's last theorem; Kummer; mathematical proof; mathematics; number theory; Pythagorean theorem
|Oct 1978||Pattern Formation in Biological Development||
This and the preceding paper discuss of the manner in which the context in which cells find themselves affects their development.
|Dec 1978||Nuclear molecules||
keywords: clusters; neutrons; nuclear cluster model; nuclear dynamics; nuclear molecules; nuclear structure; nuclei; protons
|Dec 1978||Fuel-cell power plants||
keywords: electric utilities; electricity generation; electricity supply industry; fuel cell power plants; fuel cells; power plants
|Dec 1978||Hemoglobin structure and respiratory transport||
keywords: haemodynamics; haemoglobin structure; macromolecular configurations; molecular biophysics; proteins; respiratory transport; structure
|Dec 1978||Animal eyes with mirror optics||
keywords: animals; eye; eyes; mirror optics; mirrors
|Dec 1978||Gaseous nebulas||
keywords: clouds; gaseous nebulae; nebulae; radiospectroscopy; star formation; stellar evolution
|Jan 1979||The Assembly of Cell Membranes||
Details of low-level self-assembly of cell membranes.
keywords: bio-behavior; coop-behave
|Jan 1979||Guided-wave optics||
keywords: communication; design; devices; guided wave optics; integrated optics; laser beams; light waves; optical communication equipment; optical waveguides; thin transparent films
|Jan 1979||The deep structure of the continents||
keywords: chemical composition; continents; deep root zones; deep structure; Earth structure; rock; tectonic plates; tectonics
|Jan 1979||The coupled motions of piano strings||
keywords: coupled motions; frequency; musical acoustics; musical instruments; piano strings; tone; vibrating bodies
|Jan 1979||Robert A. Millikan||
keywords: biographies; cosmic rays; Nobel prize winner; Robert A Millikan
keywords: hypothetical particles; massive elementary particles; nonlinear field theory; shape; size; solitons
|Feb 1979||The source of the Earth's magnetic field||
keywords: dynamo; Earth core; Earth's core; Earth's magnetic field; geomagnetism; gravitational l energy; sinking of heavy material; source
|Mar 1979||Apollo objects||
keywords: Apollo objects; asteroid like bodies; asteroids; nuclei of comets; orbits
|Mar 1979||The spectrum of atomic hydrogen||
keywords: atomic H2; atomic hydrogen; atomic spectra; hydrogen neutral atoms; laser beam applications; lasers; light emission; structure of matter
|Mar 1979||The perception of surface blacks and whites||
keywords: colour vision; distribution of light; distribution of shadow; perceived spatial relation; perception; shade of gray; surface; surface blacks; surface whites; visual perception
|Mar 1979||Ion channels in the nerve-cell membrane||
keywords: biomembrane transport; cellular transport and dynamics; ion channels; K+; molecular channels; Na+; nerve cell membrane; nerve impulse; neurophysiology; potassium; sodium
|Apr 1979||The evolution of disk galaxies||
keywords: clusters of galaxies; disk galaxies; environment; evolution; galaxies; galaxy clusters; lenticular galaxies; rich cluster; S0-type galaxies; spiral galaxy
|Apr 1979||The physics of karate||
keywords: bare hand; concrete blocks; fracture; karate; physical force; sports and entertainment; velocity; wood
|Apr 1979||Ink-jet printing||
keywords: computer; drops; ink; ink jet printing; nozzle; printed characters; printing
|May 1979||Carbon monoxide in the Galaxy||
keywords: carbon compounds; CO radio emission; cold star forming clouds; emission wavelength; inner Milky Way; interstellar CO; interstellar matter; invisible inner reaches of the Milky Way; molecular clouds; radiosources (astronomical); stellar evolution; The Galaxy
|May 1979||The spin of the proton||
keywords: proton; proton+proton interactions; proton-proton interactions; protons; spin; violent collisions
|May 1979||The molecular basis of cell movement||
keywords: cell motility; cell movement; creeping; internal streaming of cytoplasm; molecular biophysics; muscle cells; proteins
|May 1979||Laser chemistry||
keywords: chemical pathway; chemical reactions; frequency; laser chemistry; photochemistry
|May 1979||A brain-cooling system in mammals||
keywords: biothermics; brain; brain cooling system; carnivorous mammals; cooling; extremes of heat and exertion; heat exchange network; mammalian prey; mammals
|May 1979||Intrinsically Difficult Problems||
keywords: `inherently exponential problem'; algorithms; checkers; computability theory; efficiency of algorithm; four-color-map problem; mathematical proof; roadblock; Turing machine; uncomputable problems
|Jun 1979||Automatic control by distributed intelligence||
keywords: automatic control; control; distributed intelligence; industrial computer control; industrial plant; integration of the entire plant; microelectronics
|Jun 1979||Ultracold neutrons||
keywords: fundamental properties; metal bottle; neutron; neutrons; ultracold neutrons
|Jun 1979||The history of the Atlantic||
keywords: Atlantic; deep probes; geochronology; geomagnetism; growth; heat flow; history; magnetism; oceanic crust; oceanography; plate tectonic theory; tectonics; terrestrial heat; topography of its bottom
|Jun 1979||The year without a summer||
keywords: 1816; AD 1816; August; climatology; economic and sociological effects; frosts; history; ice; Indonesia; June snow; meteorology; New England; snow; social consequences; Tambora eruption; volcano; volcanology; year without summer
|Jul 1979||The central parsec of the Galaxy||
keywords: black holes; central parsec; dust; Galaxy; gas; IR observations; massive black hole; radio observations; swirling mass of stars; The Galaxy; ultracompact object
|Jul 1979||The bag model of quark confinement||
keywords: bag model; bubbles; liquid; quark confinement; quark models
|Jul 1979||The visual perception of motion in depth||
keywords: human visual perception system; motion in depth; visual information processing; visual perception
|Aug 1979||Progress toward a Tokamak fusion reactor||
keywords: fusion reactors; superhot H plasma; Tokamak fusion reactor; toroidal magnetic bottle
|Aug 1979||Supernovas and star formation||
keywords: explosive death; massive star; meteorites; star formation; stellar evolution; supernova remnants; supernovae
|Aug 1979||The Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography||
keywords: computer privacy; cryptography; electronic communications; encoding; encryption; knapsack problem; mathematics; P-NP problem; public key cryptography; public-key cryptosystem; random numbers; security of data; trap-door one-way functions
|Aug 1979||Problems in physics with many scales of length||
keywords: classical theories of fluid structure; fluid dynamics; fluids; magnetism; magnets; many scales of length; physics; renormalisation; renormalization group
|Sep 1979||Small Systems of Neurons|
|Sep 1979||Brain mechanisms of vision||
keywords: brain; brain visual mechanisms; neuronal organisation; neurophysiology; primary visual cortex; sensory information processing; vision
|Oct 1979||Acid rain||
keywords: acidity; air pollution; atmospheric composition; fossil fuel burning; N oxides; nitrogen compounds; pH; rain; S; snow; sulphur
|Oct 1979||Linear-chain conductors||
keywords: electronic properties; linear chain conductors; one dimensional conductivity; one-dimensional conductivity; reviews; single axis
|Oct 1979||The acoustic microscope||
keywords: acoustic microscope; acoustic microscopes; resolution; ultrasonic imaging technology
|Oct 1979||The photosynthetic membrane||
keywords: asymmetry; biomembranes; chemical energy; conversion of light energy; electron microscope examination of materials; electron microscopy; green plants; photosynthesis; photosynthetic membrane; plant cell; thylakoid membrane
|Oct 1979||The lava lakes of Kilauea||
keywords: Earth mantle; Earth's mantle; eruptions; Hawaiian volcano; lava lakes; magma; molten basalt; volcanology
|Nov 1979||Shape-memory alloys||
keywords: martensitic transformations; plastic deformation; shape; shape memory alloys; shape memory effects; temperature
|Nov 1979||Primeval galaxies||
keywords: cosmology; galaxies; older galaxies; primeval galaxies; red shift
|Nov 1979||The quantum theory and reality||
keywords: quantum mechanics; quantum theory; reality
|Dec 1979||Energy-storage systems||
keywords: batteries; compressed air; energy storage; energy storage systems; pumped water
|Dec 1979||Programming languages||
keywords: computer; encoding complex problems; information processing; mechanisms; procedure oriented languages; programming languages
|Dec 1979||Electrical responses evoked from the human brain||
keywords: brain; electrical responses; electroencephalography; health; human brain; neurological disease; neurophysiology; scalp; sensory regions; voltage shifts
|Dec 1979||The decay of the vacuum||
keywords: antimatter; binding energy; matter; quantum electrodynamics; superheavy atomic nucleus
keywords: airborne fragments; dating of ancient events; erupting volcano; geochronology; tephra; tephra deposits; volcanic deposits; volcanology
|Jan 1980||The next generation of particle accelerators||
keywords: multinational sponsorship; particle accelerators; smallest of objects
|Jan 1980||World uranium resources||
keywords: development; fission reactor fuel; limiting factor; mineral resources; minerals; natural resources; nuclear power; uranium; US mining records; world U resources
|Jan 1980||The Galilean moons of Jupiter||
keywords: Amalthea; Callisto; earthlike bodies; Europa; Galilean moons; Ganymede; IO; Io; Jovian satellites; Jupiter; moons of Jupiter; planetary satellites; terrestrial bodies; Voyager expeditions; Voyager spacecraft
|Feb 1980||The allocation of the radio spectrum||
keywords: 10 kHz to 300 GHz; allocation policy; frequency allocation; ITU; radio spectrum; radiocommunication
|Feb 1980||The Einstein X-ray observatory||
keywords: artificial satellites; astronomical observatory; astronomical telescopes; Einstein X-ray observatory; HEAO-2 satellite; high energy phenomena; X-ray apparatus; X-ray astronomical observations; X-ray telescope
|Feb 1980||Yellowstone Park as a window on the Earth's interior||
keywords: Earth crust; Earth's crust; Earth's interior; geology; geology, intraplate volcanism; hot spot; seismically active region; tectonic activity; tectonics; USA; volcanic activity; volcanology; Yellowstone Park
|Feb 1980||Hydrogen storage in metal hydrides||
keywords: ambient temperature; energy storage; energy storage compounds; fuel; fuel for motor vehicles; H storage; hydrogen; hydrogen compounds; metal hydrides; storage methods
|Mar 1980||The safety of fission reactors||
keywords: fission reactor safety; fission reactors; quantitative methods of assessing risks; safety; Three Mile Island
|Mar 1980||The inner structure of the proton||
keywords: inner structure; jet of debris; particles; proton; protons; quark models; quarks; violent collision of particles
|Mar 1980||The spin of comets||
keywords: comets; icy nucleus; orbital period; Periodic Comet Encke; rotating bodies; rotation; spin; thrust of gases
|Apr 1980||Metallic glasses||
keywords: metallic glasses; noncrystalline atomic structure; noncrystalline state structure; reviews
|Apr 1980||The structure of the early Universe||
keywords: cosmology; early Universe; large scale structure
|Apr 1980||The transport of substances in nerve cells||
keywords: axon; cellular transport; cellular transport and dynamics; nerve endings; neurophysiology; neutronal transport; reviews
|May 1980||The superconducting computer||
keywords: Josephson effect; logic devices; microelectronic technology; superconducting computer; superconducting junction devices; superconducting switches; switches; transistors
|May 1980||The role of gravity in quantum theory||
keywords: general relativity; gravitational fields; gravity; interferometers; neutron interferometer; neutron waves interfere; quantum theory
|May 1980||The chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle||
keywords: chemical evolution; continental rock samples; Earth composition; Earth crust; Earth mantle; Earth's mantle; geochemistry; isotope relative abundance; isotopic ratios; mantle's differentiation; oceanic crust; rock samples; trace elements
|May 1980||The N-ray affair||
keywords: history; N-ray affair
|Jun 1980||Basaltic meteorites||
keywords: basaltic meteorites; eucrites; meteorites; shergottites; solar system; volcanic activity
|Jun 1980||Gauge theories of the forces between elementary particles||
keywords: elementary particle symmetry; elementary particle theory; elementary particles; gauge field theory; symmetries
|Jun 1980||The deep-Earth-gas hypothesis||
keywords: deep Earth gas; Earth mantle; earthquakes; fuel resources; mantle; methane; natural resources; organic compounds
|Jul 1980||Gamma-ray-line astronomy||
keywords: astronomical spectra; astrophysical processes; EM radiation; gamma ray line astronomy; gamma-ray astronomy
|Jul 1980||Megalithic monuments||
keywords: astroarchaeology; megalithic monuments; Neolithic period; Stonehenge
keywords: convection; surface tension; temperature; viscosity
|Aug 1980||The surface of Venus||
keywords: cartography; cratering; geology; radar; radar astronomy; radioastronomical observations; surface; Venus; volcanoes
|Aug 1980||The isolated electron||
keywords: electron; electrons; g factor; g-factor
|Aug 1980||Disk-storage technology||
keywords: disc storage technology; laser applications; magnetic disc and drum storage; read facility; write facility
|Aug 1980||Newton's Apple and Galileo's Dialogue||
keywords: Galileo; gravity; Newton
|Oct 1980||The bizarre spectrum of SS 433||
keywords: emission lines; jets; radiosources (astronomical); spectrum; SS 433; stellar spectra; variable star; variable stars; X-ray sources (astronomical)
|Oct 1980||The causes of color||
keywords: atomic transitions; band gap colours; colour; colour centres; crystal field colours; crystal field interactions; energy ladder; metals; molecular orbitals; semiconductors
|Oct 1980||The southern Appalachians and the growth of continents||
keywords: COCORP; continent growth; plate margins; seismic reflection survey; seismology; southern Appalachians; tectonics
|Oct 1980||Positron-emission tomography||
keywords: biological investigations; clinical diagnosis; computerised tomography; nuclear medicine; positron emission tomography; radioisotope scanning and imaging
|Nov 1980||The discovery of a gravitational lens||
keywords: 0957+561 A, B; double quasar; elliptical galaxy; gravitational lens; gravitational lenses; quasars; single quasar multiple images
|Nov 1980||Superconductors in electric-power technology||
keywords: electric-power technology; superconducting machines; superconductors
|Dec 1980||The cosmic asymmetry between matter and antimatter||
keywords: antimatter; conservation laws; cosmic asymmetry; cosmology; elementary particle theory; matter; particle physics
|Dec 1980||Galileo's Sighting of Neptune||
keywords: Galileo; Jovilabe; Jupiter; Neptune; orbital motion; telescopes
|Dec 1980||Mirror images||
keywords: curved mirrors; mirror image; mirrors; optical images; transformations
|Jan 1981||The total artificial heart||
keywords: artificial organs; cardiology; total artificial heart
|Jan 1981||The Andromeda Galaxy||
keywords: apparent luminosities; distance; galaxies; globular clusters; H I; hot gas clouds; M31; NGC 224; planetary nebulae; spiral-arm; star content; star formation; structure
|Jan 1981||The Mind Body Problem||
Hardware of the brain vs. behavior of that hardware.
|Jan 1981||Two paths to the telephone||
keywords: Alexander Graham Bell; Elisha Gray; history; telephone; telephony
|Feb 1981||The activity cycles of stars||
keywords: activity cycle; Ca; close stars; cyclic activity; emission line; HD 101501; HD 103095; HD 10700; HD 156026; HD 160346; HD 165341; HD 201091; HD 22049; HD 32147; nearby stars; spectra variation; star; stars; stellar spectra; Sun; variable star; variable stars; visible astronomical observations
|Feb 1981||A deep-sea neutrino telescope||
keywords: array; astronomical techniques; astronomical telescopes; astronomy; deep-sea; marine; neutrino detection and measurement; neutrino telescope; neutrinos; ocean; sensors
|Mar 1981||The eruptions of Mount St. Helens||
keywords: Mount St. Helens; volcanic eruption prediction; volcano; volcanology
|Mar 1981||The Milky Way galaxy||
keywords: galactic mass; galactic radius; Milky Way galaxy; The Galaxy
|Mar 1981||Anorthoscopic perception||
keywords: anorthoscopic perception; psychological events; psychology; retina; visual perception
|Mar 1981||Newton's discovery of gravity||
keywords: gravity; history; mathematical representation; Newton
|Apr 1981||Catastrophic releases of radioactivity||
keywords: accident; accidents; detonation; fission reactor safety; nuclear explosions; nuclear reactor; nuclear weapon; pollution; radioactivity; weapons
|Apr 1981||A unified theory of elementary particles and forces||
keywords: elementary particles; forces; instability; unified field theories; unified theory
|Apr 1981||Speech recognition by computer||
keywords: automatic recognition; computer; human speech patterns; speech recognition
|Apr 1981||The Origin of Genetic Information||
A good, general introduction to Eigen's theories on quasi-species, hyper-cycles, and the origin of life.
keywords: evolution; origins
|Apr 1981||The shells of novas||
keywords: nova; novae; nuclear fuel; nucleosynthesis; shell's spectrum; stellar evolution; stellar spectra; white dwarfs; white-dwarf star
|May 1981||The sources of celestial X-ray bursts||
keywords: celestial X-ray bursts; neutron stars; old binary systems; thermonuclear flashes; X-ray energy; X-ray sources (astronomical)
|May 1981||The crest of the East Pacific Rise||
keywords: axial volcanic zone; chemical balance; crest; crustal formation; East Pacific Rise; geologic maps; hydrothermal vents; magma chamber; oceanic crust; rift system
|May 1981||Countercurrent systems in animals||
keywords: animals; biological fluid dynamics; camels; countercurrent systems; fluids; inhospitable environment; whales; zoology
|May 1981||Highly excited atoms||
keywords: atomic excited states; exotic properties; highly excited atoms; reviews; Rydberg atoms
|Jun 1981||Gas-cooled nuclear power reactors||
keywords: fission reactor safety; high-temperature gas cooled reactor; HTGR; nuclear power; nuclear power reactor
|Jun 1981||The decay of the proton||
keywords: baryon decay; baryon number nonconserving interactions; electroweak interactions; energy scale; proton decay; protons; strong interactions; symmetry group; unified field theories; unified field theory
|Jun 1981||The allocation of resources by linear programming||
keywords: algorithm; linear programming; management; management science; operations research; planning; resource allocation
|Jun 1981||The Formation of the Earth from Planetesimals||
keywords: colliding bodies; computer modeling; Earth; Earth origin; formation; gravitational focusing; Mars; Mercury; N-body computer simulations; planetesimal collision; planetesimals; planets; rocky inner planets; solar nebula; solar system; Venus
|Jul 1981||The salinity of rivers||
keywords: agriculture; chemical composition; dissolved solid; hydrology; pollution; rivers; salination; salinity; saltification; soil; United States; USA; water quality
|Jul 1981||The Atmosphere of Venus||
keywords: atmosphere; atmospheres; carbon dioxide; CO2; H2SO4 clouds; Pioneer Venus orbiter; planetary atmospheres; sulfuric acid; Venera probes; Venus; wind; winds
|Jul 1981||Fiber bundles and quantum theory||
keywords: curvature; elementary particle interaction models; elementary particles; fiber bundles; Mobius strip; quantum field theory; quantum theory; topological analogues
|Jul 1981||Binocular depth inversion||
keywords: binocular depth inversion; perspective; solid object; visual perception
|Aug 1981||The newest stars in Orion||
keywords: gas streams; interstellar matter; IR sources; molecular clouds; Orion I; Orion Nebula; radiation; radio; star formation; stellar clusters and associations; Trapezium
|Oct 1981||Gravitational waves from an orbiting pulsar||
keywords: accelerating mass; binary pulsar; gravitational waves; orbiting pulsar; PSR 1913+16; pulsars; radiate energy; stellar radiation
keywords: amino acids; hormone; nerve cells; nervous system; neuropeptides; neurophysiology
|Oct 1981||The acoustics of violin plates||
keywords: acoustics; musical acoustics; vibrational properties; violin plates
|Oct 1981||Image processing by computer||
keywords: blurred photograph; computer; computerised picture processing; image processing
|Oct 1981||Quantum logic||
keywords: classical patterns of inference; lattices; quantum logic; quantum theory
|Oct 1981||Vitruvius' Odometer||
keywords: Archimedes; Leonardo; odometer; Vitruvius
|Nov 1981||The microchannel image intensifier||
keywords: electron multipliers; image intensifiers; microchannel image intensifier
|Nov 1981||Rings in the solar system||
keywords: Jupiter; planetary rings; ringlets; rings; Saturn; solar system; Uranus
|Nov 1981||The fluid phases of matter||
keywords: fluid phases of matter; gas structure; hard sphere model; kinetic theory of gases; liquid structure; liquid theory; structure of liquids
|Nov 1981||The Color Patterns of Butterflies and Moths||
Description of the way in which the wide variety of complex wing patterns of butterflies and moths emerge from the actions of a few simple rules.
keywords: pattern-formation; refs-bottomup; self-org
|Nov 1981||A 16th-Century Basque Whaling Station in Labrador||
keywords: Basque whalers; Labrador; underwater archaeology; whaling
|Dec 1981||Magnetic navigation in bacteria||
keywords: aquatic bacteria; bacteria; biomagnetism; cell motility; earth's magnetic field; magnetic field effects; magnetic navigation; magnetotactic; orientation; reviews
|Dec 1981||The recumbent stone circles of Scotland||
keywords: astroarchaeology; astronomical observatories; astronomy and astrophysics; megalithic monuments; Scotland; stone circles
|Dec 1981||The hearing of the barn owl||
keywords: barn owl; dark; hearing; reviews; zoology
|Dec 1981||Jupiter and Saturn||
keywords: atmospheric absorption; atmospheric circulation; coaxial cylinders; computer modeling; fluid depths; fluid planets; Great Red Spot; Jupiter; planetary atmospheres; relative abundance of elements; Saturn; surface layer; Voyager expeditions; winds
|Dec 1981||Fibrinogen and fibrin||
keywords: blood; blood clot; fibrin; fibrinogen; molecular biophysics; proteins; reviews; structure
|Dec 1981||Computer Algebra||
keywords: Algebra; algorithms; computer; linear algebra; numerical analysis; routine mathematical work; subroutines
|Dec 1981||Computer Algebra|
|Jan 1982||The mass extinctions of the Late Mesozoic||
keywords: animals; asteroid; asteroids; BP Myr 0063; dinosaurs; evolution (biological); geology; Ir rich material; Late Mesozoic; mass extinctions; plants; terrestrial atmosphere
|Jan 1982||The stabilization of atomic hydrogen||
keywords: electron spin polarisation; hydrogen neutral atoms; quantum fluids; quantum gas; spin polarised atomic H; stabilization
|Jan 1982||The Moons of Saturn||
keywords: cratering; craters; geological evolution; moons; planetary satellites; satellites; Saturn; terrain; Voyager expeditions
keywords: computer selection and evaluation; Cray-1; CYBER 205; fluid dynamics; general purpose computers; ILLIAC IV; S-I multiprocessor; supercomputers
|Feb 1982||The biological effects of low-level ionizing radiation||
keywords: artificial sources; biological effects; biological effects of radiation; hazard; health hazards; human beings; low-level ionizing radiation; natural sources
keywords: atmosphere; composition; models; moon; planetary satellite atmospheres; Saturn; Solar System; surface; Titan; Voyager missions
|Feb 1982||Quasars as probes of the distant and early Universe||
keywords: cosmology; galactic muclei; galactic nuclei; quasars; Universe
|Feb 1982||Color vision in fishes||
keywords: blue; colour vision; evolution; eye; fishes; green; near infrared; retinal pigments; visual environments
|Feb 1982||Henry A. Rowland||
keywords: American physicist; biographies; diffraction gratings; Henry A. Rowland; ruling engine; spectroscopy
|Mar 1982||The search for intermediate vector bosons||
keywords: intermediate bosons; intermediate vector bosons; proton antiproton collisions; weak nuclear force
|Mar 1982||Rings of the Gulf Stream||
keywords: Atlantic Ocean; biology; currents; eddies; Gulf Stream; oceanography; Sargasso Sea
|Mar 1982||Superclusters and voids in the distribution of galaxies||
keywords: clusters of galaxies; cosmology; galaxy superclusters; galaxy voids; Universe structure
|Mar 1982||The infrared `vision' of snakes||
keywords: biothermics; heat-sensitive nerve fibers; heat-sensitive pits; obloid snakes; pit organs; pit vipers; pythons; rattlesnake; snakes; sources of infrared radiation; visible-light information; vision
|Apr 1982||A major earthquake zone on the Mississippi||
keywords: continental craton; earthquake zone; earthquakes; embayment; Mississippi; North American plate; seismology; USA
|Apr 1982||Giant molecular-cloud complexes in the Galaxy||
keywords: Galaxy; giant molecular cloud complexes; interstellar matter; nebulae; The Galaxy
|Apr 1982||Superheavy magnetic monopoles||
keywords: magnetic monopoles; superheavy magnetic monopoles; unified field theories
keywords: antiquark; heavy quark; meson resonances; quark confinement; quarkonium
|May 1982||NMR imaging in medicine||
keywords: biomedical measurement; medicine; NMR imaging; nuclear magnetic resonance; patient diagnosis; proton magnetic resonance
|May 1982||Cosmic jets||
keywords: cosmic jets; galactic nuclei; interstellar matter
|Jun 1982||Radio astronomy by very-long-baseline interferometry||
keywords: atomic clocks; electromagnetic wave interferometry; radio astronomy; radio telescopes; radioastronomical techniques; very-long-baseline interferometry; VLBI
|Jun 1982||The quantum mechanics of materials||
keywords: charge-density maps; computational methods; electron waves; quantum mechanics; quantum theory; reviews
|Jul 1982||Organic superconductors||
keywords: organic compounds; organic superconductors; superconducting materials
|Jul 1982||Energetic outflows from young stars||
keywords: circumstellar disks; circumstellar shells; CO; dust; energetic outflows; gas clouds; interstellar matter; star formation; stellar birth; stellar winds; young stars
|Aug 1982||Carbon dioxide and world climate||
keywords: atmospheric CO2; atmospheric composition; carbon compounds; climatology; latitudes; world climate
|Aug 1982||The coronas of galaxies||
keywords: coronas; galaxies; hot gas; spiral galaxies; The Galaxy
|Aug 1982||Surface diffusion||
keywords: adsorbed atoms; adsorption; deuterium; field emission electron microscopy; hydrogen; low temperature effects; metal surface; surface diffusion; tunnelling
keywords: oceanic crust; ophiolites; rocks; tectonics
|Sep 1982||The mechanization of work||
keywords: computer; human brain; Industrial Revolution; information gathering; information processing; labor force; mechanization of work; production of goods; social aspects of automation; social change; technology
|Sep 1982||The mechanization of agriculture||
keywords: agriculture; electric power; farm; farm produce; fertilizers; improved crop plants; irrigation works; labor force; mechanization; pesticides; plows; productivity; reapers; rural areas; social aspects of automation; transportation network
|Sep 1982||The mechanization of mining||
keywords: coal; human muscular exertion; labor force; mechanization; mineral needs; mining; social aspects of automation; U.S. economy; working conditions
|Sep 1982||The mechanization of design and manufacturing||
keywords: CAD; coordinating; data-processing technology; design; factory floor; managing; manufacturing; manufacturing data processing; manufacturing DP; mechanization; new technology; planning; social aspects of automation; social outcome; white-collar jobs
|Sep 1982||The mechanization of commerce||
keywords: commerce; communications; distribution; distributive data processing; distributive DP; finance; financial data processing; mechanization; social aspects of automation; transport; transportation; warehouse automation
|Sep 1982||The mechanization of office work||
keywords: administrative data processing; ADP; communications systems; electronics; information work; information-processing machines; job satisfaction; mechanization; office work; paperwork; productivity; service to customers; social aspects of automation; U.S. economy
|Sep 1982||The mechanization of women's work||
keywords: labor force; low pay; mechanization; occupational segregation; revolutionary; social aspects of automation; technology; women's work
|Oct 1982||Calcium in synaptic transmission||
keywords: bioelectric phenomena; calcium; Co ions; nerve cell; neuronal junction; neurophysiology; synaptic transmission
|Oct 1982||Charge-Coupled Devices in Astronomy||
keywords: accuracy; astronomical instruments; astronomy; CCD imager; charge coupled devices; charge-coupled device circuits; image sensors; radiation detector; radiation detectors
|Oct 1982||Artificial intelligence||
keywords: artificial intelligence; blocks world; common sense; computer programs; concept learning; heuristic principles; language understanding; visual information
|Oct 1982||Magnetic fluids||
keywords: ferrofluid; ferromagnetic particles; magnetic fluid; magnetic fluids
|Oct 1982||Tidal bores||
keywords: moving wall of water; rivers; tidal bores; tides
|Oct 1982||Historical eclipses||
keywords: eclipses; lunar eclipses; solar eclipses
|Nov 1982||The growth of western North America||
keywords: plate tectonics; tectonics; terrain translocation; tethyan fusulinids; tethyan region; western North America
keywords: atoms of colour; bound states; colour force; colour model; glueballs; gluons; QCD; quark confinement
|Nov 1982||The physics of kettledrums||
keywords: kettledrums; musical acoustics; musical instruments; physics; pitch
|Dec 1982||Radar images of the Earth from space||
keywords: backscatter; backscattered microwaves; Earth; radar images; remote sensing; surface features
|Dec 1982||Personal Computers||
keywords: applications; computer revolution; computers, digital; computers, microprocessor; hardware; microcomputers; personal computers; personal computing; proliferation; software
|Dec 1982||Samples of the Milky Way||
keywords: cosmic ray composition; cosmic ray nuclei; cosmic ray observations; galactic cosmic rays; Galaxy; isotope relative abundance; isotopic composition; Milky Way; satellite observations
|Dec 1982||The Search for Prime Numbers||
keywords: composite number; computer programming; Fermat's test; modular arithmetic; number theory; prime number; sieve of Eratosthenes
|Jan 1983||Large-Scale Cultivation of Mammalian Cells||
keywords: biological materials; biomedical equipment
|Jan 1983||The hair cells of the inner ear||
keywords: balance; ear; hair cells; hearing; human beings; inner ear; mechanoception
|Jan 1983||Machines that Walk||
keywords: control equipment; robotics
|Jan 1983||NMR Spectroscopy of Living Cells||
keywords: biological materials; biological techniques and instruments; biomagnetism; cellular biophysics; chemical reactions of metabolism; living cells; living tissue; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; NMR spectroscopy; nuclear magnetic resonance; spectroscopy, nuclear radiation --- Applications
|Jan 1983||The physics of organ pipes||
keywords: acoustics; musical instruments; organ pipes; organs; physics
|Jan 1983||The origin of the cosmic X-ray background||
keywords: cosmic background radiation; cosmic rays; cosmic X-ray background; quasars; X-ray sources (astronomical); x-rays
|Jan 1983||Mass Production of Iron Castings in Ancient China||
keywords: cast iron; iron foundry practice
|Feb 1983||The lattice theory of quark confinement||
keywords: axiomatic field theory; chromoelectric field; colour transformations; free quark; gauge field; gauge field theory; lattice theory; quark confinement
|Feb 1983||Hidden visual processes||
keywords: hidden visual processes; vision; visual perception
|Feb 1983||The optical computer||
keywords: computers; digital computers; optical bistability; optical computer; optical information processing; optical logic gates; optical switches; optical transistor; optics; technological forecasting; trillion operations per second
|Feb 1983||The active solar corona||
keywords: active solar corona; dynamic activity; solar activity; solar corona; solar magnetism; Sun
keywords: computer metatheory --- Programming Theory; computer systems programming; computers; microprocessor; microprogramming
|Mar 1983||Mitochondrial DNA||
keywords: biological materials; genetic engineering
|Mar 1983||The future of the Universe||
keywords: astronomy; astrophysics; black holes; cosmology; cyclic model; expanding Universe; future forecast; galaxies; proton decay
|Mar 1983||Oscillating Chemical Reactions||
Chemical examples of the way in which simple, local reactions can lead to complex global behavior.
keywords: chaos; chemical reactions; dynamics; pattern-formation; self-org
|Apr 1983||Silicon micromechanical devices||
keywords: accelerometer; chemically etched; electric sensing devices; elemental semiconductor; elemental semiconductors; gas chromatograph; nozzles; pressure sensors; Si micromechanical devices; silicon; single-crystal; valves
|Apr 1983||Silicon Micromechanical Devices||
keywords: accelerometer; gas chromatographer; mechanical engineering; microelectronics; micromechanical devices; silicon and alloys; silicon chips
|Apr 1983||The structure of quarks and leptons||
keywords: composite model; composite models of elementary particles; leptons; quark confinement; quarks; structure
|Apr 1983||Hot springs on the ocean floor||
keywords: chemical content; geochemistry; hot springs; ocean floor; oceanic crust; terrestrial heat; volcanic activity; volcanology
|Apr 1983||Intuitive physics||
keywords: intuitive physics; moving objects; Newton's laws; physics
|May 1983||Smart Weapons in Naval Warfare||
keywords: naval warfare; rockets and missiles
|May 1983||Vibrations of the Atomic Nucleus||
keywords: atomic nucleus; nuclear collective states and giant resonances; nuclear forces; nuclear particles; nuclear spin and parity; nuclear vibrational modes; physics
|May 1983||Modern Pork Production||
keywords: agricultural engineering; agriculture; pork production
|May 1983||New Inorganic Materials||
keywords: cement; inorganic compounds; materials science
|May 1983||Computer-Intensive Methods in Statistics||
keywords: mathematical statistics; statistical methods
|May 1983||Sudden Cardiac Death: a Problem in Topology||
keywords: bioelectric phenomena; biological materials; cardiac death; cardiology; fibrillation; heart muscle fibers; mathematical theorem; muscle; sudden deaths; topology
|Jun 1983||Vector for Introducing New Genes into Plants||
keywords: agricultural engineering; genetic engineering
|Jun 1983||Giant Volcanic Calderas||
keywords: geophysics; volcanoes
|Jun 1983||Dark Matter in Spiral Galaxies||
keywords: astronomy; astrophysics
|Jun 1983||Georg Cantor and the Origins of Transfinite Set Theory||
keywords: Cantor; infinity; mathematics; science history; set theory
|Jun 1983||Slide Fastener||
|Jul 1983||How Continents Break up||
keywords: continental break up; Earth crust; Earth's crust; geology; plate properties; tectonics
|Jul 1983||Salmonid Fishes as a Natural Livestock||
keywords: aquaculture; biomass; fisheries; salmonid fish
|Jul 1983||Microelectronic packaging||
keywords: chips; cooling; digital computer; interconnections; microcomputers; microelectronic packaging; microprocessor chips; packaging; performance
|Jul 1983||Microelectronic Packaging||
keywords: `board'; `card'; `packaging' (of chips); chip carrier; computers, digital --- Electronics Packaging; integrated circuits, digital; microelectronics; printed-circuit board; thermal conduction module
|Jul 1983||Particles with naked beauty||
keywords: antiquark; B mesons; CESR; e+ + e-; electron-positron annihilation; electron-positron inclusive interactions; fifth quark; flavor; hadron electroproduction; meson production; naked beauty; quark confinement; quark models
keywords: accidents --- Medical Applications; biomedical engineering; trauma
|Aug 1983||Purification and Manufacture of Human Interferons||
keywords: bacteriology; biomedical engineering; interferons
|Aug 1983||Magnetic Fields in the Cosmos||
keywords: astrophysics; cosmos; dynamo mechanism; galactic field; geomagnetism; interstellar magnetic fields; magnetic field generation; magnetic fields; oscillating field; planetary magnetism; solar magnetism; stellar magnetism; Sun; Venus
|Aug 1983||Interstellar Matter in Meteorites||
keywords: astrophysics; carbonaceous chondrites; interstellar matter; meteorites
|Aug 1983||Digital Typography||
keywords: computer controlled typesetting; computerised typesetting; digital typesetter; digital typography; typesetting
keywords: geochemistry; seawater
|Sep 1983||The dynamic Earth||
keywords: dynamic Earth; Earth; geology; geophysics; plate tectonics; tectonics
|Sep 1983||The Earth's mantle||
keywords: convection; Earth interior; Earth mantle; geochemistry; mantle; structure; tectonics
|Sep 1983||The Earth's core||
keywords: convection; earth; Earth core; geomagnetism; geophysics; interior structure
|Sep 1983||The ocean||
keywords: Ca; CaCO3; carbonate; chemical composition; chemistry; CO2; marine biology; O2; ocean; oceanography; phosphate; seawater
|Sep 1983||The oceanic crust||
keywords: geology; geophysics; midocean ridges; oceanic crust; plate tectonics; tectonics
|Sep 1983||The continental crust||
keywords: continental crust; Earth crust; geology; geophysics; tectonics
keywords: geochemistry; seawater
|Sep 1983||The atmosphere||
keywords: atmosphere; climate; earth atmosphere; general circulation; meteorology; terrestrial atmosphere; weather forecasting
|Oct 1983||The large-scale structure of the Universe||
keywords: big bang; clusters of galaxies; cosmology; density perturbations; galactic superclusters; large-scale structure; Universe; voids
|Oct 1983||The engineering of magnetic fusion reactors||
keywords: engineering; experimental reactors; fusion reactors; magnetic field trapping; magnetic fusion reactors; magnetic mirrors; magnetic traps; nuclear energy --- Fusion Reactions; nuclear reactors, thermonuclear; thermonuclear fusion; tokamak
|Nov 1983||Uncertainties of a Preemptive Nuclear Attack||
keywords: military equipment; nuclear explosions
|Nov 1983||Slurry Pipelines||
keywords: coal transportation; slurry pipelines
|Nov 1983||Centaurus A: the Nearest Active Galaxy||
keywords: 4U 1322-42; active galaxy; astronomy; astrophysics; Centaurus A; galactic nuclei; radiogalaxies; X-ray sources (astronomical)
|Nov 1983||Solid-state superlattices||
keywords: band structure of crystalline semiconductors and insulators; properties; reviews; semiconductor superlattices; semiconductors; solid state superlattices
|Nov 1983||Molecular Basis of Cancer||
keywords: biomedical engineering
|Nov 1983||Solid-State Superlattices||
keywords: physics --- Solid State; semiconductor devices
|Nov 1983||The eruption of Krakatau||
keywords: AD 1883 08 27; air waves; Krakatau; sea waves; volcanic deposits; volcanic eruption; volcanology
|Dec 1983||Modern Icebreakers||
keywords: Icebreakers; naval architecture; ships; waterway transportation --- Arctic
keywords: exotic volcanic fluids; geyserlike eruptions; Io; Jupiter; massive lava flows; moon; planetary satellites; volcanic world
|Dec 1983||The DNA helix and how it is read||
keywords: base-sequence information; DNA; DNA helix; double-helical DNA molecule; local structure; X-ray analysis; X-ray diffraction examination of molecular structure
|Dec 1983||Quantum gravity||
keywords: continual fluctuations; geometry; quantum field theory of gravitation; quantum gravity; space; space-time configurations; time
|Dec 1983||Aerodynamics of Human-Powered Land Vehicles||
keywords: aerodynamics --- Drag; human-powered land vehicles; vehicles
|Jan 1984||The atmospheric effects of El Chichon||
keywords: AD 1982 03 to 04; aerosols; atmospheric composition; atmospheric effects; El Chichon; eruption; H2SO4 cloud; Mexico; stratosphere; sulphate aerosol; volcano; volcanology
|Jan 1984||High-Energy Collisions Between Atomic Nuclei||
keywords: anomalon production; collisions; heavy ion-nucleus reactions; heavy-ion collisions; High Energy; nuclei; particle accelerators; physics
|Jan 1984||The packing of spheres||
keywords: digital signalling; lattice theory and statistics; sphere packing
|Feb 1984||The Earth's orbit and the ice ages||
keywords: chronology; climate; climatology; Earth orbit; geochronology; glaciations; glaciology; ice ages
|Feb 1984||The structure of proteins in biological membranes||
keywords: biological materials; biological membranes; biological techniques and instruments; biomembranes; electron microscope examination of materials; electron-microscope techniques; lipid; lipids; macromolecular configurations; macromolecules; membranes; proteins; water
|Feb 1984||The spectroscopy of supercooled gases||
keywords: condensation temperature; cryogenics; gases; low-temperature techniques; molecular electronic states; molecular energy states; molecular spectra; Spectroscopic Analysis; spectroscopy; supercooled gases; supercooling
|Mar 1984||The dynamic abyss||
keywords: cold currents; deep ocean; dynamic abyss; ocean bottom; oceanography; sediment; sediments; storms
|Mar 1984||Muscle sounds||
keywords: bioacoustics; contracting muscle; muscle; muscle sounds
|Mar 1984||Excitonic Matter||
keywords: biexcitons; electron hole liquid; electron-hole drops; electrons; exciton; excitonic molecule; excitonic molecules; excitons; light; photons; physics; semiconductor; semiconductor materials; semiconductors
|Mar 1984||The Amateur Scientist: What is a Fish's View of a Fisherman and the Fly He Has Cast on the Water?||
|Apr 1984||Molecular clouds, star formation and galactic structure||
keywords: galactic structure; galaxies; interstellar matter; molecular clouds; radioastronomy; spiral galaxies; star formation; The Galaxy
|Apr 1984||The diamond-anvil high-pressure cell||
keywords: diamond-anvil high-pressure cell; high pressure engineering; high-pressure phases; high-pressure techniques; mechanisms
|Apr 1984||The tornado||
keywords: flow; storms; thunderstorm; tornado; whirlwind; wind
|Apr 1984||Vision by man and machine||
How the brain processes visual information may be suggested by studies in computer vision.
keywords: brain; computer programs; computerised pattern recognition; machine; man; stereo vision; vision; visual perception
|Apr 1984||Prehistoric Rice Cultivation in Southeast Asia||
keywords: agricultural revolution; Ban Na Di site; Chinese archaeology; metal artifacts; rice; village farming communities
|May 1984||Computer Recreations: In the game called Core War hostile programs engage in a battle of bits||
Description of a computer game in which short pieces of code reproduce and compete for occupation of memory.
|May 1984||Steel Minimills||
keywords: iron and steel plants; minimills; steelmaking
|May 1984||Oceanic fracture zones||
keywords: crust; ocean basin; ocean floor; oceanic crust; oceanic fracture zones; plate tectonics; tectonics
|May 1984||Turing Machines||
keywords: computability; computability and decidability; computability limits; computer metatheory; computers; digital computer; operation; Turing machines
|May 1984||The inflationary universe||
keywords: cosmology; inflationary universe; primordial big bang
|Jun 1984||The structure and evolution of interstellar grains||
keywords: chemical processes; cosmic dust; evolution; interstellar grains; interstellar matter; organic mantle; structure
|Jun 1984||Nuts and Bolts||
keywords: bolts and nuts; fasteners --- Manufacture; Manufacture
|Jul 1984||Undersea volcanoes||
keywords: bathymetry; Earth's crust; ocean floor; oceanic crust; rocks; undersea volcanoes; volcanology
|Jul 1984||Symbiotic stars||
keywords: cataclysmic binary stars; celestial objects; compact hot companion star; giant stars; infrared sources (astronomical); red-giant star; small dense nebula; stellar models; stellar spectra; symbiotic stars; variable stars
|Jul 1984||The mathematics of three-dimensional manifolds||
keywords: cosmology; mathematics; three-dimensional manifolds; topology
|Jul 1984||Multilingual Word Processing||
keywords: Arabic; Character Sets; computerized typing; data processing; editing; Japanese; linguistics; multilingual word processing; word processing
|Aug 1984||The climatic effects of nuclear war||
keywords: air pollution; climatic effects; climatology; dust; global nuclear winter; nuclear explosions; nuclear war; smoke; smoke clouds
|Aug 1984||A superluminous object in the Large Cloud of Magellan||
keywords: 30 Doradus Nebula; emission lines star; giant nebula; HD 38268; Large Magellanic Cloud; LMC; Magellanic Clouds; NGC 2070; R136; spectrum; stellar evolution; stellar radiation; stellar spectra; supergiant; supergiant stars; superluminous object
|Aug 1984||Proteins of Oncogenes||
keywords: genetic engineering; oncogenes; proteins
|Aug 1984||Fiber Optics in Plants||
keywords: biological materials; cells; cellular biophysics; fiber optics; light pipes; optical fibers; physiology; plants; tissues
|Aug 1984||The mechanical manipulation of randomly oriented parts||
keywords: Computer Applications; computer system; computerised pattern recognition; industrial robots; industry; mechanical manipulation; mechanisms --- Mechanization; randomly oriented parts; robotics; robots
|Sep 1984||Computer Software||
keywords: agent-based systems; computer software; computers; dynamic spreadsheets; hypertext; programming; software techniques; state-of-the-art; user illusion
|Sep 1984||Programming languages||
keywords: capabilities; features; language constructs; programming languages; software languages
|Sep 1984||Data Structures and Algorithms||
keywords: algorithm theory; algorithms; arrays; binary trees; computer programming; computer software; data structure; data structures; lists; procedures; search algorithm; searching; sets; verifying
|Sep 1984||Operating systems||
keywords: abstractions; complexity; computer operating system; electronic switching; layers; operating systems; operating systems (computers)
|Sep 1984||Computer Software for Graphics||
keywords: computer graphics; I30 overview, software for graphics; image synthesis; interactive computer graphics; interactive systems; software developments; software packages; viewing transformation
|Sep 1984||Computer software for process control||
keywords: computer software; process computer control; process control programs; process-control computer; real-time systems
|Sep 1984||Computer Software for Working With Language||
keywords: ambiguity; computer software; computer translation; human languages; language; linguistic symbols; linguistics; meaning; natural language; predicate calculus; semantic network; syntactic analysis; word processing
|Sep 1984||Computer software in science and mathematics||
keywords: complicated systems; computer software; digital simulation; mathematical systems; mathematics; science; scientific systems; simulation
|Sep 1984||Computer software for intelligent systems||
keywords: artificial intelligence; expert systems; intelligent computer programs; intelligent problem solving; intelligent software; intelligent systems; random search
|Sep 1984||Computer Software for Information Management||
keywords: B-trees; computer software; data base; data bases; database management systems; hierarchical data base; hierarchical systems; information management; information processing; information retrieval; network data base; relational data base; relational systems
|Oct 1984||Epsilon Aurigae||
keywords: binary star system; eclipse; eclipsing binary stars; Epsilon Aurigae; infrared observations; stellar models; supergiant stars; ultraviolet observations
|Oct 1984||Continuous Processing of Metals in the U.S.S.R.||
keywords: continuous processing; metal finishing --- ussr; metal forming; metal refining --- ussr; ussr
|Nov 1984||Japanese technology today||
keywords: aerospace; biotechnology; computer applications; computers; economics; factory automation; high-technology industries; industrial robots; Japanese technology; new materials; office automation; research and development expenditure; research and development management; semiconductors; telecommunication; telecommunication networks; telecommunications
|Nov 1984||The infrared sky||
keywords: artificial satellites; galaxy; Infrared Astronomical Satellite; infrared sky; infrared sources (astronomical); IRAS; solar system; Universe
|Nov 1984||The C3 laser||
keywords: C3 laser; cleared coupled cavity laser; laser cavity resonators; semiconductor junction lasers; semiconductor lasers
|Dec 1984||Computer Recreations: Sharks and fish wage an ecological war on the toroidal planet Wa-Tor||
Description of program for simulating predator-prey dynamics.
|Dec 1984||Atomic memory||
keywords: atomic systems; decayed; initial order; interactions; kinetic theory of gases; memory systems; optical pumping; order-disorder transformations; ordered states; recover; thermodynamics
|Dec 1984||The digital reproduction of sound||
keywords: digital devices; digital reproduction; discrete numbers; sound; sound reproduction
|Jan 1985||Collapse and formation of stars||
keywords: clouds of gas; debris; dust; early stages; final stages; formation; modelling; solar system; star; star-forming matter; stellar evolution; stellar models
|Jan 1985||Hot nuclear matter||
keywords: heavy ion relativistic collisions; heavy ion-nucleus reactions; hot nuclear matter; nuclear matter; plasma; solid; vapor
|Jan 1985||Reliability of Computer Memories||
keywords: computers, digital; mathematical techniques --- Error Analysis; memories; Reliability
|Feb 1985||Predicting the next great earthquake in California||
keywords: California; earthquake; earthquakes; predictions; probability; San Andreas fault
|Feb 1985||Gamma-ray bursters||
keywords: gamma ray source; gamma-ray bursters; gamma-ray sources (astronomical); high-energy radiation; mechanisms
|Feb 1985||Brownian Motion||
keywords: Avogadro's number; Brownian motion; Einstein; Fick's law; mass of the atom; mathematical model; probability; random course; thermodynamics; time reversal
|Feb 1985||The functional replacement of the ear||
keywords: auditory nerve; deafness; ear; electrical stimuli; functional replacement; hearing aids; implantable prosthesis; inner ear; prosthetics; sensory hair cells
|Feb 1985||Phased-Array Radars||
keywords: antenna phased arrays; antennas --- Radar; phased array radars; phased-array radars; radar; radar antennas; radar systems; small antenna elements; wave interactions
|Mar 1985||Computer Recreations: A Core War bestiary of viruses, worms and other threats to computer memories||
Review of self-propagating programs.
|Mar 1985||The Volcanoes and Clouds of Venus||
keywords: atmosphere; atmospheres; chemical analysis; clouds; crust; delay-Doppler-mapping; H2SO4 clouds; planetary atmospheres; radar; radar maps; S gases; sulfuric acid clouds; Venus; volcanoes
|Mar 1985||The hidden dimensions of spacetime||
keywords: basic forces of nature; eleven dimensional structures; general relativity; hidden dimensions; space-time configurations; spacetime; unified account; unified field theories
|Mar 1985||Ion Implantation of Surfaces||
keywords: composition; Ion Implantation; ion implantation; Ion Implantation; materials; structure; surface properties; surface structure; surfaces; surfaces --- Radiation Effects
|Apr 1985||The Earth's hot spots||
keywords: Earth mantle; hot rock; hot spots; mantle; midocean plateaus; plate-tectonic cycle; swells; terrestrial heat; volcanoes
|Apr 1985||Elementary particles and forces||
keywords: camouflage; colours; electroweak symmetry; elementary particles; forces; fundamental interactions; nuclear forces; quarks; screening; superconducting supercollider; unification; unified field theories
|Apr 1985||The clouds of Magellan||
keywords: companion glasses; encounters; evolution; Galaxy; intergalactic gas stream; LMC; Magellanic Clouds; magellanic Clouds; SMC
|May 1985||How a supernova explodes||
keywords: bounce; core collapses; gravitational collapse; milliseconds; nuclear fuel; shock wave; star's mass; supernova explodes; supernovae
|May 1985||Crystals at high pressure||
keywords: atomic structure; crystals; gem-quality diamonds; high pressure; high-pressure phenomena and effects; high-pressure solid-state phase transformations; increased pressure; polyhedral geometry
|May 1985||Crystals at High Pressure||
keywords: atomic structure; crystals; High Pressure Effects; physics --- Atomic
|Jun 1985||Choice of Technology||
keywords: Economic and Sociological Effects; technology
|Jun 1985||The search for proton decay||
keywords: 8000-ton underground detector; proton decay
|Jun 1985||Globular clusters||
keywords: ancient stars; clusters; dense crowds; evolution of stars; galaxies; globular clusters; globular star clusters; gravitation; universe
|Jun 1985||The First Organisms||
Another readable exposition of life-from-clays and genetic takeover.
keywords: alt-mat; origins-clays
|Jul 1985||Computer Recreations: A circuitous odyssey from Robotropolis to the electronic gates of Silicon Valley||
Description of a program for wiring up simple simulated robots using actuators, sensors, motors, and etc. in order to perform simple task in a simulated environment. Should be extended to allow interactions between robots.
|Jul 1985||The moons of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto||
keywords: ground based studies; moons; Neptune; outer solar system; planetary satellites; Pluto; pluto; Pluto; space vehicles; Uranus; voyager 2; Voyager expeditions
|Jul 1985||The Fundamental Physical Limits of Computation||
keywords: automata theory --- Turing Machines; computability; computation; computer metatheory; Efficiency; friction; fundamental physical limits; information processing; information theory; logic circuits; logic design; logic devices --- Gates; minimum energy; switching theory
|Jul 1985||Fossil Water Under the Sinai-Negev Peninsula||
keywords: aquifer; aquifers; deserts; fossil water; geology --- Hydrology; glacial age; groundwater; hydrogeology; Israel; Israel, Egypt; Sinai-Negev peninsula; springs; water resources --- Underground; water supply; water wells; wells
|Aug 1985||Computer Recreations: A computer microscope zooms in for a look at the most complex object in mathematics||
Exploring the Mandelbrot set.
|Aug 1985||The scanning tunneling microscope||
keywords: electron microscopy; microscopes; scanning tunneling microscope; structures; surfaces; surfaces --- Microscopic Examination; tunnelling
|Aug 1985||The classical vacuum||
keywords: classical field theory; classical vacuum; distinctive pattern; electromagnetic field theory; electromagnetic fields; electron theory; heat radiation; matter
|Aug 1985||Young supernova remnants||
keywords: expanding shells; intense X-ray sources; orbiting telescope; pulsar; pulsars; shock-heated gas; stellar explosions; structure; supernova remnants; X-ray sources (astronomical)
|Aug 1985||The Antarctic ice||
keywords: Antarctic ice; bedrock; climatic history; climatology; continent; deep cores; ice; mapped
keywords: acoustic waves; composition; dynamics; helioseismology; oscillations; solar composition; solar interior; solar rotation; solar surface; stellar pulsations; structure; Sun
|Sep 1985||Bimetallic Catalysts||
keywords: catalysts; chemical reaction rates; metal clusters; metals and alloys --- Chemical Reactions
|Nov 1985||Computer Recreations: Exploring the field of genetic algorithms in a primordial computer sea full of flibs||
Description of a program for experimenting with genetic algorithms.
keywords: genetic-algorithms; models-computer
|Nov 1985||Cosmic rays from Cygnus X-3||
keywords: binary star; cosmic rays; Cygnus X-3; galactic cosmic rays; gamma rays; gamma-ray sources (astronomical); high-energy particles; infrared sources (astronomical); IR source; X-ray binary stars
keywords: continents; Earth crust; fault-bounded blocks; geologic collages; Pacific Ocean; plate tectonics; sediments; subduction zone volcanism; tectonics; terranes; volcanology
|Nov 1985||Smart cards||
keywords: credit cards; digital IC; digital integrated circuits; EFTS; microelectronic chip; smart cards
|Dec 1985||The development of software for ballistic-missile defense||
keywords: ballistic-missile defense; military computing; missiles; SDI; software; star wars defense; Strategic Defense Initiative; weapon systems
|Dec 1985||Optical phase conjugation||
keywords: applications; four wave mixing; optical phase conjugation; stimulated Brillouin scattering; wave motion
|Dec 1985||Cricket auditory communication||
keywords: animal behavior; bioacoustics; biocommunications; cricket auditory communication; hearing; male's calling song; nervous-system activity
|Dec 1985||Polar wandering on Mars||
keywords: axis of spin; lithosphere; Mars; planet's equator; polar wandering
|Dec 1985||The enormous theorem|
|Jan 1986||How Close Encounters with Star Clusters are Achieved with a Computer Telescope|
|Jan 1986||Space Science, Space Technology and the Space Station|
|Jan 1986||Growth, Differentiation and the Reversal of Malignancy|
|Jan 1986||The Structure of Comet Tails||
keywords: comet tails; comets; interplanetary; interplanetary magnetic fields; magnetic field; Periodic Comet Giacobini Zinner (1984e); Periodic Comet Halley (1982i); plasma tail; solar wind
|Jan 1986||Applications of Optical Phase Conjugation||
keywords: 'time-reversed' light; adaptive optics; applications; atmospheric turbulence; decode messages; image patterns; laser beams; laser-beam quality; message encoding; mirror; mirrors; optical information processing; optical phase conjugation; optics; satellite tracking; time reversed light waves
|Jan 1986||The Chemical Defenses of Higher Plants|
|Jan 1986||Mineral Deposits from Sea-Floor Hot Springs||
keywords: chemical exchanges; fractured volcanic rock; geochemistry; metal deposits; mineral deposits; mineralogy; minerals; ocean crust; oceanic crust; rocks; sea-floor hot springs; seawater; seawater --- Chemical Reactions; Subaqueous; terrestrial heat
|Jan 1986||Kin Recognition in Tadpoles|
|Jan 1986||An Inexpensive Homemade Polarimeter Can Analyze Optically Active Compounds|
|Jan 1986||Radiocarbon Dating by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry||
keywords: C14; accelerator mass spectrometry; anthropological specimens; anthropology; archaeological; archaeology; carbon; chronologies; Dating; geochronology; geology; geophysical technique; geophysical techniques; geophysics --- Radioactive Methods; mass spectroscopy; radioactive carbon 14; radioactive dating; radiocarbon
|Feb 1986||The King (a Chess Program) is Dead, Long Live the King (a Chess Machine)|
|Feb 1986||The T Cell and its Receptor|
keywords: air pollution; dioxin; Environmental Impact; herbicides --- Toxicity; organic compounds; tcdd; water pollution; weed control --- Environmental Impact
|Feb 1986||Quantum Chemical Reactions in the Deep Cold|
|Feb 1986||The Heart as an Endocrine Gland|
|Feb 1986||Reconstructing Bird Phylogeny by Comparing DNA's|
|Feb 1986||Inca Stonemasonry|
|Feb 1986||William Herschel and the Making of Modern Astronomy||
keywords: astronomy; astronomy and astrophysics; biographies; history; William Herschel
|Feb 1986||Seismic Images of Plate Boundaries||
keywords: oceanic crust; reflections; rock layers; seismic images; seismology; tectonic plate boundaries; tectonics
|Feb 1986||A Homemade Device for Testing Particle Scattering; Experiments in Zero Gravity|
|Mar 1986||How a Pair of Dull-Witted Programs Can Look Like Geniuses on IQ Tests|
|Mar 1986||Rethinking Nuclear Power||
keywords: capacity factors; centrally fabricated nuclear reactors; Energy Policy; fission reactor safety; fission reactor theory and design; inherent safety; lower-power; nuclear energy; nuclear power; nuclear power stations; nuclear reactors --- Accident Prevention; pebble bed reactor; pius reactor; Pius reactor
|Mar 1986||The Earth's magnetotail||
keywords: bright auroras; Earth's magnetic field; Earth's magnetotail; interplanetary space; magnetized gas; magnetosphere; solar wind
|Mar 1986||The Molecular Genetics of Hemophilia||
keywords: biological materials --- Blood; biomedical engineering; cells; genetic engineering; proteins
|Mar 1986||The Superconducting Supercollider||
keywords: accelerators; elementary particles; physics --- High Energy; superconducting devices; Superconducting Supercollider; synchrotrons
|Mar 1986||Computer-Simulated Plant Evolution|
|Mar 1986||Mental Imagery and the Visual System|
|Mar 1986||Computer-Simulated Plant Evolution||
A model which traces the fossil record of the evolution of plant structure.
keywords: computer-model; evolution-model; plants
|Mar 1986||Crop Storage at Assiros|
|Mar 1986||Methods and Optics of Perceiving Color in a Black-and-White Grating|
|Mar 1986||Athletic Clothing||
keywords: aerodynamics; Design; sporting goods; sports clothing
|Apr 1986||A Program for Rotating Hypercubes Induces Four-Dimensional Dementia|
|Apr 1986||Can the U.S. Trust the U.S.S.R.?|
|Apr 1986||The Quantized Hall Effect||
keywords: quantized Hall effect; quantum Hall effect
|Apr 1986||The Dynamics of Proteins||
Computer simulation of the dynamic structure of proteins.
keywords: models-computer; models-graphics
|Apr 1986||Islamic Astronomy|
|Apr 1986||Internal Rhythms in Bird Migration|
|Apr 1986||The ``Stress'' of Being Born|
|Apr 1986||Optical Gyroscopes||
keywords: gyroscopes; optical devices; optical gyroscope
|Apr 1986||Playing the Baroque Trumpet|
|Apr 1986||Wonders with the Retroreflector, a Mirror that Removes Distortion from a Light Beam|
|May 1986||Branching Phylogenies of the Paleozoic and the Fortunes of English Family Names|
|May 1986||Sudden Cardiac Death|
|May 1986||The Climate of Mars||
keywords: atmospheric absorption; atmospheric circulation; carbon-dioxide cycle; climate; climate history; CO2; dust cycle; flowing water; Mars; permafrost; planet atmosphere; planetary atmospheres; poles; water cycle
|May 1986||Aqueous Foams|
|May 1986||The Cheetah in Genetic Peril|
|May 1986||Superconducting tunnel detectors in radio astronomy||
keywords: photodetectors; radiation detector; radio astronomy; radiosource; radiotelescopes; star formation sites; superconducting junction devices; superconducting tunnel detectors; superconductive tunnelling
|May 1986||Postglacial Foraging in the Forests of Europe|
|May 1986||Darwin as a Geologist|
|May 1986||Superconducting Tunnel Detectors in Radio Astronomy||
keywords: antennas; astrophysics; electrons --- Transport Properties; interferometers; radiation detectors; radio astronomy --- Equipment; superconducting devices; superconducting tunnel detectors; tunneling
|May 1986||Wire that ``Remembers'' its Shape is Put to Work Running an Engine|
|Jun 1986||Casting a Net on a Checkerboard and Other Puzzles of the Forest|
|Jun 1986||Beyond the Era of Materials|
|Jun 1986||Is Nature Supersymmetric?||
keywords: supersymmetric; supersymmetry; unified field theories
|Jun 1986||El Nino|
|Jun 1986||The Heart as a Suction Pump|
|Jun 1986||Sexual Selection in Bowerbirds|
|Jun 1986||The Perception of Apparent Motion|
|Jun 1986||Mirrors Make a Maze so Bewildering that the Explorer Must Rely on a Map|
|Jun 1986||Modern Windmills||
keywords: aerodynamics --- Lift; blades; electric power generation; Energy Resources; rotors; wind power --- Efficiency; wind turbines; windmills
|Jul 1986||A Sublime Flight of Fancy over a Deserted Data Base|
|Jul 1986||Potential New Crops|
|Jul 1986||Very large structures in the Universe||
keywords: clusters of galaxies; cosmology; early Universe; galaxy clusters; high-energy interactions; superclusters; voids
|Jul 1986||Anti-idiotypes and Immunity|
|Jul 1986||The Structure of Mountain Ranges||
keywords: Andes; crustal roots; dynamics; Earth crust; Earth mantle; Earth structure; gravity; Hawaii; Himalayas; mantle; mountain ranges; structure; tectonics; Tibetan Plateau
|Jul 1986||Exotic Atomic Nuclei|
|Jul 1986||Space, Time and Touch|
|Jul 1986||Flight Simulation||
keywords: aircraft; computer graphics; computer simulation; Flight Simulators; pilot training
|Jul 1986||The Arthropod Cuticle|
|Jul 1986||Exotic Patterns Appear in Water When it is Freezing or Melting|
|Aug 1986||Digital Prestidigitation: The Fine Art of Magic and Illusion by Computer|
|Aug 1986||The Strategic Nuclear Forces of Britain and France|
keywords: amorphous; crystal structure; crystalline; noncrystalline state structure; quasicrystals; structure; tiling
|Aug 1986||Transplantation in the Central Nervous System|
|Aug 1986||Progress in Laser Fusion||
keywords: fusion power; fusion reactor ignition; laser fusion
|Aug 1986||The Origin of Corn|
|Aug 1986||The Solar Cycle in Precambrian Time|
|Aug 1986||Thermal Niches of Striped Bass|
|Aug 1986||The Emergence of Maya Civilization|
|Aug 1986||Retracing the Steps by which Aluminum Metal was Initially Purified back in 1886|
|Sep 1986||Wallpaper for the Mind: Computer Images That Are Almost, But Not Quite, Repetitive|
|Sep 1986||The Microwave Problem||
keywords: biological effects; biological effects of microwaves; biological materials --- Radiation Damage; exposure limits; low levels; microwave; microwave hazards; Microwaves; radiation effects
|Sep 1986||Predicting Chemistry from Topology|
keywords: duality and dual models; elementary particles; quantum theory; strings; superstrings; supersymmetry; unified field theories
|Sep 1986||The Blood-Brain Barrier|
|Sep 1986||The Colors of Things|
|Sep 1986||The Sun and the interstellar medium||
keywords: Earth's climate; interstellar gas; interstellar matter; interstellar medium; Sun
|Sep 1986||Leonardo's Contributions To Theoretical Mechanics||
keywords: crossbow; Leonardo; Madrid Codices; mechanics
|Sep 1986||Rainbow Holograms, Unlike Conventional Ones, Can be Observed in Ordinary Light|
|Oct 1986||The Compleat Computer Caricaturist and a Whimsical Tour of Face Space|
|Oct 1986||Advanced Materials and the Economy||
keywords: advanced materials; composites; economic and sociologic effects; economics; economy; engineering --- Social Aspects; materials; materials and society; materials demand; materials economics; materials science; new technology; productivity enhancement; strength of materials
|Oct 1986||Materials for Information and Communication||
keywords: communication materials; data communication systems; electronic equipment --- Materials; information materials; integrated circuits; materials; materials research; materials science; optical communication; optical fibres; telecommunication; transistors
|Oct 1986||Materials for Aerospace||
keywords: advanced materials; aerospace; aerospace engineering; aerospace materials; alloys; composite materials; composites; light weight; materials; materials research; materials science; resistance to heat; strength
|Oct 1986||Materials for Ground Transportation||
keywords: automobiles --- Materials; lightweight materials; materials science; motor transportation
|Oct 1986||Materials for Medicine||
keywords: biocompatible materials; ceramics; composites; glasses; human tissue replacement; materials; medicine; polymers; prosthetics
|Oct 1986||Materials for Energy Utilization||
keywords: energy consumption; energy conversion; energy resources; energy transmission; energy utilization; material developments; materials; materials research; materials science
|Oct 1986||Materials for Medicine||
keywords: biological materials --- Tissue; biomaterials; biomedical engineering; burn therapy; ceramics; composite materials; glass; materials science; Medical Applications; medical care; polymers; prostheses
|Oct 1986||Materials for Medicine||
keywords: biological materials --- Tissue; biomaterials; biomedical engineering; materials science; Medical Applications
|Oct 1986||The Science of Materials||
keywords: improved performance; materials; materials --- Reviews; materials preparation; materials properties; materials research; materials science; new materials synthesis; novel structures
|Oct 1986||Electronic and Magnetic Materials||
keywords: electronic materials; high-speed logic operations; magnetic materials; materials technologies; semiconducting chips; semiconductor materials; semiconductor technology; semiconductors
|Oct 1986||Photonic Materials||
keywords: electro-optical switch; glass fibres; lasers; light --- Transmission; materials science; nonlinear materials; nonlinear optics; optical communication; optical computers; optical fibres; optical glass; optical information processing; optical materials; photonic materials; semiconductor alloys; semiconductor materials; semiconductor technology; semiconductors; transmitting light signals; ultrapure glass
|Oct 1986||Advanced Metals||
keywords: advanced metals; alloys; corrosion resisting alloys; heat resisting alloys; metal deformation; metallic crystalline structure; metallography; metals; metals and alloys; processing techniques; strong alloys; superalloys
|Oct 1986||Advanced Ceramics||
keywords: advanced ceramics; brittleness; ceramic materials; ceramics; chemical attack resistance; cracking tendency; crystallography; glass; glass ceramics; glassy ceramics; hard materials; heat resistance; materials science
|Oct 1986||Cracks in a Surface Look Intricately Random But Actually Develop Rather Systematically|
|Oct 1986||Advanced Polymers||
keywords: advanced polymers; materials preparation; materials science; polymer fibres; polymer science; polymer structure; polymers; processing methods; structure; synthesis; tacticity
keywords: advanced materials; composite materials; composites; fibre reinforced composites; hybrid materials; materials science; performance; structural roles
|Nov 1986||Star Trek Emerges from the Underground to a Place in the Home-Computer Arcade|
|Nov 1986||The Shadow Market in Housing|
|Nov 1986||Engineering Voyager 2's Encounter with Uranus||
keywords: Control; data compression; data transmission rates; fuel situation; heating; interplanetary navigation; light levels; mechanical breakdowns; Miranda; radio control; remote control; space communication links; space flight --- Interplanetary Flight; space vehicles; spacecraft; Uranus; voyager 2; Voyager expeditions; Voyager-2
|Nov 1986||Studying the Earth by Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry||
keywords: astrophysics; crust; drift; Earth crust; Earth rotation; geodesy; geophysical technique; geophysical techniques; interferometry; plates; quasars; radiowave interferometry; spin rate; tectonics; VLBI; wobble
|Nov 1986||RNA as an Enzyme|
|Nov 1986||The Higgs Boson||
keywords: fundamental forces; GVT; Higgs Boson; intermediate bosons; magnetic monopoles; masses; unified field theories
|Nov 1986||Antarctic Fishes|
|Nov 1986||Features and Objects in Visual Processing||
keywords: identities; labels; meaningful wholes; memory; multidimensional wholes; objects; perception; visual information; visual perception; visual processing
|Nov 1986||Galileo and the Specter of Bruno|
|Nov 1986||The Hyperscope and the Pseudoscope Aid Experiments on Three-Dimensional Vision|
|Dec 1986||Computer Graphics at Pixar, of Fractal Mountains, Graftal Plants and Other ...|
|Dec 1986||Corporate Medicine for Profit|
keywords: attractors; Brownian motion; causal relationships; causality; chaos; dynamical systems; fractals; order; Poincare recurrence; prediction; randomness; state space; turbulence
|Dec 1986||Dark matter in the Universe||
keywords: astrophysics; clusters of galaxies; cosmology; dark matter; galaxies; interstellar matter; particle physics; stars; Universe
|Dec 1986||The First Human Retrovirus|
|Dec 1986||The Functional Architecture of the Retina||
keywords: cells; cellular biophysics; eye; functional architecture; retina; vision
|Dec 1986||How Roots Respond to Gravity|
|Dec 1986||Human-Powered Watercraft|
|Dec 1986||A Roman Apartment Complex|
|Dec 1986||Methods for Going Through a Maze Without Becoming Lost or Confused|
|Jan 1987||Computer Recreations: A program called MICE nibbles its way to victory at the first Core War tournament||
Results of the first international competition.
|Jan 1987||The Yields of Soviet Strategic Weapons|
keywords: ammonia clouds; atmosphere; atmospheres; composition; Coriolis force; electroglow; internal heat source; magnetic field; magnetosphere; methane clouds; planet; planetary atmospheres; planetary magnetism; plasma motions; rotating bodies; rotation rate; structure; Uranus; Voyager 2 mission; Voyager-2
|Jan 1987||The AIDS Virus||
keywords: aids; biomedical engineering; biotechnology; human retrovirus; virus
|Jan 1987||Learning by Instinct|
|Jan 1987||Fractal Growth||
keywords: air bubbles; bubbles; crystallisation; diffusion; fluids; fractals; lattice theory; lattice theory and statistics; percolation
|Jan 1987||Power from the Sea||
keywords: closed cycle; desalination; designs; electric power generation; fresh water production; low-boiling-point fluid; low-pressure system; ocean thermal energy conversion; open cycle; OTEC system; power generation; seawater; working fluid
|Jan 1987||The Solution of the Fleece|
|Jan 1987||Reflections from a Water Surface Display Some Curious Properties|
|Feb 1987||The Game Life Acquires Some Successors in Three Dimensions|
|Feb 1987||Computer Recreations: The Game of Life Acquires some Successors in Three Dimensions||
Description of Carter Bays' 3D extensions of Conway's game of LIFE. See also Bays:1987:CGL.
keywords: CA-LIFE; models-computer
|Feb 1987||Hunger in the U.S.|
|Feb 1987||The Microtubule as an Intracellular Engine|
|Feb 1987||The oldest pulsars in the Universe||
keywords: pulsars; stellar evolution; stellar rotation
|Feb 1987||Genetic Recombination|
|Feb 1987||Whales and Walruses as Tillers of the Sea Floor||
keywords: Bering Sea; bioturbation; bivalve mollusc; Chuckchi; coast; crustacean; feeding; furrow; gray whale; groove; mammal; marine biology; Norton Sound; oceanography; Pacific; pit; sea floor; seafloor disturbance; seal; sediment; sedimentation; sediments; walrus; zoology
|Feb 1987||Marriage, Motherhood and Research Performance in Science|
|Feb 1987||The Secret of a Microwave Oven's Rapid Cooking Action is Disclosed|
|Feb 1987||Ballistic Electrons in Semiconductors||
keywords: ballistic electron devices; ballistic electrons; electron's quantum-mechanical properties; electrons; FET; high field effects; quantum theory; semiconductor devices; semiconductors; theta device; Transport Properties
|Feb 1987||The Computer as a Musical Instrument||
keywords: audio acoustics; computer; Computer Applications; computer generated music; digital sound synthesis; electronic music; musical instrument; musical instruments; musical instruments, electronic
|Mar 1987||Braitenberg Memoirs: Vehicles for Probing Behavior Roam a Dark Plain Marked by Lights|
|Mar 1987||Computer Recreations: Braitenberg Memoirs --- Vehicles for probing behavior roam a dark plain marked by lights||
Discussion of programming techniques for implementing Braitenberg's vehicles Braitenberg:1984:VES.
|Mar 1987||The Structure of Poliovirus||
keywords: macromolecular configurations; model; molecular biophysics; poliovirus; structure; viral research
|Mar 1987||Cooling and Trapping Atoms||
keywords: cooling; laser cooling; laser light; magnetic bottles; magnetic fields; radiation pressure; trapped atoms
|Mar 1987||The Rifting of Continents||
keywords: continental crust; continents; Earth crust; hot spot; mantle; ocean; rifting; tectonics; terrestrial heat; upwelling molten rock
|Mar 1987||Thermoregulation in Winter Moths||
keywords: biothermics; feed; fly; mate; near-freezing temperatures; thermoregulation; winter moths
|Mar 1987||Optical Neural Computers||
keywords: Computer Applications; computer systems, digital; neural nets; optical elements; optical information processing; optical neural computer; optical neural computers; pattern recognition systems; recognizing patterns
|Mar 1987||A Mesolithic Camp in Denmark|
|Mar 1987||Calculating the Distance to the Sun by Observing the Trail of a Meteor|
|Apr 1987||The Sound of Computing is Music to the Ears of Some|
|Apr 1987||Third-Generation Nuclear Weapons|
|Apr 1987||Third-Generation Nuclear Weapons||
keywords: military equipment; Nuclear Energy; nuclear explosions; nuclear weapons
|Apr 1987||How Photoreceptor Cells Respond to Light||
keywords: biological materials; brain; core cells; electrical signal; eye; neural junctions; neural signals; photoreceptor cells; Radiation Effects; retina; rod cells; synapses; vision
|Apr 1987||The Moons of Uranus||
keywords: Ariel; composition; cratering; densities; maps; Miranda; moons of Uranus; Oberon; planetary satellites; satellites; structure; surface features; Titania; Umbriel; Uranus; Voyager 2 mission; Voyager-2; vulcanism
|Apr 1987||Antiviral Therapy||
keywords: antiviral strategy; biomedical engineering; Patient Treatment; therapy; viruses
|Apr 1987||The Emergence of Animals|
|Apr 1987||Photovoltaic Power||
keywords: CdTe; charge carriers; CuInSe2; efficiency; GaAs; million-watt power plants; photovoltaic cell; photovoltaic cells; photovoltaic effects; semiconductor; Si; solar cells; solar power plants; sunlight
|Apr 1987||Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells||
keywords: acoustic characteristics; bells; Chinese bronze chime bells; instrumentation; music; musical acoustics; musical instruments; octaves; pitches; scales
|Apr 1987||The First Technology|
|Apr 1987||Making a Barometer That Works with Water in Place of Mercury|
|May 1987||Of Bulls, Bears and Programs in the Pit|
|May 1987||A Surge in Inequality|
|May 1987||The Cosmic Synthesis of Lithium, Beryllium and Boron||
keywords: astrophysics; B; Be; beryllium; beryllium and alloys; big bang; boron; cosmic rays; cosmic synthesis; cosmology; dust; element origin; interstellar matter; interstellar space; Li; lithium; lithium and alloys --- Synthesis; low-density gas; nuclear reactions; nuclei; nucleosynthesis; primordial explosion
|May 1987||Synapses that Compute Motion||
keywords: biophysical mechanism; brain; direction; eye; information-processing; mechanoception; motion; moving stimulus; nerve cell; neuron; neurophysiology; vision
|May 1987||Climate Modeling||
keywords: atmosphere; atmospheric movements --- Mathematical Models; climate; Climatology; climatology; Climatology; Cretaceous; El Chichon; evolution; greenhouse effect; meteorology; nuclear war; physical principles; pollution; volcanic eruptions
|May 1987||Glucose and Aging||
keywords: Aging; biological materials; collagen; glucose; proteins; sugar
|May 1987||Reappearing Phases||
keywords: liquids --- Research; materials science; phases
|May 1987||Symbiosis in the Deep Sea|
|May 1987||The Detonation of Explosives||
keywords: Chapman; chemical processes; Detonation; detonation; Detonation; detonation; Doering; eigenvalue; explosions; explosives; hugoniot curves; Hugoniot curves; Jouquet; pathological; Rayleigh lines; shock waves; small-scale perturbations; von Neumann; Zel'dovich
|May 1987||Concerning Disappearances, Including the Cheshire Cat's Odd Vanishing Act|
|Jun 1987||Drought in Africa|
|Jun 1987||Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis||
keywords: molecular biophysics; molecular genetics; molecular mechanisms; photosynthesis; spectroscopy; X-ray crystallography
|Jun 1987||Gravitational Wave Observatories||
keywords: Einstein's general theory of relativity; extragalactic signals; general relativity; gravitational wave observatories; gravitational waves
|Jun 1987||The Anatomy of Memory|
|Jun 1987||Collapsing Volcanoes||
keywords: avalanches; catastrophic collapse; deposits; volcanoes; volcanology
|Jun 1987||Diving Adaptations of the Weddell Seal|
|Jun 1987||The Connection Machine||
keywords: artificial intelligence; Connection Machine; parallel computer; parallel machines
|Jun 1987||The Birth of the U.S. Biological-Warfare Program|
|Jun 1987||Puzzles in Two and Three Dimensions, and Ways to Simplify Their Solution|
|Jun 1987||Algopuzzles: Wherein Trains of Thought Follow Algorithmic Tracks to Solutions|
|Jun 1987||The Connection Machine||
keywords: computer graphics; computer hardware; computer technology; computers, digital; Connection Machine; connection machine; convolution; parallel processing
|Jul 1987||Can Advanced Technology Save the U.S. Steel Industry?|
|Jul 1987||The Molecules of Visual Excitation||
keywords: molecular biophysics; molecules; protein; proteins; retina; transducin; vision; visual excitation
|Jul 1987||Can Advanced Technology Save the U.S. Steel Industry?||
keywords: direct casting; integrated steel plant; iron and steel industry --- United States; iron and steel plants --- United States; steelmaking; United States
|Jul 1987||The Rings of Uranus||
keywords: planetary rings; rings; Roche zone; Uranus; Uranus' rings; Voyager 2 encounter; Voyager 2 mission
|Jul 1987||Beaches and Barrier Islands|
|Jul 1987||Lyme Disease|
|Jul 1987||Aerodynamics of Wind Pollination|
|Jul 1987||Arches and Vaults in the Ancient Near East|
|Jul 1987||Cold Nuclear Fusion||
keywords: cold nuclear fusion; commercial energy source; Fusion Reactions; muon-catalyzed fusion; muon-nucleus reactions; muons; nuclear energy; nuclear fusion; nuclear fusion reactions; nuclear reactions involving few nucleon systems; nuclear reactors, fusion --- Research; nuclei with mass number 1 to 5
|Jul 1987||Why a Fluid Flows Faster When the Tube is Pinched|
|Jul 1987||Probing the Strange Attractions of Chaos|
|Aug 1987||Collisions Between Spinning Protons||
keywords: AGS; Alternating Gradient Synchrotron; baryon spin and parity; colour model; polarisation in elementary particle interactions; polarized protons; proton+proton producing X; proton-proton inclusive interactions; QCD; spin directions; Zero Gradient Synchrotron; ZGS
|Aug 1987||Stars & Stripes||
keywords: boats --- United States; Computer Aided Design; hulls; keels; sailing vessels; velocity prediction program
|Aug 1987||The Causes of Down Syndrome|
|Aug 1987||The Clonal-Selection Theory|
|Aug 1987||Salt Tectonics||
keywords: diapirs; gas; geology; geophysical prospecting; oil; prospecting; salt deposits; salt structures; Tectonics; tectonics; upwelling
|Aug 1987||Gazelle Killing in Stone Age Syria|
|Aug 1987||Gallium Arsenide Transistors||
keywords: electron drift velocity; electrons --- Transport Properties; GaAs; gallium arsenide; III-V semiconductors; Materials; semiconducting gallium arsenide; semiconductor devices; transistors
|Aug 1987||Music and Ammonia Vapor Excite the Color Pattern of a Soap Film|
|Aug 1987||Word Ladders and a Tower of Babel Lead to Computational Heights Defying Assault|
|Aug 1987||Air Pollution by Particles||
keywords: Acid Rain; acidic particles; air pollution; atmosphere; earth atmosphere; fossil fuels
|Sep 1987||Strategic Defense and Directed-Energy Weapons|
|Sep 1987||The Large-Scale Streaming of Galaxies||
keywords: clusters of galaxies; cosmology; galaxies; large-scale streaming; mass; Milky Way; Universe
|Sep 1987||Strategic Defense and Directed-Energy Weapons||
keywords: directed energy weapons; military engineering; military equipment; strategic defense
|Sep 1987||Reverse Transcription|
keywords: crystalline materials; crystals; electrical properties of substances; electrides; electronic properties; Microstructure; negatively charged atoms; optical properties; optical properties of substances; physics --- Atomic; trapped electrons
|Sep 1987||Mimicry in Plants|
|Sep 1987||The Swahili Corridor||
keywords: Byzantine civilization; Holy Roman Empire; Mtambwe Mknu site; mtepe sailing vessel; Shanga site; Swahili corridor; trade
|Sep 1987||How Children Learn Words|
|Sep 1987||Sticky Threadlike Substances That Tend to Draw Themselves out into Bead Arrays|
|Sep 1987||Coal-Fired Power Plants for the Future||
keywords: air pollution --- Gaseous Effluents; boiler firing --- Coal; coal fired plants; coal fired power stations; coal gasification; combustion --- Fluidized Beds; costs; electricity; emissions; fossil fuel power plants; steam power stations
|Sep 1987||Diverse Personalities Search for Social Equilibrium at a Computer Party|
|Oct 1987||Chips for advanced computing||
keywords: computer architectures; integrated circuits; microprocessor chips; parallel architectures; reviews
|Oct 1987||The Next Computer Revolution||
keywords: accessibility; computer architecture; computer hardware; computer revolution; computing power; convenience; fifth generation systems; historical review; parallel machines; Reviews; reviews; systems design; technological forecasting
|Oct 1987||Programming for advanced computing||
keywords: advanced computing; independent processes; message exchange; parallel programming; reviews; tuple space
|Oct 1987||Advanced Computer Architectures||
keywords: computer architecture; computer operating systems --- Program Processors; distributed memory; parallel architectures; parallel processing; pipelining; Reviews; reviews; shared memory; supercomputers
|Oct 1987||Chips for Advanced Computing||
keywords: chips; computer technology; field-effect transistor (MOSFET); integrated circuits; inverter circuit; logic circuits; metal-oxide-silicon; mosfet; MOSFET; packing density; rent's rule; Rent's rule; scaling factor; semiconductor devices, mosfet; semiconductor devices, MOSFET; silicon chips; single-chip computer
|Oct 1987||Programming for Advanced Computing||
keywords: compiler; computer metatheory; computer programming; computer technology; Connection Machine; digital language; message-passing program; parallel computing; software; symmetric programming language; symmetric-language program; tuple-space program; tuples
|Oct 1987||Data-Storage Technologies for Advanced Computing||
keywords: advanced computing; data storage technologies; data storage, magnetic; data storage, optical; disk drives; magnetic fields; magnetic storage; magnetic storage devices; magnetization; magneto-optical devices; magneto-optical technology; magnetooptical storage devices; parallel processing; reviews
|Oct 1987||Interfaces for Advanced Computing||
keywords: advanced computing; artificial realities; computer graphics; computer interfaces; computer simulation; dataglove; electronic pad; eye movement; glove; handwriting; mouse; object manipulation; peripheral interfaces; reviews; sensors; speech recognition; supercomputers; touch screen; user interfaces; user-computer communication; voice communication
|Oct 1987||Networks for Advanced Computing||
The information generated by computing is useless until it is communicated, and so the nature of the networks that link computers is as important as raw computing power. Establishing an effective network can be as difficult a task as getting the machines to think.
keywords: advanced computing; circuit switching; collision detection; computer hardware; computer networks; data sharing; hardware sharing; networks; packet switching; physical link; program sharing; protocols; reviews; wide-area networks
|Oct 1987||Advanced Computing for Science||
keywords: advanced computing; astronomy; astrophysics --- Computer Applications; astrophysics computing; computational experiments; Computer Applications; computer images; galactic collisions; galaxies; interacting galaxies; natural sciences computing; reviews; scientific investigation; small effects; stellar dynamics
|Oct 1987||Advanced computing for medicine||
keywords: advice systems; communication systems; expert systems; medical diagnostic computing; medical information systems; medical practice; medicine; patient diagnosis
|Oct 1987||Advanced Computing for Medicine||
keywords: artificial intelligence --- Expert Systems; biomedical engineering; Computer Applications; computer systems, digital; computers --- Medical Applications; hospital information systems; hospitals --- Computer Applications; information retrieval systems; medical workstations
|Oct 1987||Now There is Rubik's Magic, a New Puzzle that Provides a Study in Permutation Operators|
|Oct 1987||Advanced Computing for Manufacturing (aircraft industry)||
keywords: aerodynamic-flow analysis; aerodynamics --- Computer Applications; aerospace computing; aircraft; aircraft industry; airflow; cad; CAD/CAM; cam; computational analysis; Computer Aided Design; computer aided design; computer aided manufacturing; manufacture; manufacturing; nacelles; supercomputer; supercomputers
|Oct 1987||``After Mad'': A Computer Game of Nuclear Strategy That Ends in a Prisoner's Dilemma|
|Nov 1987||Diet and Cancer|
|Nov 1987||Helium-Rich Supernovas||
keywords: classification; evolution; galaxies; galaxy; model; spectra; stellar evolution; stellar interior; stellar internal processes; stellar models; stellar spectra; supernovae; Type Ib supernovae
|Nov 1987||Artificial Chromosomes|
|Nov 1987||Synchrotron Radiation||
keywords: light sources; storage ring; storage rings; synchrotron radiation; technological applications; ultraviolet light; undulators; wigglers; X-ray production; X-rays
|Nov 1987||The Ancestry of the Giant Panda|
|Nov 1987||Demons, Engines and the Second Law||
keywords: engines; heat engines; Maxwell's demon; second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamics
|Nov 1987||Early Farming in Northwestern Europe|
|Nov 1987||Modeling Tidal Power||
keywords: computer simulations; economic cost; environmental cost; geophysics computing; modelling; tidal power; tides; wave power generation
|Nov 1987||Fluid Interfaces, Including Fractal Flows, Can be Studied in a Hele-Shaw Cell|
|Nov 1987||Beauty and Profundity: The Mandelbrot Set and a Flock of its Cousins Called Julia|
|Nov 1987||Computer Recreations: Beauty and profundity: the Mandelbrot set and a flock of its cousins called Julia||
|Dec 1987||Technology in Services|
|Dec 1987||The Moon's Ancient Magnetism||
keywords: axis of spin; directions; Earth-Moon system; impacts; large craters; magnetic field; meteorite craters; meteorites; Moon; orientation; planetary magnetism; planetary satellites; polar wandering; strengths
|Dec 1987||How Animal Cells Move||
keywords: animal cells; cell motility; endocytic cycle; locomotion; motive force; nutrient molecules; outer membrane
|Dec 1987||Cosmic Strings||
keywords: big bang; cosmic strings; cosmology; galaxy formation; interactions; loops; string theory; unified field theories; Universe
|Dec 1987||Courtship in Unisexual Lizards: A Model for Brain Evolution|
|Dec 1987||H.M.S. Warrior|
|Dec 1987||How to Capture on Film the Faint Glow Emitted When Sticky Tape is Peeled off a Surface|
|Dec 1987||Simple Special Effects Illustrate the Art of Converting Algorithms into Programs|
|Dec 1987||Collective Computation in Neuron-Like Circuits||
keywords: analog VLSI; biomedical engineering; computation theory; computational properties; content-addressable storage; decision theory; decisions; electronic circuits; neural models; neural nets; neurobiological models; neuronlike circuits; parallel computation; VLSI
|Dec 1987||The Fracturing of Glass||
keywords: atmosphere; atomic interactions; atomic structure; catastrophic failure; chemical interactions; chemical models; crack propagation; critical size; Fracture; fracture; fracture mechanics; fracturing; glass; growth rate; incubation period; interatomic bonds; oxide materials; physics --- Atomic; product reliability; rupture; surface cracks; water
|Jan 1988||The Antarctic Ozone Hole||
keywords: air pollution; Antarctic ozone hole; Atmosphere; atmosphere; atmospheric chemistry; atmospheric composition; O3; ozone; Ozone layer; ozone layer; ozonosphere; South Pole; Ultraviolet-absorbing layer; ultraviolet-absorbing layer
thesaurus: Air pollution; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric composition; Ozone; Ozonosphere
|Jan 1988||How Killer Cells Kill|
|Jan 1988||The Reality of the Quantum World||
keywords: Benchtop experiments; benchtop experiments; Particle; particle; Photon; photon; Quantum mechanics; quantum mechanics; quantum theory; Quantum world; quantum world; Wave; wave; wave mechanics
thesaurus: Quantum theory; Wave mechanics
|Jan 1988||The Very-Long-Baseline Array||
keywords: antennas; Antennas; array; Array; black holes; Black holes; geodesy; quasars; Quasars; radio telescope; Radio telescope; radiotelescopes; radiowave interferometers; radiowave interferometry; Very-Long-Baseline Array; VLBA
thesaurus: Geodesy; Radiotelescopes; Radiowave interferometers; Radiowave interferometry
|Jan 1988||Intertidal Fishes|
|Jan 1988||The Not-So-Rare Earths|
|Jan 1988||Art, Illusion and the Visual System||
keywords: Brain; brain; Colour information; colour information; Form; form; Images; images; Spatial information; spatial information; Visual effects; visual effects; visual perception; Visual system; visual system
thesaurus: Visual perception
|Jan 1988||The Transformer||
keywords: Electricity; electricity; High-current output; high-current output; history; Low-current power; low-current power; power transformers; reviews; Transformer; transformer; Transmission; transmission
thesaurus: History; Power transformers; Reviews
|Jan 1988||What Explains Subjective-Contour Illusions, Those Bright Spots That are not Really There?|
|Jan 1988||Nanotechnology: Wherein Molecular Computers Control Tiny Circulatory Submarines|
|Feb 1988||A Flaw in a Universal Mirror||
keywords: Big bang; big bang; cosmology; Cosmos; cosmos; CP invariance; Matter antimatter balance; matter antimatter balance; Particle physics; particle physics; Universal mirror; universal mirror
thesaurus: Cosmology; CP invariance
|Feb 1988||Gabaergic Neurons|
|Feb 1988||Chromosome Mapping with DNA Markers|
|Feb 1988||How Climate Evolved on the Terrestrial Planets||
keywords: Climate evolution; climate evolution; climatology; Earthlike climates; earthlike climates; Mars; Mathematical models; mathematical models; planetary atmospheres; Solar System; Terrestrial planets; terrestrial planets; Venus
thesaurus: Climatology; Mars; Planetary atmospheres; Venus
|Feb 1988||The Adaptable Opossum|
|Feb 1988||Ramanujan and Pi|
|Feb 1988||The Bubonic Plague|
|Feb 1988||The Feathery Wake of a Moving Boat is a Complex Interference Pattern|
|Feb 1988||A Blind Watchmaker Surveys the Land of Biomorphs|
|Feb 1988||Plastics that Conduct Electricity||
keywords: conductivity; Conductivity; doped polymers; Doped polymers; Electric Conductivity; electrically conducting plastics; Electrically conducting plastics; ionic triplets; Ionic triplets; lightweight battery; Lightweight battery; monomeric repeat units; one-dimensional conductivity; plastics; polymer films; polymers; polymers --- Doping
thesaurus: One-dimensional conductivity; Plastics; Polymers
|Mar 1988||The Nonacoustic Detection of Submarines|
|Mar 1988||The nonacoustic detection of submarines||
keywords: detectors; marine systems; military systems; Nonacoustic detection; nonacoustic detection; Operating principles; operating principles; remote sensing by laser beam; Submarines; submarines
thesaurus: Detectors; Marine systems; Military systems; Remote sensing by laser beam
|Mar 1988||Gravity and Antimatter||
keywords: Antimatter; antimatter; Antiproton experiment; antiproton experiment; Gravitational acceleration; gravitational acceleration; gravitational experiments
thesaurus: Gravitational experiments
|Mar 1988||Catalytic Antibodies|
|Mar 1988||Construction Cranes|
|Mar 1988||How the Leopard Gets its Spots|
|Mar 1988||Fatness and Fertility|
|Mar 1988||The Quantum-Effect Device: Tomorrow's Transistor?||
keywords: AlGaAs-GaAs; aluminium compounds; Disruptive effects; disruptive effects; field effect transistors; gallium arsenide; III-V semiconductors; Integrated circuits; integrated circuits; Quantum dot structure; quantum dot structure; Quantum-effect device; quantum-effect device; Semiconductor device; semiconductor device; semiconductor superlattices; Transistor; transistor; tunnelling
thesaurus: Aluminium compounds; Field effect transistors; Gallium arsenide; III-V semiconductors; Semiconductor superlattices; Tunnelling
|Mar 1988||The Roman Port of Cosa|
|Mar 1988||Why Sidespin Helps the Bowler to Keep Scoring Strikes|
|Mar 1988||A Home Computer Laboratory in Which Balls Become Gases, Liquids and Critical Masses|
|Apr 1988||The Self, the World and Autoimmunity|
|Apr 1988||Computers in Music||
keywords: Computer Applications; computer-generated music; Computer-generated music; computers, digital; electronic music; Electronic music; music composing; musical acoustics; musical instruments; sound; Sound; spatialization program
thesaurus: Electronic music; Musical acoustics
|Apr 1988||The Membrane Paradigm for Black Holes||
keywords: black holes; electrically conducting spheroidal membrane; general relativity; membrane paradigm; spacetime
|Apr 1988||Energy-Efficient Buildings|
|Apr 1988||Light Switches for Plant Genes|
|Apr 1988||The Effects of Spin in Gases||
keywords: atom; gases; H; He; heat conduction; helium; nucleus; spin; spin polarised atomic hydrogen; thermal conductivity of gases
|Apr 1988||The Behavior of Baleen Whales|
|Apr 1988||Energy-Efficient Buildings||
keywords: buildings; electric lighting; Energy Conservation; energy consumption; energy demand; energy efficient buildings; energy utilization; heating
|Apr 1988||Trembley's Polyps|
|Apr 1988||How to Map Electrically Charged Patches with Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme|
|Apr 1988||An Ancient Rope-and-Pulley Computer is Unearthed in the Jungle of Apraphul|
|May 1988||Squeezed Light||
keywords: fluctuations; Light waves; light waves; Noise; noise; Quantum fluctuations; quantum fluctuations; quantum optics; Squeezed light; squeezed light; Uncertainty; uncertainty
thesaurus: Fluctuations; Quantum optics
|May 1988||Tumor Necrosis Factor|
|May 1988||Controlling Indoor Air Pollution||
keywords: air pollution; houses --- Climate Control; Indoor; indoor pollution; radon; regulations
|May 1988||Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo||
keywords: Core dynamo model; core dynamo model; Earth; Geodynamo; geodynamo; Geomagnetic excursions; geomagnetic excursions; Geomagnetic reversal; geomagnetic reversal; geomagnetic variations; Geomagnetism; geomagnetism; Magnetic field; magnetic field; Magnetic reversals; magnetic reversals; Rebounds; rebounds
thesaurus: Geomagnetic variations; Geomagnetism
|May 1988||The Platypus|
|May 1988||The Indian Neck Ossuary|
|May 1988||The Mystery of the Cosmological Constant||
keywords: constants; Cosmological constant; cosmological constant; cosmology; Energy; energy; Hubble constant; Universe; Vacuum; vacuum
thesaurus: Constants; Cosmology
|May 1988||Icicles Ensheathe a Number of Puzzles: Just How Does the Water Freeze?|
keywords: aerogels; gels; materials science; Reviews; sol-gel process
|May 1988||The Invisible Professor Holds a Chalk-Talk Session on the Display Monitor|
|Jun 1988||Economic Growth|
|Jun 1988||Particle Accelerators Test Cosmological Theory|
|Jun 1988||Particle accelerators test cosmological theory||
keywords: big bang; cosmological theory; cosmology; elementary-particle physics; families; higher generation particles; leptons; nucleosynthesis; particle accelerators; quarks; spacetime; theory of everything; unified field theories; Universe
keywords: BaTiO3; ceramics; crystal atomic structure of inorganic compounds; crystal structure; electrical properties; high temperature superconductor; high-temperature superconductors; perovskites; structure
|Jun 1988||Bacteria as Multicellular Organisms||
They differentiate into various cell types and form highly regular colonies that appear to be guided by sophisticated temporal and spatial control systems.
|Jun 1988||Polynyas in the Southern Ocean||
keywords: Antarctic; chemical composition; ice cover; large-scale motion; oceanography; polar atmosphere; polynyas; Southern Ocean; surface waters; temperature
|Jun 1988||The Neurobiology of Feeding in Leeches|
|Jun 1988||Early Iron Smelting in Central Africa|
|Jun 1988||Does Convection or the Bernoulli Principle Make the Shower Curtain Flutter Inward?|
|Jun 1988||Imagination Meets Geometry in the Crystalline Realm of Latticeworks|
|Aug 1988||The hodgepodge machine makes waves|
|Jul 1988||The Geography of U.S. Presidential Elections|
|Jul 1988||Gravitational Lenses||
keywords: Cosmology; cosmology; Einstein ring quasars; Galaxies; galaxies; Gravitational lenses; gravitational lenses; Large scale structure; large scale structure; quasars; Source images; source images; Universe
thesaurus: Cosmology; Galaxies; Gravitational lenses; Quasars
|Jul 1988||Hormones that Stimulate the Growth of Blood Cells|
|Jul 1988||The Supercontinent Cycle||
keywords: Conduction; conduction; Convective motions; convective motions; Crust; crust; Decay; decay; Earth crust; Heat; heat; Mantle; mantle; Plate tectonics; plate tectonics; Radioactive elements; radioactive elements; Supercontinent cycle; supercontinent cycle; tectonics; terrestrial heat
thesaurus: Earth crust; Tectonics; Terrestrial heat
|Jul 1988||How the Human Eye Focuses||
keywords: Biochemistry; biochemistry; eye; Eye's geometry; eye's geometry; Focus; focus; Human eye; human eye; vision
thesaurus: Eye; Vision
|Jul 1988||The Chaco Canyon Community|
|Jul 1988||Randomness in Arithmetic||
keywords: algorithmic information theory; computability theory; halting problem; incompleteness theorem; number theory; Pascal's triangle; randomness
|Jul 1988||Shadows Cast on the Bottom of a Pool are not like Other Shadows. Why?|
keywords: capacitors; Construction; construction; Design; design; Efficiency; efficiency; Electrolytic capacitor; electrolytic capacitor; electrolytic capacitors; insulators; integrated circuit manufacture; Leyden jar; leyden jar; Leyden jar; manufacturing; multilayer ceramic capacitor; Multilayer ceramic capacitor; multilayer ceramic capacitor; Reviews; tantalum capacitors
thesaurus: Capacitors; Electrolytic capacitors
|Jul 1988||How to Pan for Primes in Numerical Gravel|
|Aug 1988||The High Fidelity of DNA Duplication|
|Aug 1988||The Challenge of Acid Rain||
keywords: Acid Rain; acid rain; acidified lakes; air pollution; atmosphere; ecology; environmental impact; flue gases --- Desulfurization; fossil fuel power station; industrial pollution; pollution detection and control; rain and rainfall; river systems; soil; USA; water pollution
|Aug 1988||Measuring Crustal Deformation in the American West||
keywords: America; Canada; crustal deformation; geodesy; geophysical techniques; Global Positioning Satellite; GPS; measurement technique; plate tectonics; radioastronomical very-long baseline interferometry; radionavigation satellite method; tectonics; USA; VLBI radioastronomy method
|Aug 1988||Beyond truth and beauty: a fourth family of particles||
keywords: fourth family; fundamental particles; hypothetical particles; leptons; quarks; unified field theories
|Aug 1988||Light-Activated Drugs|
|Aug 1988||Perceiving Shape from Shading||
keywords: brain; perception; shading; single light source; three-dimensional shape; visual perception
|Aug 1988||X-Ray Imaging with Coded Masks||
keywords: astronomical techniques; cameras; coded mask telescope; coded masks; high-energy X-ray sources; pinhole camera; plasma diagnostic techniques; plasmas; reactors; X-ray astronomy; X-ray imaging; X-ray telescope
|Aug 1988||Perceiving Shape From Shading||
keywords: IMAGE PART FORM, LARGE DIMENSIONALITY
|Aug 1988||Some Entertaining Lessons in Optics That May Make Air Travel Easier to Endure|
|Aug 1988||The Hodgepodge Machine Makes Waves|
|Aug 1988||Dr. Atanasoff's Computer||
keywords: atanasoff-berry computer; computers, digital; digital computers; electronic digital computers; history; logic circuits; Reviews
|Sep 1988||50 and 100 Years Ago||
1888: How gravity would impart high velocity to an urban railroad train.
|Sep 1988||Civilian Casualties from Counterforce Attacks|
|Sep 1988||Finding the Antioncogene|
|Sep 1988||Finding the Anti-Oncogene||
Whereas oncogenes initiate cancer by actively promoting excessive cell growth, an anti-oncogene normally constrains growth; lacking it, a cell may proliferate out of control. The author and his colleagues have isolated the first anti-oncogene, whose inheritance in a mutated, inactive form confers an inborn susceptibility to retinoblastoma, an eye tumor.
|Sep 1988||Detecting Individual Atoms and Molecules with Lasers||
The laser, tuned precisely to the frequency of the radiation emitted or absorbed by an atom or a molecule, becomes a highly sensitive probe. It can detect minute amounts of one substance in another (plucking a single platinum atom out of a trillion molecules of seawater, for example) or explore the energetic structure of an atomic nucleus
keywords: atomic spectra; Individual atom detection; individual atom detection; Individual molecule detection; individual molecule detection; ionisation of atoms; ionisation of molecules; molecular spectra; Resonance ionisation spectroscopy; resonance ionisation spectroscopy; spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopy
thesaurus: Atomic spectra; Ionisation of atoms; Ionisation of molecules; Molecular spectra; Spectrochemical analysis; Spectroscopy
|Sep 1988||The discovery of the visual cortex||
keywords: brain; Brains visual center; brains visual center; Discovery; discovery; Head wounds; head wounds; history; Russo-Japanese War; Soldiers; soldiers; vision; Visual cortex; visual cortex
thesaurus: Brain; History; Vision
|Sep 1988||The Insulin Factory||
Insulin is made in the beta cell of the pancreas --- but how, and in what stages? Combining biochemistry with advanced electron micrography, the authors and others have traced the subcellular assembly line, identifying successive workstations where a precursor molecule is synthesized and processed into insulin and the hormone is exported from the cell.
|Sep 1988||Shock-Front Phenomena and Other Oddities to Entertain a Bored Airline Passenger|
|Sep 1988||A Close Look at Halley's Comet||
It has been two and a half years since an armada of spacecraft lifted off for a close encounter with Halley's comet. Intensive analysis of the data that were telemetered from European, Japanese and Soviet probes confirms the ``dirty snowball'' model of comet structure and provides clues to the nature of the materials that formed the solar system.
keywords: Comet nucleus; comet nucleus; comets; Element relative abundance; element relative abundance; Giotto; Halley's Comet; Periodic Comet Halley (1986 III); Quantitative information; quantitative information; Space probes; space probes
|Sep 1988||Old and New Three-Dimensional Mazes|
|Sep 1988||The Fossils of Montceau-les-Mines||
Some 300 million years ago, when the continents were grouped near the Equator, France's Massif Central was tropical. Steams, lakes and estuaries teemed with amphibians, fish, arthropods and mollusks, and giant ferns covered the hills. A remarkable fossil cache has enabled paleontologists to reconstruct what life there was like in the Upper Carboniferous.
|Sep 1988||Plasma-Sprayed Coatings||
The plasma gun's high-temperature flame can convert almost any powdered material into a molten spray. Jet-engine components and other parts that will be subjected to fierce heat, mechanical stress or chemical attack can now be sheathed in an insulating ceramic almost as easily as a coat of latex paint can be laid down with a spray gun.
keywords: Ceramic; ceramic; ceramics; Coating; coating; Corrosion; corrosion; corrosion protective coatings; High temperature; high temperature; Metal; metal; metals; plasma arc spraying; Plasma sprayed coatings; plasma sprayed coatings; Powder; powder; Wear; wear; wear resistant coatings
thesaurus: Ceramics; Corrosion protective coatings; Metals; Plasma arc spraying; Wear resistant coatings
|Sep 1988||The Discovery of the Visual Cortex||
The foundations of today's knowledge of how the brain processes visual images were laid over a period of more than a century by a series of investigators, many of them now long forgotten. Ironically, knowledge of how the world is mapped onto the cortex owes much to the introduction of a new high-velocity rifle in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5.
|Sep 1988||Computer Recreations||
Could These have got out of the labyrinth without having a thread to follow?
|Oct 1988||AIDS in 1988||
Where do we stand? What are the key areas of current research? The prospects for therapy or a vaccine? In their first collaborative article the two investigators who established the cause of AIDS answer these questions and tell how HIV isolated and linked to AIDS.
|Oct 1988||The Molecular Biology of the AIDS Virus||
Just three viral genes can direct the machinery of an infected cell to make a new HIV particle --- provided that at least three other viral genes give the go-ahead. These regulatory genes give the virus its protean behavioral repertoire: they spur viral replication, hold it in check or bring it to a halt.
|Oct 1988||The Origins of the AIDS Virus||
The AIDS virus has a past and it has relatives. An inquiry into its family history can reveal how the related viruses interact with human beings and monkeys. The inquiry may also uncover vulnerabilities: some forms of the virus have evolved toward disease-free coexistence with their hosts.
|Oct 1988||The Epidemiology of AIDS in the U.S.||
Since 1981 more than 66,000 people in the U.S. have contracted AIDS; by 1992 there may be 300,000 more cases --- even if the incidence of infection begins to decline. By identifying risk groups and risky behaviors, epidemiology can suggest nonmedical strategies for controlling AIDS.
|Oct 1988||The International Epidemiology of AIDS||
The pandemic is still in its early stages. Although no one is certain how many AIDS cases have already developed, the World Health Organization estimates the number at 250,000. Furthermore, at least five million people worldwide are probably infected with the AIDS virus.
|Oct 1988||HIV Infection: The Clinical Picture||
To focus only on treating AIDS is to lose the battle against HIV, the virus that causes it. AIDS is actually the final manifestation of a progressive immune disorder that may be silent for years. Early diagnosis and accurate staging of HIV infection help physicians to optimize therapy.
|Oct 1988||HIV Infection: The Cellular Picture||
The AIDS virus can do no damage until it enters a target cell. The first step in invasion is the binding of molecule on the viral membrane to a molecule on the membrane of the target. The receptor molecule, known as CD4 antigen, exists primarily on certain immune-system cells.
|Oct 1988||The Social Dimensions of AIDS|
|Oct 1988||AIDS Therapies||
The prognosis for treatment was once grim, but now understanding of HIV's life cycle makes it possible to design drugs that take aim at specific targets. The authors describe an all-out effort to develop a number of drugs that can be administered in a concerted attack.
|Oct 1988||Drop Two Stacked Balls from Waist Height: The Top Ball May Bounce up to the Ceiling|
|Oct 1988||On Making and Breaking Codes: Part I|
|Oct 1988||AIDS Vaccines||
A vaccine against HIV would be the most effective means of stemming the AIDS crisis. Several candidate vaccines are being tested in people, but HIV is a devious enemy and there is no evidence that any of them will work. What kinds of obstacles are investigators up against?
|Nov 1988||Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Celestial X-Ray Sources||
keywords: accretion; Accretion; accretion disks; Accretion disks; emission; Emission; GX 5-1; magnetic field; Magnetic field; mass transfer; neutron star; Neutron star; neutron stars; QPOs; quasi-periodic oscillations; Quasi-periodic oscillations; stellar magnetism; stellar radiation; X-ray binary stars; X-ray sources
thesaurus: Accretion disks; Mass transfer; Neutron stars; Stellar magnetism; Stellar radiation; X-ray binary stars
|Nov 1988||Educating Poor Minority Children||
The inadequate education of black children from urban ghettos condemns many of them to lives of chronic unemployment and desperation. Is there a way to bring such children into the mainstream of a technological society? The author built on his own childhood experiences to develop a strategy that is now working in 50 schools around the country.
|Nov 1988||The electrification of thunderstorms||
keywords: Atmosphere; atmosphere; atmospheric movements; atmospheric precipitation; Cloud; cloud; clouds; Convection; convection; Dipole characteristics; dipole characteristics; Electrification; electrification; Global electrical circuit; global electrical circuit; Lightning; lightning; Microphysics; microphysics; Thunderstorms; thunderstorms
thesaurus: Atmospheric movements; Atmospheric precipitation; Clouds; Lightning; Thunderstorms
|Nov 1988||Quasi-periodic Oscillations in Celestial X-Ray Sources||
Regular variations in the intensity of X-ray emanations can yield information about a celestial X-ray source: it may be orbited by an eclipsing star, for example, or may rotate like a lighthouse beam. What is one to make of powerful sources near the center of our galaxy whose X-ray intensity fluctuates not quite periodically but not quite at random?
|Nov 1988||What Makes a Tumor Cell Metastatic?||
The tumor cells that undergo metastasis, traveling through the bloodstream to establish new tumors, turn out to bear on their surface a distinctive pattern of molecules that enable them to evade the immune system. This feature and others that are unique to metastatic cells point the way toward what may one day be a new kind of cancer therapy.
|Nov 1988||Superfluid turbulence||
keywords: He4; Friction; friction; Quantum theory; quantum theory; Superfluid; superfluid; superfluid helium-4; Turbulence; turbulence; Viscosity; viscosity; Vortex; vortex; vortices
thesaurus: Superfluid helium-4; Turbulence; Vortices
|Nov 1988||Infrared optical fibers||
keywords: Fluoride optical fibre laser; fluoride optical fibre laser; Heavy metal fluoride glasses; heavy metal fluoride glasses; Highly transparent silica glass; highly transparent silica glass; IR optical fibres; light absorption; Light attenuation; light attenuation; optical fibres; SiO2; Transparency; transparency
thesaurus: Light absorption; Optical fibres
|Nov 1988||The Electrification of Thunderstorms||
An average thunderstorm generates several lightning flashes per minute and as much electric power as a small nuclear plant. To produce such large amounts of power a thundercloud must be charged to potentials of several hundred million volts. Models have been developed that explain aspects of the charging process, but the fundamental physics is still a mystery.
|Nov 1988||Superfluid Turbulence||
Liquid helium cooled to within about two degrees of absolute zero can flow without viscosity or friction, but it is not immune to a form of turbulence that is quantum-mechanical in nature. For example, the rates at which superfluid atoms circulate in a vortex are precisely determined by the same equation that fixes the radii of electron orbits in an atom.
|Nov 1988||Infrared Optical Fibers||
Optical fibers made of highly transparent silica glass can carry voice and data signals for as much as 50 kilometers without reamplification. New materials that transmit longer wavelengths of light can in theory be 20 times as transparent as silica glass. They may eventually be able to carry signals for hundreds or perhaps thousands of miles.
|Nov 1988||Obstacles to Developing Vaccines for the Third World||
The developing nations urgently need new vaccines to control serious infectious diseases. Yet many of the vaccines --- in particular those for diseases that are largely confined to the Third World --- are unlikely to be produced if the decision is left to pharmaceutical companies. Neither the developing nations nor the United Nations can pay market prices.
|Dec 1988||The geometric phase||
keywords: Anholonomy; anholonomy; Geometric phase; geometric phase; geometry; Oscillation plane; oscillation plane; Particle; particle; Pendulum; pendulum; Quantum states; quantum states; quantum theory; Rotation; rotation; Wave function; wave function; wave functions
thesaurus: Geometry; Quantum theory; Wave functions
|Dec 1988||Managing Solid Waste||
Every year Americans transform cereal boxes, glassware, refrigerators and food scraps into 140 million metric tons of municipal waste; we have run out of places to put it. Yet the problem can be solved. Manufacturers.could minimize packaging, trash could be sorted and recycled, and new incinerator and landfill technology could reduce pollution.
keywords: Landfills; Recycling Programs; Refuse Disposal; Refuse Incinerators; Solid Waste
|Dec 1988||The Geometric Phase||
Sometimes a variable describing a physical system (say an electron circling in a magnetic field) fails to return to its original value when the system returns to its original position. The geometric phase elegantly explains, in ways that are useful to physicists and technologists, the behavior of particles in certain quantum-mechanical situations.
|Dec 1988||Plasticity in Brain Development||
The infant's brain is not a fait accompli. Experience and use refine and restructure the web of fibers connecting one nerve cell to another. Now a protein has been discovered that plays a major role in rewiring the visual system-the first such protein to be identified. The finding could lead to better understanding of how other brain areas are shaped by experience.
|Dec 1988||Patterned Ground||
Cycles of freezing and thawing can shape rocks, soil and vegetation into varied and striking geometric figures. The authors have developed models that show how convection could account for some of the patterns.
|Dec 1988||Fertilization in Mammals||
Multitudes of sperm bind to an ovum and penetrate its outer coat, but only one manages to fertilize the egg. A single molecule called the sperm receptor, a glycoprotein, governs many of the events of fertilization, including the processes by which the fertilized egg is rendered immune to the blandishments of late arrivals.
|Dec 1988||Soft-X-ray lasers||
keywords: Lasers, X-ray; Nova Laser; Nova laser; Photons; Physics --- Atomic; Reviews; Soft X-Ray Lasers; Soft X-ray lasers; soft X-ray lasers; Wavelengths; wavelengths; X-ray lasers; X-rays --- Transport Properties
thesaurus: X-ray lasers
|Dec 1988||Canal builders of pre-Inca Peru||
keywords: Archaeology; Canals; Construction; Inland Waterways --- Peru
|Jan 1989||Deep earthquakes||
keywords: Deep earthquakes; deep earthquakes; earthquakes; Failure; failure; High pressures; high pressures; Laboratory studies; laboratory studies; Rock behavior; rock behavior; rocks; Seismological observations; seismological observations; Temperatures; temperatures
thesaurus: Earthquakes; Rocks
|Jan 1989||On Science Advice to the President||
What worked for presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy will work for President-elect Bush. The author advocates reviving the President's Science Advisory Committee (which he headed under Kennedy) to give the new president the scientific community's best thinking on issues such as industrial policy, defense and the environment.
|Jan 1989||How Gene Activators Work||
A cell does not need all its genes all the time; it switches them on and off. Regulatory proteins bind to specific regions of DNA and start or stop the production of protein from nearby or distant genes. By studying gene regulation in viruses and yeast, the author and his colleagues have uncovered principles that also apply in more advanced organisms.
|Jan 1989||Deep Earthquakes||
Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. What gives in deep earthquakes?
|Jan 1989||Carbohydrates and Depression|
|Jan 1989||The Mixing of Fluids||
Marbled endpapers, the eruption of a volcano and the making of puff pastry are all instances of mixing by stretching and folding. Laboratory mixing experiments offer insights into the stunning complexities of everyday mixing and serve as models of chaotic behavior: the time-varying flows wreck disorder that nonetheless has a certain symmetry.
keywords: Agitation Processes; Chaos; Chaotic Models; Computer models; Diffusion; Flow of Fluids; Fluid Mechanics; Fluid mechanics; Fluid Mechanics; Fluids; Mechanism; Mixing; Periodic patterns; Two dimensions; Viscous fluids
thesaurus: Chaos; Flow simulation; Flow visualisation; Mixing
|Jan 1989||The Hunt for Proconsul|
|Jan 1989||Andre-Marie Ampere|
|Jan 1989||The Colors Seen in the Sky Offer Lessons in Optical Scattering|
|Jan 1989||The Shortest-Network Problem||
keywords: algorithms; computer capabilities; exponential-time algorithms; graph theory; Graph theory; Integrated Circuits --- Design; Mathematical Programming; Mathematical Techniques; mathematics; mathematics computing; Mathematics computing; Melzak's Algorithm; Network Problems; network problems; Network Problems; operations research; Operations research; polynomial-time algorithms; Pruning Methods; Shortest Network Problem; shortest-network problem; Shortest-network problem; Steiner problem; Topology
thesaurus: Graph theory; Mathematics computing; Operations research
|Jan 1989||People Puzzles: Theme and Variations|
|Feb 1989||Soviets in Space|
|Feb 1989||The Genes for Color Vision|
|Feb 1989||Giant Ocean Cataracts||
keywords: Cataracts; cataracts; Deep ocean; deep ocean; Denmark Strait; Dynamics; dynamics; Ocean basins; ocean basins; oceanography; Salinity differences; salinity differences; Sills; sills; Strait of Gibraltar; Temperature differences; temperature differences
|Feb 1989||The New Superconductors: Prospects for Applications||
keywords: Electrical energy storage; electrical energy storage; Generators; generators; High temperature superconductors; high temperature superconductors; high-temperature superconductors; Industrial applications; industrial applications; Levitating trains; levitating trains; Materials processing; materials processing; Power lines; power lines; SQUIDs; Superconducting computers; superconducting computers; superconducting devices; Supermagnets; supermagnets; Theoretical limits; theoretical limits
thesaurus: High-temperature superconductors; Superconducting devices
|Feb 1989||From Bird Song to Neurogenesis|
|Feb 1989||The Chemical Effects of Ultrasound|
|Feb 1989||Teeth and Prehistory in Asia|
|Feb 1989||The History of Census Tabulation|
|Feb 1989||In an Emergency Stop, Should a Car's Wheels be Locked or Should the Braking be Controlled?|
|Feb 1989||A Tour of the Mandelbrot Set aboard the Mandelbus|
|Feb 1989||Computer Recreations: A tour of the Mandelbrot set aboard the Mandelbus||
|Mar 1989||U.S. Access to Space|
|Mar 1989||Multidrug Resistance in Cancer|
|Mar 1989||Plasma Particle Accelerators||
keywords: collective accelerators; Electrons; electrons; Fields; fields; Plasma; plasma; Plasma particle accelerators; plasma particle accelerators
thesaurus: Collective accelerators
|Mar 1989||Macromolecular Crystals||
keywords: crystal atomic structure of organic compounds; Crystal growth; crystal growth; Crystal structure; crystal structure; Large molecules; large molecules; Macromolecular crystals; macromolecular crystals; molecular biophysics; Nucleic acid; nucleic acid; Protein; protein; proteins; X-ray crystallography
thesaurus: Crystal atomic structure of organic compounds; Crystal growth; Molecular biophysics; Proteins
|Mar 1989||Modeling the Geochemical Carbon Cycle||
keywords: Atmosphere; atmosphere; atmospheric chemistry; atmospheric CO2 enhancements; atmospheric composition; carbon; carbon compounds; climatology; Earth; Geochemical C cycle; geochemical C cycle; geochemistry; Greenhouse effect; greenhouse effect; Land; land; Long-term cycle; long-term cycle; Model; model; Sea; sea
thesaurus: Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric composition; Carbon; Carbon compounds; Climatology; Geochemistry
|Mar 1989||The Biology of Obsessions and Compulsions|
|Mar 1989||Lessons of Sunraycer|
|Mar 1989||The Roman Aqueduct of Nimes|
|Mar 1989||How to Get the Playground Swing Going: A First Lesson in the Mechanics of Rotation|
|Mar 1989||Of Worms, Viruses and Core War|
|Apr 1989||Global Climatic Change|
|Apr 1989||The Turnover of Messenger RNA|
|Apr 1989||Quantum Interference and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect||
keywords: Aharonov-Bohm effect; Counterintuitive effects; counterintuitive effects; Electromagnetic interactions; electromagnetic interactions; Microelectronic devices; microelectronic devices; Quantum interference; quantum interference; quantum theory; Solid-state physics; solid-state physics
thesaurus: Quantum theory
|Apr 1989||Free-Electron Lasers||
keywords: Crystalline structures; Free electron lasers; Light waves; Magnetic field
thesaurus: Free electron lasers
|Apr 1989||Sensory Function in the Harbor Seal|
|Apr 1989||The Trireme Sails Again|
|Apr 1989||Children of the Garden Island|
|Apr 1989||How to Build a Planck-Mass Accelerator in your Solar System|
|Apr 1989||A Matter Fabricator Provides Matter for Thought|
|May 1989||Technology, Employment and U.S. Competitiveness|
|May 1989||Creating Superheavy Elements||
keywords: Heavy ion collision; heavy ion collision; heavy ion-nucleus reactions; nuclear binding energy; nuclear fusion; nuclear shape; nuclei with mass number 220 or higher; Quantum-mechanical effects; quantum-mechanical effects; Superheavy elements; superheavy elements
thesaurus: Heavy ion-nucleus reactions; Nuclear binding energy; Nuclear fusion; Nuclear shape; Nuclei with mass number 220 or higher
|May 1989||The Dynamic Aurora||
keywords: Activity; activity; aurora; Auroral curtain; auroral curtain; Auroras; auroras; Electromagnetic conditions; electromagnetic conditions; Electrons; electrons; Geomagnetic field; geomagnetic field; Ionosphere; ionosphere; Magnetosphere; magnetosphere; Solar wind; solar wind; Sun; sun
thesaurus: Aurora; Magnetosphere; Solar wind
|May 1989||The Past and Future Amazon|
|May 1989||Marsupial Frogs|
|May 1989||Optical Fibers in Medicine||
keywords: Blood; blood; Fiber-optic technologies; fiber-optic technologies; fibre optic sensors; Internal anatomy; internal anatomy; laser applications in medicine; Laser systems; laser systems; optical fibres; patient diagnosis; Surgery; surgery
thesaurus: Fibre optic sensors; Laser applications in medicine; Optical fibres; Patient diagnosis; Surgery
|May 1989||Henry Norris Russell|
|May 1989||How to Stop Worrying about Vibration and Make Holograms Viewable in White Light|
|May 1989||Simulated Evolution: Wherein Bugs Learn to Hunt Bacteria|
|Jun 1989||Toward a New Industrial America|
|Jun 1989||Hidden Earthquakes||
keywords: Activated fold belts; activated fold belts; Armenian earthquake; Basement-cover relations; basement-cover relations; Blind faults; blind faults; Cover rocks folding; cover rocks folding; Earth crust; earthquakes; faulting; Folded terrain; folded terrain; Folds; folds; geology; Hidden earthquakes; hidden earthquakes; Hidden faults; hidden faults; Seismic faultings; seismic faultings; seismology; Seismotectonics; seismotectonics; Stress release; stress release
thesaurus: Earth crust; Earthquakes; Faulting; Geology; Seismology
|Jun 1989||A Different Kind of Inheritance|
|Jun 1989||The Fossils of Monte San Giorgio|
|Jun 1989||The Fourier Transform|
|Jun 1989||The Channeling of Electrons and Positrons||
keywords: Channeling radiation; channeling radiation; channelling; channelling radiation; Crystal structure; crystal structure; Electron channeling; electron channeling; Nuclear reactions; nuclear reactions; Positron channeling; positron channeling
thesaurus: Channelling; Channelling radiation
|Jun 1989||Authenticating Ancient Marble Sculpture|
|Jun 1989||The Mechanics of Rock Climbing, or Surviving the Ultimate Physics Exam|
|Jun 1989||A Potpourri of Programmed Prose and Prosody|
|Jul 1989||Testing Weapons in Space|
|Jul 1989||Memory Storage and Neural Systems|
|Jul 1989||Spin Glasses||
keywords: Antiferromagnetic properties; antiferromagnetic properties; antiferromagnetic properties of substances; Composition; composition; Disorder; disorder; Energy states; energy states; ferromagnetic properties of substances; Ferromagnetism; ferromagnetism; Lattice; lattice; Magnetic interactions; magnetic interactions; Magnetic properties; magnetic properties; Modelling; modelling; Spin glasses; spin glasses; Thermodynamic properties; thermodynamic properties
thesaurus: Antiferromagnetic properties of substances; Ferromagnetic properties of substances; Spin glasses; Thermodynamic properties
|Jul 1989||Volcanism at Rifts|
|Jul 1989||The Gastrointestinal Tract in Growth and Reproduction|
|Jul 1989||Space Coloristics||
keywords: colorimetry; Colour vision; colour vision; Errors; errors; Human observers; human observers; Perception; perception; Radiation spectra; radiation spectra; remote sensing; Remote-sensing colorimeters; remote-sensing colorimeters; Space flight; space flight; Spectral characteristics; spectral characteristics
thesaurus: Colorimetry; Colour vision; Remote sensing
|Jul 1989||Visual Thinking in the Ice Age|
|Jul 1989||Synthetic Zeolites|
|Jul 1989||What do Phonograph Records have in Common with Windshield Wipers?|
|Jul 1989||Catch of the Day: Biomorphs on Truchet Tiles, Served with Popcorn and Snails|
|Aug 1989||Alternatives to Animals in Toxicity Testing|
|Aug 1989||The Great Supernova of 1987||
keywords: Large Magellanic Cloud; LMC; Sk-69 degrees 202; SN 1987A; Stellar explosion; stellar explosion; supernovae; Type II P; Type II supernova
thesaurus: Large Magellanic Cloud; Supernovae
|Aug 1989||Viral Alteration of Cell Function|
|Aug 1989||The Mating of Tree Crickets|
|Aug 1989||The Middle-Ear Muscles|
|Aug 1989||The Metamorphosis of Information Management|
|Aug 1989||Maya Writing|
|Aug 1989||The Age-Of-The-Earth Debate|
|Aug 1989||How to Analyze the Shock Waves that Sweep through Expressway Traffic|
|Aug 1989||A Cellular Universe of Debris, Droplets, Defects and Demons|
|Sep 1989||Managing Planet Earth|
|Sep 1989||The Changing Atmosphere|
|Sep 1989||The Changing Climate|
|Sep 1989||Threats to the World's Water|
|Sep 1989||Threats to Biodiversity|
|Sep 1989||The Growing Human Population|
|Sep 1989||Strategies for Agriculture|
|Sep 1989||Strategies for Manufacturing|
|Sep 1989||Strategies for Sustainable Economic Development|
|Sep 1989||Toward a Sustainable World|
|Sep 1989||A Drop of Water Becomes a Gateway into the World of Catastrophe Optics|
|Sep 1989||Two-Dimensional Turing Machines and Turmites Make Tracks on a Plane|
|Sep 1989||Strategies for Energy Use||
keywords: energy alternatives; energy consumption; Energy consumption; energy efficiency; Energy efficiency; energy resources; Energy resources; Fossil fuel; fossil-fuel combustion
thesaurus: Energy resources
|Oct 1989||The Quiet Path to Technological Preeminence|
|Oct 1989||The Mitotic Spindle|
|Oct 1989||The Stanford Linear Collider||
keywords: electron-positron inclusive interactions; Electroweak force; electroweak force; intermediate boson decay; intermediate boson mass; Lifetime; lifetime; linear accelerators; Mass; mass; Stanford linear collider; unified field theories; Z bosons; Z0 factory; Z0 mediator
thesaurus: Electron-positron inclusive interactions; Intermediate boson decay; Intermediate boson mass; Linear accelerators; Unified field theories; Z bosons
|Oct 1989||The Cycling of Calcium as an Intracellular Messenger|
|Oct 1989||Carbon Monoxide and the Burning Earth||
keywords: air pollution; Atmospheric CO; atmospheric CO; carbon compounds; CO; From space; from space; Gas; gas; Industry; industry; remote sensing; Transportation; transportation; Tropical burning; tropical burning
thesaurus: Air pollution; Carbon compounds; Remote sensing
|Oct 1989||Waterweed Invasions|
|Oct 1989||Scanned-Probe Microscopes||
keywords: Features; features; Properties; properties; Scale; scale; Scanned-probe microscopes; scanned-probe microscopes; scanning tunnelling microscopy; Single atom-diameter probe; single atom-diameter probe; Surface; surface; surface structure; surface topography; Very close range; very close range
thesaurus: Scanning tunnelling microscopy; Surface structure; Surface topography
|Oct 1989||The Origins of Indoeuropean Languages|
|Oct 1989||How to Build a Hele-Shaw Cell and Watch Bubbles Playing Tag in a Viscous Fluid|
|Oct 1989||A Tinkertoy Computer that Plays Tic-Tac-Toe|
|Oct 1989||The Origins of Indo-European Languages||
keywords: cultural change; diffusion of agriculture; Indo-European languages; Kurgan-invasion hypothesis; language diffusion; linguistic family trees; wave-of-advance model
|Nov 1989||The Yellowstone Fires|
|Nov 1989||Double-Beta Decay||
keywords: beta-decay; Cosmic evolution; cosmic evolution; cosmology; Double-beta decay; double-beta decay; lepton mass; Neutrino mass; neutrino mass; neutrinos
thesaurus: Beta-decay; Cosmology; Lepton mass; Neutrinos
|Nov 1989||How T Cells See Antigen|
|Nov 1989||The Mammalian Choroid Plus|
|Nov 1989||Shoe Glow|
|Nov 1989||The World's Oldest Road|
keywords: Neptune's magnetic field; Neptune's moons; Neptune's rings; outer planets; Triton; Voyager 2 mission
|Nov 1989||The Case for Methanol|
|Nov 1989||Colored Segments of a Grid Can Shed a Diffuse Glow Like the Light from a Neon Tube|
|Nov 1989||A Microgolf Game Gives Professionals and Amateurs an Equal Chance for a Hole in One|
|Dec 1989||Getting out of the Starting Block|
|Dec 1989||The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field||
keywords: Core surface; core surface; Earth; Earth core; Earth's magnetic field; Evolution; evolution; Fe; Fluid flow; fluid flow; geomagnetism; geophysical fluid dynamics; Magnetic activity; magnetic activity; Outer core; outer core
thesaurus: Earth core; Geomagnetism; Geophysical fluid dynamics
|Dec 1989||The First Color Photographs|
keywords: Aggregates; aggregates; atomic clusters; Atoms; atoms; Catalysis; catalysis; Chemistry; chemistry; Electronics; electronics; Microclusters; microclusters; Optics; optics
thesaurus: Atomic clusters
|Dec 1989||The Birds of Paradise|
keywords: Hostile environment; hostile environment; materials handling; telecontrol equipment; Teleoperator; teleoperator
thesaurus: Materials handling; Telecontrol equipment
|Dec 1989||Synapse Formation in the Developing Brain||
|Dec 1989||The Mithraic Mysteries|
|Dec 1989||Why are the First Few Puffs the Hardest When You Blow up a Balloon?|
|Dec 1989||A Pandora's Box of Minds, Machines and Metaphysics|
|Jan 1990||Is the Brain's Mind a Computer Program?||
Many people working in artificial intelligence believe that a computer simulation of mental processes could actually think. The author argues that computer programs merely manipulate symbols, without reference to meaning, and so are fundamentally incapable of understanding.
keywords: Artificial intelligence; Computer model; Machine intelligence; Programming; Tuning test
thesaurus: Artificial intelligence; Programming
|Jan 1990||Could a Machine Think?||
Machines that manipulate symbols according to rules may well never achieve intelligence, but, the authors argue, the proposition does not have absolute force. New kinds of systems (such as artificial neural networks) whose physical organization mimics the brain might well succeed.
keywords: AI research; Artificial intelligence
thesaurus: Artificial intelligence
|Jan 1990||Antisense RNA and DNA||
A cell translates code-carrying ``sense'' RNA into protein. Some cells also make ``antisense'' RNA, which can bind to a particular messenger and thwart translation. In the laboratory, such a molecule can block the expression of a gene and thus reveal the gene's function. In the future, antisense molecules might be recruited to turn off viral genes.
|Jan 1990||What Drives Glacial Cycles?||
Astronomical changes are ultimately responsible. Their effect, though, is to alter the intensity of summer sunlight in the northern latitudes. How are the astronomical changes converted into global climatic changes that trigger ice ages? The authors think the variations in the heat of northern summers force a worldwide reorganization of the ocean and atmosphere.
keywords: Climate; climate; climatology; Earth orbit; Earth's orbit; Geochronology; geochronology; Glacial cycles; glacial cycles; Ice sheets; ice sheets; Ocean-atmosphere system; ocean-atmosphere system; oceanography
thesaurus: Climatology; Earth orbit; Geochronology; Oceanography
|Jan 1990||The Handedness of the Universe||
From electrons and atoms to molecules, from DNA and proteins to spiraling vines and seashells and on to human beings, nature exhibits handedness, or chirality. The preference for left- or right-handedness seems to be related to fundamental asymmetries in the universe at the atomic scale, but the cause-and-effect relations have yet to be figured out.
|Jan 1990||Stress in the Wild||
The proper study of humankind may be the baboon, at least with respect to understanding the hormonal effects of stress. Observations of the olive baboon in an African wildlife preserve support the notion that personality strongly influences the hormonal response to stress and, in doing so, influences vulnerability to stress-related disorders.
Strip electrons from some thousands of atoms, confine the atoms in an electromagnetic trap and cool them to about absolute zero, and you have a microplasma. It forms strange states of matter --- sometimes resembling a solid and sometimes a liquid --- that offer physicists a new way to investigate fundamental theories of atomic structure.
|Jan 1990||A Backyard Version of a Stirling Engine can be Built with Common Materials|
|Jan 1990||The Cosmic Background Explorer||
The satellite, launched late in 1989, may revolutionize our view of the origin and the fate of the universe. Scanning the skies from an earth orbit high above the obscuring atmosphere, its sensitive instruments will be measuring microwave radiation left over from the big bang and looking for infrared radiation from the very first generation of stars.
keywords: artificial satellites; astronomical instruments; Background radiation; background radiation; COBE; Cosmic Background Explorer; cosmic background radiation; Cosmology; cosmology; EHF; infrared astronomy; IR; Radio astronomy; radio astronomy; radioastronomy; submillimetre astronomy; Submm; submm; THF
thesaurus: Artificial satellites; Astronomical instruments; Cosmic background radiation; Cosmology; Infrared astronomy; Radioastronomy; Submillimetre astronomy
|Jan 1990||The Cellular Automata Programs that Create Wireworld, Rugworld and other Diversions|
|Feb 1990||The Tragedy of Needless Pain||
Too often patients suffering from severe pain such as that of cancer receive insufficient amounts of the drug morphine. Why? Because physicians and other health-care workers fear it will turn the patients into addicts. Such fears, the author says, are misplaced: addiction occurs primarily when morphine is taken to elevated mood and not when it is administered to control pain.
|Feb 1990||The Variable Sun||
The sun's apparently steady light belies our star's turbulent and dynamic character. Powerful magnetic fields oscillate across its surface, creating sunspots and flares and producing outbursts of charged particles and energetic radiation. Even the solar ``constant'' varies. The sun's changing activity --- some investigators think --- may influence weather on the earth.
keywords: Charged particles emission; charged particles emission; Climates; climates; climatology; Luminosity; luminosity; Magnetic fields; magnetic fields; solar activity; Solar activity, sunlight; solar activity, sunlight; solar magnetism; solar radiation; Solar terrestrial relations; solar terrestrial relations; Solar wind; solar wind; solar-terrestrial relationships; Sun; sunlight; Sunspots; sunspots; Sunspots; Time scales; time scales
thesaurus: Climatology; Solar activity; Solar magnetism; Solar radiation; Solar wind; Solar-terrestrial relationships; Sunlight; Sunspots
|Feb 1990||Chaos and Fractals in Human Physiology||
The healthy heart beats to a rhythm that is ever-changing --- but that can become more periodic at the onset of disease. Chaotic dynamics may underlie the formation of many fractal-like structures in the body.
|Feb 1990||How Plants Make Oxygen||
Plants photosynthesize in order to make carbohydrates for themselves. In the process, they generate the molecular oxygen that fuels the animal world. Only now is it becoming clear how photosynthesis makes oxygen. Tucked deep in the photosynthetic center is a ratchetlike water-oxidizing clock whose every four ticks generate an O2 molecule.
|Feb 1990||Progress in Gallium Arsenide Semiconductors||
``Gallium arsenide is the technology of the future --- always has been, always will be.'' Well, the future has arrived. Electrons move through a lattice of the alloy much faster than they do through silicon, and now the advent of super-computers and optoelectronics has created a US$1-billion market for gallium arsenide transistors, light-emitting diodes and other components.
keywords: Applications; applications; Communications; communications; Computing; computing; Digital circuitry; digital circuitry; GaAs; gallium arsenide; High-speed receivers; high-speed receivers; III-V semiconductor; III-V semiconductors; Microprocessors; microprocessors; Optical capabilities; optical capabilities; Optical generation; optical generation; semiconductor devices; Speed; speed
thesaurus: Gallium arsenide; III-V semiconductors; Semiconductor devices
|Feb 1990||Food Sharing in Vampire Bats||
True to their name, vampire bats consume from 50 to 100 percent of their body weight in blood every night. A bat who fails to feed will perish in two days --- unless it can solicit food from a roostmate. The key to survival for these animals is an elaborate system of food sharing, which the author finds is based on the principle of reciprocal altruism.
|Feb 1990||The Archaeology of Novgorod||
Opera, film and literature celebrate the glories of the medieval Russian city, whose power once extended from modern Poland to the Urals. Now Novgorod can speak for itself. Excavations have revealed layer on layer of wood dwellings and artifacts --- and hundreds of birch-bark manuscripts that record the details of daily life and illuminate historical and political issues.
|Feb 1990||When a Polymer Sheet is Stretched, It May ``Neck'' Long Before it Snaps|
|Feb 1990||Positive Feedbacks in the Economy||
Classical economics sees supply and demand, prices and costs brought into nice equilibrium by negative feedback. Yet much of the economic world is nonlinear. The author and his colleagues borrow sophisticated mathematical tools from physics and apply them to describe the dynamic state of markets, the impact of technology and other aspects of economic reality.
|Mar 1990||New Radioactivities|
|Mar 1990||Observatories on the Moon||
What better site could there be for astronomical observations than the surface of the moon, where there is no atmosphere, low background radiation and great seismic stability? The authors propose plans for establishing high-resolution optical, radio, infrared, gamma-ray and X-ray observatories there.
keywords: astronomical observatories; Astronomical satellites; astronomical satellites; astronomical telescopes; Low Earth orbit; low Earth orbit; Moon based observatories; Telescopes; telescopes
thesaurus: Astronomical observatories; Astronomical telescopes
The immune system is a diffuse organ composed of many cell types that have differing, interrelated roles. How is the system controlled? It turns out that the cells communicate, and their roles are coordinated, by means of a family of hormonelike messengers. IL-2 was the first to be recognized.
|Mar 1990||Trends in Communications: The Road to the Global Village|
|Mar 1990||New radioactivities (nucleus models)||
The processes whereby atomic nuclei decay through radioactivity have been well known for decades. There is still plenty of life in nuclear physics, though. Sophisticated theory and deft experiment have enabled the authors to predict --- and then to observe --- many new, rare forms of radioactivity.
keywords: Alpha -decay; alpha -decay; Bimodal fission; bimodal fission; Cluster radioactivity; cluster radioactivity; Cold fusion; cold fusion; Collective model; collective model; EM interactions; Energy levels; energy levels; nuclear collective model; nuclear decay by heavy ion emission; Nuclear drops; nuclear drops; nuclear shape; nuclear shell model; Nuclear structure; nuclear structure; Nucleus models; nucleus models; Strong interactions; strong interactions; Two centre shell model; two centre shell model
thesaurus: Nuclear collective model; Nuclear decay by heavy ion emission; Nuclear shape; Nuclear shell model
|Mar 1990||Earthquakes in Stable Continental Crust||
The word ``earthquake'' conjures up the Pacific rim and other regions where the tectonic plates making up the planet's crust interact. Yet continental sites far from plate boundaries have experienced severe earthquakes --- Missouri, for example. Just where are such events likely to occur? By what mechanisms?
keywords: Earth crust; Earthquakes; earthquakes; Seismic activity; seismic activity; seismology; Stable continental crust; stable continental crust
thesaurus: Earth crust; Earthquakes; Seismology
|Mar 1990||The Road to the Global Village||
The sweep of a technology as it changes contemporary life may well exceed the scope of any one investigator's experience or perception. To capture such events, the Editors of Scientific American have established a bimonthly staff-written feature called TRENDS. In this first article, editor Karen Wright asks innovators, managers and social scientists where they think the fusion of computer and communications technologies is taking us. What are the barriers that obstruct the promised road to the future?
keywords: Airline Information System (AIS); communications technology; computer networks; computer technology; human-machine network (HuMaNet); information technology; multimedia programs; virtual reality
|Mar 1990||Lunar Infants, Lotteries and Meteorites Expose the Dangers of Math Abuse|
|Mar 1990||Suspension-Feeding Vertebrates||
Flamingos and whales have something in common: both are suspension feeders. They obtain food by taking in large quantities of water (some whales can gulp a volume equivalent to half the mass of their body) and ejecting it through a filtering system (such as baleen), thus extracting prey or plants that are much too small to be hunted individually.
|Mar 1990||Unconscious Mental Functioning||
Can a patient in psychotherapy (or anyone else) make strategic decisions unconsciously? Prevailing wisdom says ``no,'' but by studying transcripts of therapy sessions, the author and his colleagues find that people can actually reason, anticipate consequences and devise plans --- all without knowing they are doing so.Patients apply such skills in the service of getting well.
|Mar 1990||The Early History of Indo-European Languages||
Generations of scholars have tried to trace the genealogy of this great family of languages in order to recover elements of the lost ancestor language --- and also to determine just who spoke it, and where. The findings that are reported here by Soviet workers indicate that the protolanguage may have arisen in eastern Anatolia more than 6,000 years ago.
|Apr 1990||Deforestation in the Tropics||
The world's tropical forests are vanishing at the rate of tens of thousands of square miles a year, diminishing biological diversity, perhaps promoting climate change, and depriving developing countries of valuable resources. What can be done to change the government policies in many Southern Hemisphere countries that actively promote the destruction?
|Apr 1990||What is Happening at the Center of Our Galaxy?||
Optical, radio and gamma-ray telescopes and infrared detectors --- including instruments devised by the authors --- show that the center contains antimatter, intense radiation, turbulent clouds of hot gas and dust and an unseen something with a tremendous gravitational pull. The weight of the evidence indicates that a massive black hole sits at the heart of the Milky Way.
keywords: Central region; central region; Centre; centre; galactic nuclei; Galaxy; Galaxy nucleus; galaxy nucleus; Spiral galaxies; spiral galaxies
thesaurus: Galactic nuclei; Galaxy
|Apr 1990||The Unusual Origin of the Polymerase Chain Reaction||
PCR is a revolutionary biochemical technology that finds --- and then multiplies exponentially --- specific stretches of DNA. The basic techniques and the necessary reagents have been around for years, but it took a stroke of insight in the course of a nighttime automobile ride to put it all together. This is a personal story of the creative process in action.
|Apr 1990||Impact Cratering on the Earth||
The earth efficiently destroys evidence of its past, particularly any traces of meteoritic cratering. Yet more than 120 impact craters have been identified. Indeed, meteorite impacts may have been more common than has been thought; they may have brought on episodes of atmospheric and geologic catastrophe, perhaps accounting for major extinctions of species.
keywords: Earth; Geology; geology; Impact cratering; impact cratering; Meteorite crater; meteorite crater; meteorite craters; Multiply shocked mineral; multiply shocked mineral; Shatter cone; shatter cone
thesaurus: Geology; Meteorite craters
|Apr 1990||The Transformation of the Kalahari !Kung|
|Apr 1990||Advanced Light-Water Reactors||
Environmental concerns, economics and the earth's finite store of fossil fuels argue for a resuscitation of nuclear power. The authors think improved light-water reactors incorporating ``passive'' safety features can be both safe and profitable (provided that the utilities sharpen their management act). But can such reactors be sold successfully to a justifiably skeptical public?
keywords: Advanced light water reactor; advanced light water reactor; Economics; economics; Fission reactor; fission reactor; fission reactors; LWR; Nuclear reactor; nuclear reactor; Safety; safety
thesaurus: Fission reactors
|Apr 1990||A Homemade Copper Chloride Laser Emits Powerful Burst of Green and Yellow Light|
|Apr 1990||What the Brain Tells the Eye||
Studies of vision in the horseshoe crab show that the animal's brain exerts substantial control over just what the eyes detect. At night, for example, the brain increases the eye's sensitivity to light by a factor of a million, thereby enabling the male to find a suitable mate in the dark. Simulations on a Connection Machine model the amplification process.
keywords: Bioelectric; bioelectric; bioelectric phenomena; Brain; brain; Circadian rhythm; circadian rhythm; Eye; eye; Eye function; eye function; Horseshoe crab; horseshoe crab; Invertebrate zoology; invertebrate zoology; Limulus; Marine biology; marine biology; neurophysiology; Vision; vision; Visual system; visual system; zoology
thesaurus: Bioelectric phenomena; Eye; Neurophysiology; Vision; Zoology
|Apr 1990||The Transformation of the Kalahari !Kung||
Once strictly hunter-gatherers, the !Kung of southern Africa are less mobile today than in the past and they even cultivate plants and tend herds of animals. What explains the shift? It is perhaps no surprise that an influx of wealth and material goods is partly to blame. Such factors may have led earlier humans to make the changeover to agriculture in prehistoric times.
|Apr 1990||Ancient Glazes||
For centuries artisans have labored in vain to recreate such legendary glazed ceramics as the sea-green celadons of 13th-century China and the jewel-like tiles that adorned the palaces of the Ottoman Turks. The lost secrets of ancient glazing technology are now being revealed through the marriage of archaeology, art history and the tools of modern materials Science.
|May 1990||When Science Takes the Witness Stand||
Science is no stranger in the courtroom. Fingerprints along with ballistic and forensic evidence have long played a key role in the judicial process. But new technology demands careful scrutiny. Although DNA ``fingerprinting'' has been evidence in more than 1,000 cases, it is far from being infallible.
|May 1990||The Solar-Neutrino Problem||
Far fewer neutrinos from the sun are detected than current physics predicts. But a grand unification theory that ties together all natural forces permits neutrinos to change so they are not readily detected on the earth. New detectors are being designed to spot these ``mutant'' neutrinos --- and confirm the theory.
keywords: cosmic ray neutrinos; Grand unification theory; grand unification theory; Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect; MSW effect; Neutrino oscillations; neutrino oscillations; reviews; solar cosmic ray particles; solar interior; Solar-neutrino problem; solar-neutrino problem; Sun; unified field theories
thesaurus: Cosmic ray neutrinos; Neutrino oscillations; Reviews; Solar cosmic ray particles; Solar interior; Unified field theories
|May 1990||Trends in Transportation: The Shape of Things to Go|
|May 1990||Adoptive Immunotherapy for Cancer||
Every so often, a cancer mysteriously disappears, probably destroyed by the patient's own defenses. With the aid of recombinant-DNA technology, researcher are boosting the odds by ``teaching'' patients' immune cells to attack cancer. Some patients have been helped and improved treatments are being tested.
keywords: Biological Materials---Cells; Biomedical Engineering; Cancer Treatment; Cell Transfer Therapy; Immunology; Immunotherapy; Patient Treatment
Was it a bird? Or a reptile? It turns out that Archaeopteryx was more than a little of both. The six existing fossils of this chicken-size creature, equipped with feathers and lizardlike teeth, tell an intriguing tale about how the development of flight guided the evolution of modern birds.
|May 1990||How to Transform Flights of Fancy into Fractal Flora or Fauna|
|May 1990||The Shape of Things to Go||
Like all true loves, the automobile can try one's patience. Air pollution, gridlock and sprawling junkyards are just a few of the frustrations. Now automakers are reshaping industrialized society's favorite way to get around. Tomorrow's cars must minimize pollution, use fuels more efficiently and make driving safer. That requires new materials, advanced aerodynamics and electronics for everything from dashboard navigation systems to controls for engines, brakes and suspensions. Even ``smart'' highways are in the offing.
keywords: Accident Prevention; Automobile Engines --- Exhaust Gases; Automobile Materials; Automobiles; Automotive Engineering; Design; Highway Systems
|May 1990||The Spawning of the Capelin||
Once a year waves of a small, silvery fish called capelin swim on the beaches of Newfoundland to spawn and die. When the eggs hatch, the tiny larvae remain on the beach for hours or days. Then, in response to some signal, they head out to sea. How they know when the time is right is a fascinating story with implications for the fishing industry.
|May 1990||High-Performance Parachutes||
Few people would bet that a parachute could slow down a payload weighing as much as a family car if it were dropped from an airplane traveling faster than the speed of sound. But new designs using high-strength fibers can decelerate rockets, missiles and escape pods for pilots to a snail's pace in just a few seconds, landing them from low altitudes with barely a bump.
keywords: Aerodynamics; Computer Aided Analysis; Materials; Parachutes
|May 1990||High Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa||
There is one exception to the nearly worldwide decline in birth rates over the past 50 years: sub-Saharan Africa. Here religious and social beliefs promote large families. The solution may be improved health care to mitigate the fear of dying without descendants. Otherwise the region will double its share of the world's population during the next century.
|Jun 1990||Ru 486||
Most drugmakers stay out of reproductive research. The development of new contraceptives is costly, the reward slight and the risk of controversy great. France's Roussel-Uclaf was no exception. But its work on synthetic steroids turned up an unexpected result: a compound that can safely terminate pregnancy by inhibiting progesterone. Here is the investigators' own story.
Astronomers have finally pierced the veil that has surrounded the ninth planet since it was first sighted 60 years ago. They find a frigid, rocky world with bright polar caps, a surface of frozen methane and a huge moon covered with ice. Yet many questions will remain unanswered as long as Pluto continues to be the only planet not visited by a scientific spacecraft.
keywords: Ar atmosphere; Charon; CO; Double planet; double planet; H2O ice surface; Methane ice surface; methane ice surface; N2; O2; occultations; outer planets; planetary atmospheres; Planetary diameter; planetary diameter; Planetary mass; planetary mass; Planetary methane atmosphere; planetary methane atmosphere; planetary satellites; Pluto; Pluto's characteristics; Pluto's similarities to Triton; Pluto-Charon eclipses; Pluto-Charon natural eclipse events; Pluto-Charon systems; reviews; Satellite diameter; satellite diameter; solar system; Solar system formation; solar system formation; space mission to Pluto
thesaurus: Occultations; Planetary atmospheres; Planetary satellites; Pluto; Reviews
|Jun 1990||Biosonar and Neural Computation in Bats||
With an ease that would be the envy of any fighter pilot, bats use reflected sound to track and capture prey. An investigation of their complex and highly developed echolocating skill opens the way to a deep understanding of how the central nervous system processes auditory signals --- and how it extracts a wealth of information from them.
keywords: Bats; bats; bioacoustics; Biosonar; biosonar; Doppler shifts; Flying insect; flying insect; mechanoception; Neural computation; neural computation; neurophysiology; Outer ear structure; outer ear structure; Prey location; prey location; reviews; Sound interference pattern; sound interference pattern; Sound pulses; sound pulses; Target azimuth; target azimuth; Target size; target size
thesaurus: Bioacoustics; Mechanoception; Neurophysiology; Reviews
|Jun 1990||The Mid-Ocean Ridge||
The Mid-Ocean Ridge girdles the earth like the seam of a baseball. For more than 75,000 kilometers, this submerged range of razorback mountains --- many higher than the greatest peak on land --- marks the restless boundary between continental plates. An analysis of this huge structure reveals a fascinating picture of how it is created by magma welling up as the plates pull apart.
keywords: Constructive plate boundaries; constructive plate boundaries; DEVALS; Deviations from axial linearity; deviations from axial linearity; First-order discontinuities; first-order discontinuities; Fourth-order discontinuities; fourth-order discontinuities; Magma-supply model; magma-supply model; Mid-ocean ridge; mid-ocean ridge; Mid-ocean ridge segmentation; mid-ocean ridge segmentation; oceanic crust; Oceanic spreading centres; oceanic spreading centres; Off-axis structures; off-axis structures; Overlapping spreading centres; overlapping spreading centres; Plate tectonics; plate tectonics; reviews; Second-order discontinuities; second-order discontinuities; Small-scale structure; small-scale structure; tectonics; Third-order discontinuities; third-order discontinuities; Transform faults; transform faults; volcanology; Warped distorted oceanic crust; warped distorted oceanic crust
thesaurus: Oceanic crust; Reviews; Tectonics; Volcanology
|Jun 1990||Oliver Heaviside|
|Jun 1990||Sunspots and how to observe them safely|
Beautifully camouflaged as rock, coral or some other feature of the aquatic landscape, these sedentary superpredators display a modified fin that acts as a lure. When the prey is within range, they engulf the meal in milliseconds.
|Jun 1990||The He3 Superfluids||
Physicists despair at re-creating the tremendous temperatures that prevailed at the moment of the big bang. But near the low end of the scale they routinely outdo nature. At temperatures colder than any occurring normally in the universe, matter behaves strangely. Helium 3, for example, becomes superfluid. Its properties may provide insight into conditions at the core of a star.
keywords: He3; Cooper pairs; quantum mechanics; Quantum mechanics; superfluid helium-3; superfluids; Superfluids; vortices; Vortices
thesaurus: Cooper pairs; Superfluid helium-3; Vortices
|Jun 1990||Sustainable Agriculture||
Chemical-intensive, fossil fuel-dependent farming made U.S. agriculture the most productive in the world. The price: polluted water, barren soil and economic vulnerability. Growing numbers of farmers are now turning to practices that aim for a ``sustainable agriculture.'' They are profitably applying such techniques as crop rotation, biological pest control and natural fertilization.
|Jun 1990||Oliver Heaviside (biography)||
Every time you talk on the telephone, you benefit from the work of this forgotten Victorian genius. A brilliant, self-taught mathematician, he held only one job --- that of a telegraph operator and quit at 24. He then clarified Maxwell's electromagnetic theory, invented a device that makes long-distance telephony possible and became the first to use vectors to describe forces.
keywords: Age; age; biographies; Biography; biography; Circuit design; circuit design; Earth; Electromagnetic induction; electromagnetic induction; Maxwell's equations; Maxwell's theory; Oliver Heaviside; Operational calculus; operational calculus
|Jul 1990||The Great Climate Debate||
There is no doubt that human activity is increasing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Whether that spells sweeping global climate change is still much debated. Should we act to blunt the impact in the face of this uncertainty? The author thinks so.
|Jul 1990||Homeobox Genes and the Vertebrate Body Plan||
What tells some embryonic cells to become limbs and other seemingly identical cells to form complex organs? It is a fascinating group of genes with a common feature called the homeobox. Key to development in many animals, these genes are remarkably similar in fruit flies, frogs --- and humans.
|Jul 1990||Trends in Aerospace: The New Space Race|
|Jul 1990||The LEP Collider||
Until the U.S. builds its Superconducting Supercollider, Europe's Large Electron-Positron Collider is the big gun in particle physics. Almost from the very start in July, 1989, the LEP has produced important results. The design and construction of this giant research tool is a story in its own right.
keywords: electron accelerators; Large electron-positron collider; large electron-positron collider; LEP; storage rings; synchrotrons; Z degrees particles
thesaurus: Electron accelerators; Storage rings; Synchrotrons
|Jul 1990||What Causes Diabetes?||
With insulin injections, the diagnosis of type I diabetes is no longer a death sentence. But this treatment is not a cure. A new understanding of how the immune system is turned against the body's own insulin-producing cells is pointing to ways this devastating disease may one day be prevented --- or halted.
|Jul 1990||The New Space Race||
This time around the prize is not military supremacy --- it's market share. The U.S., Europe, the Soviet Union, China and Japan are competing intensely for the satellite-launch business. The front-runners will be those nations that apply fuel chemistry, materials science and electronics to engineer less expensive ways to reach orbit. There aren't enough payloads to go around, and the prospect of manufacturing in space is still elusive. So the contest won't be over until researchers discover what --- if anything --- is commercially viable in space.
|Jul 1990||An Odd Journey Along Even Roads Leads to Home in Golygon City|
Fireworks have awed and delighted for centuries. They also have illuminated battlefields and concealed weapons and troops. Early pyrotechnicians worked by guess and by gosh, often passing the secrets of those brilliant displays down through the generations. Modern chemistry reveals the processes underlying the sounds, shapes and colors --- and finds surprising new uses for pyrotechnic devices.
keywords: atomic emission; chemistry of pyrotechnics; design and composition of fireworks; fireworks displays; incandescent emission; molecular emission; pyrotechnic fuels
|Jul 1990||Chestnut Blight||
Settlers in eastern North America were greeted by nearly unbroken forests of majestic chestnut trees. This versatile hardwood provided food, fuel, furniture and fence posts. Then, beginning around 1900, the chestnut was all but wiped out by a blight from Asia. Now biotechnology has uncovered the genetic basis for the disease's virulence, pointing to ways the fungus might be controlled.
|Jul 1990||Ramsey Theory||
The brilliant mathematician Frank Plumpton Ramsey proved that complete disorder is an impossibility. Every large set of numbers, points or objects necessarily contains a highly regular pattern. abstract-2 = "Stargazers have always found patterns in the sky. But what governs the shape of constellations? In 1928 mathematician Frank Plumpton Ramsey proved that a large enough number of stars will produce any pattern --- from a rectangle to the Big Dipper. By figuring out just how many numbers guarantee a certain pattern, Ramsey theorists help engineers to design better communications networks."
|Aug 1990||Third World Ballistic Missiles||
The U.S. and the Soviet Union may have buried the hatchet, but the missiles are still out there. More and more of them. Today the governments of Third World countries such as Syria, Iraq, Brazil and Korea have ballistic missiles and the technology to build them. Some may have nuclear capability. So the threat of a government or terrorist group launching an attack is more chilling than ever.
|Aug 1990||Superconductors Beyond 1-2-3||
In the past four years researchers have developed a dozen ceramics whose electric resistance vanishes at temperatures as high as 125 kelvins. In all the best superconductors, planes of copper and oxygen atoms compete against layers of other elements for electrons. Chemists have now learned to stack the odds against one of the competitors to achieve higher transition temperatures.
keywords: Bismuth Compounds; Bismuth Strontium Copper Oxides; Ceramic Materials; crystal atomic structure of inorganic compounds; Cu-O planes; Electronic state; electronic state; Electronically active planes; electronically active planes; High Temperature Superconductors; High temperature superconductors; High Temperature Superconductors; high temperature superconductors; high-temperature superconductors; Oxide Superconductors; Reviews; Structures; structures; Thallium Barium Calcium Copper Oxides; Thallium Compounds; Transition temperature; transition temperature; Y-Ba-Cu-O; Yttrium Barium Copper Oxides; Yttrium Compounds
thesaurus: Crystal atomic structure of inorganic compounds; High-temperature superconductors
|Aug 1990||AIDS-Related Infections||
It is not the HIV virus that kills most AIDS patients. It is a fatal progression of opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis pneumonia that flourish as the virus weakens the body's immune system. Because these infections account for as many as 90 percent of AIDS deaths, prolonging lives depends on controlling them. New treatments are helping.
|Aug 1990||The Language of Fractals||
With fractal geometry, mathematicians can describe the beats of a dying heart or the birth of a storm cloud with the same ease that an architect can draw the blueprints for a house. They can also generate complex structures precisely, using only a few mathematical ``words.'' Fractal algorithms may help cut the complexity and cost of transmitting and storing images.
|Aug 1990||When the melting and freezing points are not the same||
Freezing and melting points are not always one and the same. Experiments with atomic clusters --- small groups of atoms that share the properties of individual molecules and bulk materials --- show that these two temperatures can actually be very different. Depending on the available energy, clusters can simultaneously exist as solids and liquids, then jump abruptly to either state.
keywords: Atomic clusters; atomic clusters; freezing; Freezing point; freezing point; Liquid; liquid; Melting point; melting point; Solid; solid
thesaurus: Atomic clusters; Freezing; Melting point
|Aug 1990||Seed Dispersal by Ants||
Many seeds get around by sticking to the fur (or clothes) of passing mammals. But a large number of plants have evolved seeds that are designed to be dispersed by ants. Instead of burrs, these seeds grow a tasty lump of fat. The ants carry the seeds home, eat the fat and discard the rest, which then germinates.
|Aug 1990||Global Warming Trends||
One way to see if the earth is actually getting warmer is to check historical temperature records. A decade ago the authors began to do just that. They collected a hodgepodge of readings going back 300 years. Then they attempted to quantify the data. Their verdict: a 0.5-degree Celsius increase.
|Aug 1990||How to Monitor Ultraviolet Radiation from the Sun|
|Aug 1990||Maya Art for the Record||
Maya scholars owe a lot to a determined Englishwoman named Adela Catherine Breton. In 1900 she rode into the ruins of Chichen Itza where she spent the next eight years sketching and painting the fading murals and reliefs. Today her record is all that remains of many of those invaluable works of art. Other artists are now making similar copies of the last originals before they, too, are obliterated.
|Aug 1990||Amateur scientist|
|Sep 1990||Energy for Planet Earth||
Human beings depend on energy for their livelihood. As population and energy production grow so does the threat to the environment. Achieving a sustainable relationship between energy and the environment hinges on technological innovation and our ability to generate and use energy in ecologically sound ways.
keywords: CO2 emissions; Efficiency improvements; efficiency improvements; Energy requirements; energy requirements; energy resources; Energy sources; energy sources; Environment; environment; Fossil fuels; fossil fuels; Sustainable Earth; sustainable Earth; Delivered Energy; Earth Atmosphere --- Radiation; Energy Conservation; Energy Management; Energy Policy; Energy Resources --- Renewable; Energy Utilization; Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions; Global Warming; Horizontal Drilling; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; Three Dimensional Seismic Techniques
thesaurus: Energy resources
|Sep 1990||Energy for Motor Vehicles||
The world's fleet of cars, trucks and buses, numbering 500 million, grows faster than the human population and consumes half of the world's oil. More efficient engines, alternative fuels and new transit systems promise to slow the growth in oil consumption and mitigate its environmental consequences.
keywords: Electric Vehicles; Electric vehicles; electric vehicles; Energy efficiency; energy efficiency; Energy Efficient Vehicle Design; Engine technology; engine technology; Ethanol; fuel; Fuel Economy; Fuels; fuels; Motor vehicles; motor vehicles; Nitrogen Oxides; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; Pollution reduction; pollution reduction; Prometheus Project; road vehicles; Stratified Charge Technology; Traffic flow; traffic flow; Transportation systems; transportation systems; Urban Planning --- Transportation; Vehicles; Volvo LCP 2000
thesaurus: Electric vehicles; Fuel; Road vehicles
|Sep 1990||Efficient Use of Electricity||
The demand for electrically seems almost insatiable. But building new power plants is costly, time-consuming and can harm the environment. A promising solution --- and one the utilities themselves are pushing --- is greater efficiency. Lights and motors are a good place to begin.
keywords: Efficiency improvement; efficiency improvement; Electricity consumption; electricity consumption; Energy saving; energy saving; Lighting; lighting; Motors; motors; power utilisation; Refrigeration; refrigeration; Efficient Electricity Usage; Electric Lighting; Electric Motors; Electric Power Utilization; Energy Conservation; Energy Efficient Technologies; Energy Utilization; Fluorescent Lighting; United States Clean Air Act
thesaurus: Power utilisation
|Sep 1990||Energy for the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and China||
The emerging democracies face the challenge of reconciling economic growth with an environmental imperative that the central planners chose to ignore. China, with its expanding population and heavy dependence on coal, faces similar hurdles. Economic reforms and new technology from the West can help.
keywords: Acid Rain; Carbon Dioxide --- Environmental Impact; China; Coal; coal; Cogeneration Plants; Desulphurization Equipment; Eastern Europe; Economics --- Fuel Consumption; Efficiency; Energy Intensity; Energy Resources; energy resources; Energy supply; energy supply; Energy use; energy use; Energy Utilization; Environmental protection; environmental protection; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Natural gas; natural gas; Nuclear power; nuclear power; Oil; oil; power utilisation; Process Automation; Soviet Union; Sulphur Dioxide Deposition; Technology --- Environmental Impact
thesaurus: Energy resources; Power utilisation
|Sep 1990||Energy for Buildings and Homes||
Improvements during the 1970's and 1980's cut energy use in U.S. buildings by a third. Even more powerful are today's technologies, which range from advanced heating, cooling and lightning systems to superwindows and automated controls. They improve comfort and dramatically reduce operating costs.
keywords: air conditioning; Automated-control systems; automated-control systems; Building energy bills; building energy bills; Commercial buildings; commercial buildings; Compact fluorescent lights; compact fluorescent lights; fluorescent lamps; heating; home automation; HVAC systems; Light-colored buildings; light-colored buildings; lighting; Residential buildings; residential buildings; Shade trees; shade trees; Superwindows; superwindows; ventilation; Air Conditioning --- Efficiency; Automated Control Systems; Buildings; Commercial Building Energy Consumption; Energy Policy; Heating --- Efficiency; Johnson Controls; Microprocessor Chips --- Applications; Retrofitting; Smart Homes; Solar Radiation Reduction; Superwindows; Windows --- Energy Conservation
thesaurus: Air conditioning; Fluorescent lamps; Heating; Home automation; Lighting; Ventilation
|Sep 1990||Energy for Industry||
Economic growth and energy use once marched in lockstep. Now industrial output is climbing while energy use declines. Incremental changes in processing --- including sensors and on-line control systems --- are the reason. Further savings, though, may require technological breakthroughs.
keywords: Cost optimisation; cost optimisation; Energy conservation; energy conservation; Industrial energy consumption; industrial energy consumption; Industrial energy supply; industrial energy supply; Industrial processes; industrial processes; industries; Materials recycling; materials recycling; power utilisation; Process refinement; process refinement; Economic Energy Optimization; Energy Utilization; Gradual Process Refinement; Industrial Energy Consumption; Industrial Engineering --- Recycling; Industrial Plants; Open Hearth Furnaces; Paper and Pulp Industry; Steelmaking --- Basic Oxygen Process; Thermodynamics --- Analysis
thesaurus: Industries; Power utilisation
|Sep 1990||Energy for the Developing World||
The developing world faces a dilemma: it needs energy to meet its people's aspirations, yet producing vastly more energy is expensive and threatens the environment. New conservation-minded technologies that deliver more services for less energy may be the answer.
keywords: DEFENDUS scenario; developing countries; end-use technologies; energy conservation; energy consumption; energy requirements; energy resources; energy services; environmental damage; fossil fuels; generating capacity; Karnataka; southern India; wood; Biomass; Defendus Energy Strategies; DEFENDUS scenario; Defendus Scenarios; Developing countries; Efficient End Use Technologies; End-use technologies; Energy conservation; Energy consumption; Energy Management; Energy requirements; Energy Resources; Energy services; Energy Utilization; Environmental damage; Environmental Impact; Ethanol --- Distillation; Fossil fuels; Generating capacity; Global Carbon Emissions; Hydroelectric Dams; Karnataka; LRPPP; South America; Southern India; Wood
thesaurus: Energy resources
|Sep 1990||How to Resurrect a Cat from Its Grin|
|Sep 1990||Energy from Fossil Fuels||
Coal, oil and natural gas are versatile, accessible and affordable and thus dominate the world's fuel supply --- but at what cost to the environment? New technologies aim to minimize the unwanted impact of fossil fuels, buying time until other fuels are available.
keywords: Acid deposition; acid deposition; Air Pollution --- Nitrogen Oxides; Atmosphere; atmosphere; Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration; Carbon Dioxide --- Control; Clean Coal Technology Program; CO2; Coal; coal; Energy Utilization; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Impact; Environmental Protection; Environmental Stress; Fossil fuels; fossil fuels; Fossil Fuels --- Environmental Impact; Fossil-fuel combustion; fossil-fuel combustion; fuel; Global warming; global warming; Greenhouse gases; greenhouse gases; Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycles; Intercooled Steam Injected Gas Turbine Systems; Natural gas; natural gas; Oil; oil; Urban smog; urban smog
|Sep 1990||Energy from Nuclear Power||
Nuclear power should play a pivotal and expanded role in supplying world energy, the author says. Risks must be minimized by designing a new generation of safe reactors and agreeing to establish an international regulatory body to oversee security and the storage of waste.
keywords: Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technologies; Energy Conservation; Energy Utilization; Environmental demands; Hybrid Nuclear Reactors; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Tokamak Reactor Experiment; Nuclear Energy; Nuclear Fuels --- Reprocessing; Nuclear Industry; Nuclear power; Nuclear Power Plants --- Accident Prevention; Nuclear Reactors --- Wastes; Nuclear weapon proliferation; Safety; Tarapur Reactors; World Commission Of Environment and Development
thesaurus: Nuclear power
|Sep 1990||Energy from the Sun||
Interest in solar-derived technologies is resurging in response to mounting environmental concerns, including the threat of climate change. Progress is occurring rapidly. Advances in wind, solar-thermal and biomass technologies will soon render them cost-competitive with gasoline and coal-generated electricity.
keywords: bioenergy conversion; Biomass; biomass; Biomass fuel; biomass fuel; H2 production; hydrogen economy; PV power systems; solar absorber-convertors; solar cell arrays; Solar cells; solar cells; Solar energy; solar energy; Solar thermal electric generation; solar thermal electric generation; Wind power; wind power; Altamont Wind Farms; Biomass; Electric Power Research Institute; Energy Resources; Hydrogen --- Energy Resources; Hydropower; Photovoltaic Cells; Power Generation --- Solar Energy; Solar Energy; Solar Natural Gas Hybrid Electric Power Plants; Solar Thermal Electric Technology; United States Department Of Energy; Wind Power
thesaurus: Bioenergy conversion; Hydrogen economy; Solar absorber-convertors; Solar cell arrays; Wind power
|Sep 1990||Energy in Transition||
The relationship between energy and the world's economics has begun to change fundamentally. To manage that change, a two-pronged strategy is required based on ``no regrets'' and ``insurance policy'' actions. But steps must be taken soon, or the effectiveness of such actions will weaken.
keywords: Coal burning; Energy efficiency; Energy-society interaction; Environmental impacts; Natural gas; Oil; Biomass --- Energy Resources; Commercial Building Retrofitting; Ecological Threats; Energy Management; Energy Resources; Fossil Fuels --- Environmental Impact; Greenhouse Gases; Nuclear Power Plants; Renewable Energy Resources; Solar Energy --- Energy Resources
thesaurus: Energy resources
|Oct 1990||A Grandmaster Chess Machine||
keywords: Chess computers; chess computers; computer games; Deep Thought; Exhibition match; exhibition match; games of skill; Grandmaster chess machine; grandmaster chess machine; History; history; Karpov; Kasparov; Searching engine; searching engine; VLSI single chip move generator; World champion; world champion
thesaurus: Computer games; Games of skill
|Oct 1990||A Grandmaster Chess Machine||
Will a chess-playing computer defeat a grandmaster by the year 2000? ``No way,'' said world chess champion Gary K. Kasparov in 1988. But less than a year later, Deep Thought, a computer designed by the authors, did just that. Already under way is the construction of a successor machine that will be 1,000 times faster. Itmay be able to mount a serious challenge to Kasparov as early as 1992.
|Oct 1990||Parental Imprinting of Genes||
When Gregor Mendel crossed wrinkled peas with round ones, all the progeny were round, regardless of whether the round pea plant was the male or the female. But some genes break that rule of classic genetics. Their expression depends on which parent they came from. Parentally imprinted genes play a role in some cancers and in such inherited disorders as Huntington's disease.
|Oct 1990||Ocean Acoustic Tomography||
Oceanographers have borrowed a technique from physicians for studying deep-sea currents and temperatures. The method is tomography. Instead of X rays, researchers use sound to create three-dimensional images of the waters that cover 70 percent of the earth's surface and strongly influence its climate.
keywords: 10 KHz; 10 kHz; acoustic arrays; Currents; currents; Deep sound channel; deep sound channel; Ducted propagation; ducted propagation; Eddies; eddies; Ocean acoustic tomography; ocean acoustic tomography; oceanographic techniques; Pressure changes; pressure changes; Refraction; refraction; Temperature changes; temperature changes; Transmitter/receiver arrays; transmitter/receiver arrays; underwater sound
thesaurus: Acoustic arrays; Oceanographic techniques; Underwater sound
|Oct 1990||The Photorefractive Effect||
Pass a laser beam through a crystal of barium titanate, and suddenly it fans out like a peacock's tail. Somehow the light alters the optical properties of the crystal. Such photorefractive materials are the basis of promising technologies that range from isolating moving images in biology experiments or military encounters to switching beams of light for superfast optical computers.
keywords: Nonlinear optical materials; nonlinear optical materials; nonlinear optics; Optical components; optical components; Optical computing; optical computing; Photorefractive effect; photorefractive effect; Refractive index; refractive index
thesaurus: Nonlinear optics; Photorefractive effect
|Oct 1990||Trends in Cosmology: Universal Truths|
|Oct 1990||What Caused the Mass Extinction? an Extraterrestrial Impact||
An Extraterrestial Impact, say Alvarez and Asaro. They and other investigators discovered iridium in the clays that mark the sudden disappearance of dinosaurs from the fossil record. Because iridium is rare in the earth's crust but abundant in some meteorites, they concluded that a giant meteorite collided with the earth, hurling megatons of debris into the atmosphere.
|Oct 1990||What Caused the Mass Extinction? a Volcanic Eruption||
A. Volcanic Eruption was the culprit, argues Courtillot. He proposes that dust, carbon dioxide and other emissions from an episode of enormous volcanism that formed the basaltic Deccan Traps in India produced the climate changes that led to the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period. The iridium could, he says, just as easily have risen from the earth's mantle.
|Oct 1990||A Remote-Control Camera that Catches the Wind and Captures the Landscape|
|Oct 1990||Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer||
In theory, it is simple --- even elegant. Boron is concentrated in tumor tissue. Neutrons, which pass harmlessly through normal tissue, are captured by the boron. The boron nuclei then emit lethal radiation, killing the cancer. Problems, such as generating enough neutrons, have been daunting, but progress is being made.
keywords: B10; B neutron capture therapy; boron; Cancer therapy; cancer therapy; Intense radiation; intense radiation; Low-energy neutrons; low-energy neutrons; Malignant tissues destruction; malignant tissues destruction; Normal tissue sparing; normal tissue sparing; radiation therapy; reviews; Short-range radiation; short-range radiation; Stable isotope; stable isotope; Tumor cells killing; tumor cells killing
thesaurus: Boron; Radiation therapy; Reviews
|Oct 1990||Universal Truths||
In June more than 30 prominent cosmologists, astronomers and physicists gathered for six days at an isolated resort in northern Sweden. Their topic: the origin of the universe. While most agreed the big bang theory is still sound, new data are challenging a more detailed scenario: the cold dark matter model. Here is a look at how cosmologists address the big questions.
|Nov 1990||Science, Technology and the Western Miracle||
Two hundred and fifty years ago few Europeans enjoyed a standard of living in excess of the minimum required to sustain life. Then, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution, the economy took off. The heart of this miracle, the authors believe, is the close alliance between science as a body of knowledge and the advances of industrial technology driving the marketplace.
|Nov 1990||Black Holes in Galactic Centers||
Mounting evidence suggests that dormant black holes lie at the center of many galaxies. In the youngest galaxies, active black holes may be the engine powering quasars that are brighter than 100 billion stars. The first quasars appeared soon after the birth of the universe --- so soon, in fact, that the accepted big bang theory may have difficulty explaining their origin.
keywords: Black holes; Galactic centers; Galactic nuclei; Galaxies; Quasars
thesaurus: Black holes; Galactic nuclei; Quasars
|Nov 1990||Gene Therapy||
The first attempt to treat an inherited human disease by inserting a healthy gene into a patient is now under way. Although such therapies have the potential to treat some of the 4,000 known genetic disorders, many obstacles remain. The most challenging is to assure that therapeutic genes are expressed adequately and persistently in the body.
|Nov 1990||Trends in Materials: Diminishing Dimensions|
|Nov 1990||The Meaning of Dreams||
Freud thought dreams were the ``royal road'' to the unconscious. Others see dreams as the random static of a resting brain or as a mechanism for riding the mind of useless information. The author proposes a new view: dreams reflect an evolutionarily important memory process that allows animals to record and evaluate current experience to form strategies for survival.
|Nov 1990||A Compendium of Math Abuse from around the World|
|Nov 1990||Knot Theory and Statistical Mechanics||
Knots are fairly simple. Just take a piece of string and join both ends. Statistical mechanics, on the other hand, deals with huge, complex systems. Surprisingly, the two fields are intimately related. The author discovered the link while studying mathematical theories of quantum physics. His knot theory has already led to better understanding of how DNA twists during replication.
keywords: algebra; Algebraic relations; algebraic relations; Mathematical property; mathematical property; Polynomial invariant; polynomial invariant; Statistical mechanics; statistical mechanics; topology
thesaurus: Algebra; Statistical mechanics; Topology
|Nov 1990||A Roman Factory||
In the south of France lie the ruins of a large mill complex, whose 16 waterwheels provided flour to the citizens of Arelate, the Roman predecessor of Arles. Ignored until 1940, the mill is rare evidence that the Roman Empire did not fall for want of mechanical power needed for industrial production.
|Nov 1990||The Mechanical Design of Insect Wings||
Nothing can beat an insect for aerial acrobatics. A. fly, for example, can loop the loop, hover, reverse direction and land upside down, all in a fraction of a second. It owes that agility to ribbed wings that are subtly engineered, flexible airfoils. Insect wings have few, if any, technological parallels --- yet.
keywords: biomechanics; Elastic properties; elastic properties; Flexible airfoils; flexible airfoils; Insect wings; insect wings; Mechanical design; mechanical design; Mechanisms; mechanisms; Sails; sails; Structures; structures; zoology
thesaurus: Biomechanics; Zoology
|Nov 1990||Diminishing dimensions||
Materials scientists are getting down to basics: they are manipulating matter in layers just an atom thick to form materials that will be the building blocks of complex electronic and optical devices. In these minuscule structures, electrons are trapped in limited dimensions and behave in strange ways. The promise is a new generation of computers and lasers.
keywords: Ballistic transistors; ballistic transistors; Computers; computers; KBE; Lasers; lasers; Quantum dots; quantum dots; Quantum wells; quantum wells; Quantum wires; quantum wires; semiconductor junction lasers; semiconductor quantum dots; semiconductor quantum wells; semiconductor quantum wires; Single electron device; single electron device
thesaurus: Semiconductor junction lasers; Semiconductor quantum dots; Semiconductor quantum wells; Semiconductor quantum wires
|Dec 1990||50 and 100 Years ago|
|Dec 1990||Science and the citizen|
|Dec 1990||The birth of molecules (ultrafast photographic observations)||
keywords: Birth; birth; Bond breaking; bond breaking; Bond formation; bond formation; Chemical bonds; chemical bonds; chemical reactions; Femtoseconds; femtoseconds; Final products; final products; high-speed optical techniques; Lasers; lasers; Molecular beams; molecular beams; Molecular reaction; molecular reaction; Molecules; molecules; photographic applications; Picosecond; picosecond; Shutter speed; shutter speed; Time resolution; time resolution; Transition states; transition states; Ultrafast motions; ultrafast motions
thesaurus: Chemical reactions; High-speed optical techniques; Photographic applications
|Dec 1990||Accidental Nuclear War||
For now, at least, tensions have eased between the nuclear superpowers. But the chance of a nuclear exchange between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. remains a frightening possibility. In both nations, a missile could be launched accidentally or without the oversight of top officials. To prevent unintended Armageddon, those nations should place additional safeguards on nuclear arsenals.
keywords: command destruct system; control of nuclear weapons; launch readiness of nuclear forces; nuclear alerts; permissive action links (PALs); safeguards against unintended launch
|Dec 1990||The Surface of Venus||
This portfolio of vivid radar images of Venus was sent back by the Magellan spacecraft. The project scientist analyzes features of the rugged terrain, sculpted by intense volcanism, geologic upheavals, impact cratering and even wind.
keywords: AD 1990; Magellan spacecraft; Mapping; mapping; mapping of Venus; radioastronomical observations; Surface features; surface features; Synthetic aperture radar; synthetic aperture radar; topography of Venus; Venus; volcanism on Venus
thesaurus: Radioastronomical observations; Venus
|Dec 1990||How Cells Maintain Stability||
Living cells are protein factories that are vital to the survival of organisms. Thus, they too have elaborate strategies for survival. If environmental stress, such as a chemical or temperature, shuts down their protein-making machinery, cells undertake a series of intricate steps to resume production. A Soviet scientist presents his model of this process.
|Dec 1990||Trends in Immunology: The Body Against Itself|
|Dec 1990||The Birth of Molecules||
Since the 19th century, photographers have used split-second shutter speeds to stop action. But glimpsing the instant in which molecules react to form a product requires an exposure of a millionth of a billionth of a second. That instant bears the same relation to a second as a second does to 32 million years. Toachieve such ``exposures,'' the author uses extremely short pulses of laser light.
|Dec 1990||The Legacy of Gestalt Psychology||
Most people have seen the picture that one moment looks like a vase, then suddenly shifts to two faces about to meet. But few realize that understanding this alternating image reflects a revolution in perception brought about by the Gestalt psychologists at the turn of the century. Today many of their ideas are accepted in the fields of education, learning and social psychology.
|Dec 1990||Frozen and Alive||
Many animals survive the winter by staying warm. But some simply freeze solid. To prevent ice crystals from destroying delicate cell membranes, these creatures manufacture proteins that cause tiny crystals to form in the spaces between cells and produce a natural antifreeze to protect cellular interiors.
|Dec 1990||Fermat's Christmas Theorem is Explained in One Dickens of a Tale|
|Dec 1990||The Emergence of Modern Humans||
Did humanity evolve from a common ancestor and form racial groupings as it spread across the planet? Or did Homo sapiens arise at many different locations? Archaeological evidence from Africa supports the first theory. Now geneticists examining DNA in living populations are coming to the same conclusion.
|Dec 1990||The Body against Itself||
Somehow the body distinguishes its own healthy cells from diseased ones. When that mechanism fails, the result is autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and insulin-dependent. Although the picture is not clear, researchers have found three ways the immune system may learn not to attack the body those discoveries are leading to promising treatments.
|Dec 1990||Science and business|
|Dec 1990||Mathematical recreations|
|Dec 1990||Annual index|
|Jan 1991||50 and 100 years ago|
|Jan 1991||The Future of Space Reconnaissance||
During the cold war, the superpowers launched sophisticated spy satellites to monitor each other's weaponry. Lately such satellites have been directed to observing weapon proliferation in other nations, nonmilitary operations and domestic upheavals. This intelligence is so important that many other governments plan to join the space reconnaissance club.
|Jan 1991||Self-Organized Criticality||
Just as the proverbial straw broke the camel's back, catastrophes, from earthquakes and avalanches to a stock market crash, can be triggered by a minor event. The authors argue that complex systems naturally evolve to a critical state. Their theory already has improved understanding of motion in the earth's crust, economies and ecosystems.
|Jan 1991||The Protein Folding Problem||
More than 30 years ago it seemed that the forces that cause inactive, newly formed proteins to fold into their intricate, active state could be explained by the laws of chemistry and physics. But scientists are still unable to predict how a sequence of amino acids will coil. Solutions to the folding problem --- with their implications for biotechnology --- are getting nearer.
keywords: Amino acids; amino acids; Biotechnology; biotechnology; macromolecular configurations; Macromolecular structure; macromolecular structure; molecular biophysics; Molecular coiling; molecular coiling; Protein folding problem; protein folding problem; proteins; reviews
thesaurus: Macromolecular configurations; Molecular biophysics; Proteins; Reviews
|Jan 1991||Building the Cathedral in Florence||
By ????. after more than a century of construction, the walls of Santa Maria del Fiore rose high over Florence. Still lacking, though, was a plan for a dome to cap the cathedral. Brunelleschi's design for a double-walled vault topped by an orb and a cross, completed in 1470, was an engineering triumph. His techniques foreshadowed modern structural engineering and his machines, the Industrial Revolution.
|Jan 1991||Trends in Computing: Calculating Reality|
|Jan 1991||Worlds Around Other Stars||
If life exists elsewhere in the cosmos, it most likely resides on the surfaces of distant planets. The search for other solar systems, which has been under way in earnest for more than half a century, has turned up some disappointments and some tantalizing clues. New and far more accurate instruments may soon produce the first positive sighting of a new world.
keywords: Astrometry; astrometry; Astronomical technique; astronomical technique; astronomical techniques; Extrasolar planets; extrasolar planets; IR excess; Planet formation; planet formation; planets; Proper motion; proper motion; Radial velocity; radial velocity; Radiation; radiation; Solar nebula; solar nebula; Spectra; spectra; stellar motion; stellar radiation; stellar spectra
thesaurus: Astrometry; Astronomical techniques; Planets; Solar nebula; Stellar motion; Stellar radiation; Stellar spectra
No drug is more ubiquitous than aspirin. Annually, Americans consume more than 16,000 tons of it. Yet, more than 200 years after aspirin was discovered in willow bark, investigators are only now figuring out why it has such a broad range of biological effects. Here are some of the most recent findings.
|Jan 1991||Tools for Computer Graphics Make an Invisible World Seem Less Alien|
|Jan 1991||Coevolution of the Cuckoo and Its Hosts||
The cuckoo is an accomplished parasite that tricks other birds into rearing its young. The hosts gain no benefit because the hatchling ejects their eggs from the nest. Both species engage in an evolutionary arms race --- the host attempting to thwart predation, the cuckoo developing subtle subterfuge.
|Jan 1991||Calculating Reality||
From the plains of Wisconsin to the outskirts of Tokyo, a few maverick computer architects are scrambling to design the next generation of supercomputers. Their grail is a teraflops computer, a machine that can race through a trillion operations a second. On the way to that goal, powerful computation engines will permit scientists to model nature more closely.
keywords: computer modeling of complex systems; computing networks; gallium arsenide supercomputer; multiple-processor computing; parallel computing; pipelining; supercomputer design; teraflops supercomputer; vector processing
|Jan 1991||Mathematical recreations|
|Feb 1991||50 and 100 years ago|
|Feb 1991||Science and the citizen|
|Feb 1991||Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the AIDS Era||
The three classic sexually transmitted diseases --- gonorrhea, syphilis and chancroid --- have nearly disappeared in almost every industrialized nation. The exception is the U.S., where drug-resistant strains of these diseases are ravaging urban minority populations. The causes of this tragic epidemic are poverty, social disintegration, prostitution and drug addiction.
|Feb 1991||The Number of Families of Matter||
Are the fundamental particles that form matter really fundamental? Researchers at the European laboratory for particle physics (CERN) and at the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) have found that these particles are the basis for just three ``families'' of matter. They arrived at the answer by studying the decay of supermassive particles called Z bosons.
keywords: intermediate boson mass; Mass width; mass width; unified field theories; Z bosons; Z lifetime
thesaurus: Intermediate boson mass; Unified field theories; Z bosons
|Feb 1991||The Physiology of Perception||
A familiar face, a favorite smell or a friend's voice is instantly recognized. This rapid perception depends on the coordination of millions of neurons. How can such a small input stimulate so massive a response? Surprisingly, the author points to chaos --- hidden order in seemingly random activity that allows many neurons to switch abruptly from one task to another.
keywords: physiology, perception
|Feb 1991||Computers and Architecture||
Computers are enhancing the creative process in architecture. Graphics software and algorithms create moving images that enable architects to ``walk through'' buildings before they are constructed.
keywords: Advanced graphics-rendering techniques; advanced graphics-rendering techniques; Aesthetic alternatives; aesthetic alternatives; architectural CAD; Architectural Design; Architecture; architecture; Computer Aided Architecture; Computer Aided Design --- Applications; Evaluation; Image Synthesis Algorithms; Mathematical Techniques --- Algorithms; Sketching; sketching
thesaurus: Architectural CAD
|Feb 1991||X-Ray Microscopes||
Each development in microscopy has revealed a new way to view the world. The optical microscope illuminated single-cell organisms; the electron microscope provided views of minute structures and viruses. Now the X-ray microscope can render three-dimensional images of cells and other specimens in their natural state at10 times the resolution of optical microscopes.
keywords: Chemical analysis; chemical analysis; Fresnel Zone Plate; Microscopes; microscopes; Microscopic Examination --- Scanning Electron Microscopy; National Synchrotron Light Source (nsls); Phase Contrast X-Ray Microscopy; Resolution; resolution; X-Ray; X-ray apparatus; X-ray instruments; X-ray microscopes; X-Rays --- Applications
thesaurus: Microscopes; X-ray apparatus
|Feb 1991||The Echidna||
It may well be the most reclusive of Australian animals, but the spiny anteater is no longer one of the least understood. The natural history and odd reproductive behavior of this egg-laying mammal are being observed in the field for the first time. Removing misconceptions about the life cycle of this relative of the platypus may provide ways to protect it.
|Feb 1991||Trends in Evolution: In the Beginning...|
|Feb 1991||The Acoustics of the Harpsichord||
Because of its limited dynamic range, the harpsichord was nearly driven into extinction by the piano. But its plucked strings and the design of the soundboard make it unique among stringed keyboard instruments. The authors studied 39 harpsichords, both old and new, to understand their acoustics.
keywords: Acoustics; acoustics; Harpsichord; harpsichord; musical acoustics; musical instruments; Swirling sound; swirling sound
thesaurus: Musical acoustics; Musical instruments
|Feb 1991||In the Beginning||
In 1953 a simple experiment seemed to show that lightning could have sparked life on the earth. Since then, finding answers to the questions of how, when and where life began has become more complicated. New evidence is toppling once widely accepted ideas; a rash of recent theories has emerged. For now, the origin of life remains an intriguing mystery.
|Feb 1991||The True Story of how Theseus Found His Way out of the Labyrinth|
|Feb 1991||Science and business|
|Feb 1991||Mathematical recreations|
|Mar 1991||50 and 100 years ago|
|Mar 1991||Science and the citizen|
|Mar 1991||Patenting Life||
The last obstacle to patenting a nonhuman form of life fell in 1988, when the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a patent for the ``Harvard mouse.'' But the courts and lawmakers have not yet confronted many of the questions raised by granting patent protection to genetically altered animals, plants and microbes. The future of biotechnology depends on the wisdom of the answers.
|Mar 1991||The Tevatron||
Since the first protons swept around the powerful collider at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in 1983, the Tevatron has confirmed a host of predictions about fundamental particles. Here is the story of the technical challenges of designing and building this 6.3-kilometer ring of superconducting magnets, told by the scientist who headed the decade-long project.
keywords: Antiprotons; antiprotons; Calorimeters; Computer displays; Elementary particles; elementary particles; Particle detectors; Photons; proton accelerators; Protons; protons; storage rings; Superconducting magnets; superconducting magnets; Superconducting supercollider; Synchrotrons; synchrotrons; Tevatron; Tevatron particle accelerator
thesaurus: Proton accelerators; Storage rings; Synchrotrons
|Mar 1991||What Controls the Cell Cycle||
The way cells divide into two identical copies has been well known for nearly a century. But only now are scientists beginning to understand what orchestrates this marvelous process. The key seems to be a single protein called cdc2. Its discovery has profound implications for medicine, possibly leading to ways to heal damaged organs by inducing cell proliferation or to halt the growth of cancer.
|Mar 1991||Plateau Uplift and Climatic Change||
The earth of 40 million years ago was a warm, wet place. Forests abounded; grasslands and deserts were rare. Then the planet began to cool. Regional climate extremes developed. Many have been postulated, including continental drift and diminishing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The authors offer a new theory: continental uplift created huge plateaus that altered circulation of the atmosphere.
|Mar 1991||Trends in Pharmacology: Rx for Addiction|
|Mar 1991||Nonimaging Optics||
In childhood, most of us learned that one way to get heat out of the sun is to focus its light to a pinpoint with a magnifying glass. What few realize is that the ability of lenses designed to make images to concentrate solar energy falls far below the theoretical maximum. Nonimaging optics that are simply funnels for light can achieve intensities higher than those at the sun's surface.
keywords: Compound parabolic concentrator; Edge-ray method; focusing; Geometric vector-flux; High-energy physics; high-energy physics; Nonimaging concentrator; nonimaging concentrator; Nonimaging concentrators; Nonimaging devices; nonimaging devices; Nonimaging optics; Optical devices; optical elements; Optics; Solar concentrators; Solar energy; solar energy; Solar furnace; solar furnace
thesaurus: Focusing; Optical elements
If there is a botanical metaphor for the rootless ways of the Old West, it is the tumbleweed. But when this immigrant Russian weed literally rolled through the Dakotas in the 1870s, the sod busters were not thrilled. In a matter of years this spiny thistle wreaked agricultural havoc across the plains states.
|Mar 1991||A Menu of Mathematical Morsels, Topological Tidbits and Puzzling Plums|
|Mar 1991||Surveying Ancient Cities||
Some important cities of ancient Greece lie buried beneath farmland. That is good news to these archaeologists. Rather than excavating, they build a surprisingly complete picture of long-term habitation simply by dating the debris, such as potsherds and roof tiles, that plowing churns to the surface.
|Mar 1991||Rx for addiction||
Neuroscientists are making progress toward understanding the devastating and intractable problem of drug addiction. By deciphering the complex interplay of neurotransmitters and receptors, they are designing highly targeted drugs to treat addiction on a chemical and, eventually, genetic level. Their findings have implications for treating mental illnesses.
|Mar 1991||Science and business|
|Mar 1991||Mathematical recreations|
|Apr 1991||The Real Cost of Energy||
Gas prices only seem high. When you say ``fillerup,'' you pay but a fraction of the actual cost. Not included are the tens of billions (close to US$50 for each barrel of oil) the military spends annually to protect oil fields in the Persian Gulf. Then tack on the hidden costs of environmental degradation, health effects, lost employment, government subsidies and more. Sooner or later, the public pays the entire price.
|Apr 1991||The Structure of Quasicrystals||
In 1984 scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology rapidly solidified an aluminum alloy. Instead of the expected amorphous, glassy material, the result was tiny grains that displayed a curious, fivefold symmetry. Now researchers are making progress in understanding the atomic structure of these unique forms of matter known as quasicrystals.
keywords: AlCuFe; AlCuLi; aluminium alloys; copper alloys; crystal symmetry; Diffraction properties; diffraction properties; Five fold symmetry; five fold symmetry; Glass model; glass model; iron alloys; lithium alloys; Penrose tiling model; Quasicrystal structures; quasicrystal structures; quasicrystals; Random-tiling model; random-tiling model
thesaurus: Aluminium alloys; Copper alloys; Crystal symmetry; Iron alloys; Lithium alloys; Quasicrystals
|Apr 1991||Molecular Zippers in Gene Regulation||
Skin and liver cells are distinct because they produce different sets of proteins. Yet both types of cells carry the same set of genes. This researcher set out to find the mechanism that turns on key genes. In an interesting piece of detective work, he and others identified an intriguing class of regulatory proteins. Two of these proteins must ``zip'' together before they can activate the genes they control.
|Apr 1991||Trends in Linguistics: Hard Words|
|Apr 1991||Why Tarzan and Jane Can Walk in Step with the Animals that Roam the Jungle|
|Apr 1991||Collisionless shock waves (in space plasmas)||
The sonic boom of a jet aircraft is caused by a shock wave carried along by molecules colliding in the air. In the near vacuum of space, particle collisions are rare. Yet, as the authors theorized years ago, shock waves do exist in space, transmitted through the tenuous plasma by electric and magnetic fields. These shock waves help explain some of the most violent phenomenon the universe.
keywords: Alfven wave; astrophysical plasma; Astrophysics; astrophysics; Bow shock; bow shock; Collisionless shock wave; collisionless shock wave; Frequency dispersion; frequency dispersion; Interplanetary space; interplanetary space; Magnetosphere; magnetosphere; Planet; planet; Plasma shock wave; plasma shock wave; plasma shock waves; Plasma wave; plasma wave; Rarefied plasma; rarefied plasma; solar wind; Solar wind comet interaction; solar wind comet interaction
thesaurus: Astrophysical plasma; Plasma shock waves; Solar wind
|Apr 1991||Hepatitis B Virus||
The toll that this tiny, insidious virus exacts is enormous. It can cause serious acute infections, lie hidden for years in carriers who transmit it to others, even trigger cancer. It is also one of the first viruses to come under the powerful scrutiny of recombinant DNA technology. Its genome, structure and life cycle have been elucidated; diagnostic tests and vaccines have been developed.
|Apr 1991||Photochromic and Photosensitive Glass||
Eyeglasses that darken in sunlight and lighten in the dark are just the most common example of glass that reacts to light. Otherapplications for photochromic and photosensitive glasses range from precision parts to microlenses and art.
keywords: Applications; applications; Colour change; colour change; Heat treatment; heat treatment; Latent image; latent image; optical glass; Photochromic glass; photochromic glass; photochromism; Photosensitive glasses; photosensitive glasses
thesaurus: Optical glass; Photochromism
|Apr 1991||How Dinosaurs Ran||
If all you had to go by were footprints in mud and a few bones, you might conclude that humans do not run. Similarly, it is unclear whether dinosaurs plodded or galloped or pranced. With some physical principles from naval architecture and mechanical engineering, the author calculates that he could outrun Tyrannosaurus.
|Apr 1991||Hard Words||
What's in a word? If it's tik, the answer is controversy. Linguists are at each other's throats over attempts to trace language to ancient roots. Some radicals believe that they can discern echoes of words not spoken for millennia and that it is possible to relate all languages to a single tongue spoken by the first humans. Conservatives think the radicals bark up the wrong tree.
keywords: `Mitochondrial Eve'; Amerind theory; language families and superfamilies; linguistic and genetic trees; linguistic research; monogenesis hypothesis; Nostratic hypothesis; origin of language
|May 1991||50 and 100 years ago|
|May 1991||Science and the citizen|
|May 1991||Progress in Oral Rehydration Therapy||
With each medical advance seeming to be increasingly high-tech and costly, oral rehydration therapy is a notable exception to the trend. The administration of a simple electrolyte solution made with readily available ingredients now saves one million children a year from death caused by diarrhea-induced dehydration. Recently it reduced fatalities during a cholera epidemic in Peru
To the few physicists who first thought about them, anyons were mathematical curiosities that provided new insights into the theory of quantum mechanics. But experimental evidence accumulated over the past decade indicates these entities do exist. In fact, the behavior of anyons offers a compelling explanation for high-temperature superconductivity.
keywords: Anyons; anyons; Fractional quantized Hall effect; fractional quantized Hall effect; High temperature superconductivity; high temperature superconductivity; high-temperature superconductors; quantum Hall effect; quantum statistical mechanics; quasi-particles
thesaurus: High-temperature superconductors; Quantum Hall effect; Quantum statistical mechanics; Quasi-particles
|May 1991||Rene Jules Dubos||
A childhood bout with rheumatic fever may have sent Rene Dubos on a lifelong exploration into the nature of health and disease. As a researcher at the Rockefeller Institute, he discovered the first clinically important antibiotic. As a philosopher, he formulated an ecological theory of disease that matured into a profound, influential view of our place on the earth.
|May 1991||Trends in Energy: Cleaning up Coal|
|May 1991||The Silicon Retina||
The formation of visual images in the retina of the eye depends on layers of interconnected cells. The functions of three of these layers --- photoreceptor, horizontal and bipolar cells --- can be duplicated by simple electronic devices etched onto a silicon chip. This artificial retina illuminates biological computation and has implications for computer vision and signal
keywords: artificial organs; Artificial retina; artificial retina; computer vision; digital signal processing chips; Engineering paradigm; engineering paradigm; eye; monolithic integrated circuits; Neural information processing; neural information processing; Real time outputs; real time outputs; Si chip
thesaurus: Artificial organs; Computer vision; Digital signal processing chips; Eye; Monolithic integrated circuits
|May 1991||The Genesis of Ores||
Human history and technology have been shaped by metals. How did they become concentrated in minable deposits located so conveniently near the earth's surface? The author explains the mechanisms of fluid transport --- by magma, water and even air and wind --- responsible for the chemical and physical interactions that created bodies of metallic ores throughout geologic history.
keywords: Geochemistry --- Analysis; Geophysics --- Analysis; Geospheres; Metals and Alloys; Physiochemical Systems; Recovery; Supracrustal Systems
|May 1991||The Theory of Rigidity, or How to Brace Yourself against Unlikely Accidents|
|May 1991||The Genetics of Thoroughbred Horses||
The lineage of all magnificent Thoroughbred racehorses can be traced to a handful of animals imported from Africa and the Middle East in the 17th century. Just 10 horses contributed more than half of the genes in today's Thoroughbreds. Despite the wealth of breeding data, genetic studies have begun only recently.
|May 1991||Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East||
When Paris was still a village, 10th-century Baghdad was a metropolis of 1. 5 million inhabitants. To support such urban centers,Muslim engineers developed sophisticated water and wind machine with valves, cranks and pistons. Many of these innovations influenced the development of modern machinery.
keywords: candle clocks; History; Islamic Mechanical Engineering; mechanical devices of medieval Islam; Mechanical Engineering; Medieval Islam; technology of medieval Islam; Water Clocks; water clocks; Water Distribution Systems --- Design; water pumps; Watermills; watermills and windmills; Wind Power --- Analysis; Windmills
|May 1991||Cleaning Up Coal||
According to the percentages, coal is still King. Coal-fired power plants generate more than 50 percent of U.S. electricity. But every year those utilities also pour forth 70 percent of the sulfur dioxide and significant portions of other pollutants that cause acid rain and contribute to global warning. Now the U.S. is trying a novel market-based approach to reducing those emissions.
keywords: Air Pollution --- Acid Rain; Coal Combustion; Department of Energy (doe); Dry Sorbent Injection Technologies; Environmental Defense Fund (edf); Environmental Impact; Environmental Protection --- Analysis
|May 1991||Science and business|
|May 1991||Mathematical recreations|
|Jun 1991||Nuclear Power in Space||
Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites --- with nearly disastrous results. Now the U.S. government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. Here is their argument.
keywords: Artificial satellite; artificial satellite; artificial satellites; fission reactor safety; Nuclear power reactor; nuclear power reactor; Nuclear powered spacecraft; nuclear powered spacecraft; Radioactive pollution; radioactive pollution; Radioisotope thermoelectric generator; radioisotope thermoelectric generator; RTG; Space vehicle; space vehicle; space vehicle power plants; thermoelectric conversion; Thermoelectric power generator; thermoelectric power generator
thesaurus: Artificial satellites; Fission reactor safety; Radioactive pollution; Space vehicle power plants; Thermoelectric conversion
|Jun 1991||The Quasar 3C 273||
In the 28 years since the first quasars were identified, astronomers have learned that they are the cores of extremely active galaxies. This quasar is one of the most energetic --- on an average day it shines as brightly as 1,000 galaxies, each containing 100 billion stars. Observations of 3C 273 are providing clues to the nature of these violent and puzzling objects.
keywords: 3C 273; Quasar; quasars
|Jun 1991||Streptococcal M Protein||
Just as a porcupine's quills thwart predators, filaments of proteins that coat some streptococcal bacteria deter the white blood cells that would normally ingest the organisms. These wispy M proteins rely on variability to evade antibodies that would target the microbes for destruction. The understanding of the protein's structure is suggesting new approaches to
|Jun 1991||Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Ozone Depletion||
During the Antarctic winter, strange and often invisible clouds form in the stratosphere over the pole. These clouds of ice and frozen nitric acid play a crucial role in the chemical cycle responsible for the recent appearance of the annual ``ozone hole.'' Their chemistry removes compounds that would normally trap ozone-destroying free chlorine produced by the breakdown of CFCs.
keywords: Air pollution; air pollution; Atmosphere; atmosphere; atmospheric chemistry; Chemical composition; chemical composition; Chlorofluorocarbon; chlorofluorocarbon; clouds; O3; ozone; Ozone depletion; ozone depletion; Ozone hole; ozone hole; Ozonosphere; ozonosphere; Polar stratospheric cloud; polar stratospheric cloud; PSC; Stratosphere; stratosphere
thesaurus: Air pollution; Atmospheric chemistry; Clouds; Ozone; Stratosphere
|Jun 1991||Trends in Geophysics: Peering Inward||
keywords: Convection; convection; Earth core; Earth interior; Earth mantle; Tectonics; tectonics
thesaurus: Earth core; Earth mantle; Tectonics
|Jun 1991||Early Bow Design and Construction||
Asked to name the most crucial discoveries of early humans, most people would quickly come up with fire and the wheel. A third may well be the bow. It served as the principal weapon for hunting and warfare until the use of firearms became widespread in the 16th century. Bows were developed in virtually all cultures, and some achieved high levels of technological sophistication.
|Jun 1991||Laser Surgery||
When surgeons operate, they may wield a laser instead of a scalpel. These blades of light do more than simply destroy tissue with heat: they can drive chemical reactions or create shock waves. Lasers are unclogging arteries, smashing kidney stones, and clearing secondary cataracts from the eye.
keywords: biomedical applications of lasers; health physics; Health physics; laser applications in medicine; laser as scalpel; Laser surgery; laser surgery; Medical application; medical application; medical laser types; medicine; Medicine; of medical lasers; precision of medical lasers; radiation therapy; surgery; thermal and nonthermal effects
thesaurus: Laser applications in medicine; Radiation therapy; Surgery
|Jun 1991||A Swift Trip over Rugged Terrain|
|Jun 1991||Arthur Stanley Eddington||
Einstein's theory of relativity was one of the century's great discoveries. But it was Eddington who headed the expedition that proved it correct. He advocated the idea of an expanding universe and was the first to infer the composition of stars. His exposition of revolutionary concepts still influences scientific thought.
|Jun 1991||Peering Inward||
Beneath terra firma lies a dynamic world. Through clever observation and computer modeling, geophysicists are rapidly sharpening our view of the earth's restlessly seething insides. They are exploring the complex heat engine that drives the motion of the continents and maintains the geomagnetic field. The latest findings trace the earth's evolution and even offer a glimpse into its glimpse in distant future.
|Jul 1991||Science and the citizen|
|Jul 1991||Opium, Cocaine and Marijuana in American History||
A. year before Bayer introduced aspirin in 1899, the drugmaker coined another well-known name for a then popular remedy: heroin. Soon after, the social climate changed, and many mood-altering drugs were made illegal. The author argues that rational drug policy cannot be achieved without keeping such historical reversals in mind.
|Jul 1991||The Early Life of Stars||
Our sun experienced a turbulent youth long before reaching maturity as a stable source of fusion energy. Astronomers are now piecing together this complex life cycle of stars. The process begins when clouds of interstellar gas coalesce into protostars discernible only in the infrared and culminates in one of the billions of optically visible stars.
keywords: Early life; early life; Nuclear fusion; nuclear fusion; Stars; stars; stellar evolution; Violent collisions; violent collisions
thesaurus: Stellar evolution
|Jul 1991||Stroke Therapy||
Physicians have long helplessly stood by when strokes felled their patients. But recent insights into mechanisms that destroy nerve cells are leading to treatments that may minimize damage to the brain. Clinical trials of clot-dissolving drugs are showing promise, and tests of others that slow cell death are under way.
|Jul 1991||Optical Interferometry of Surfaces||
The quality of many products, from photographic film and computer disks to bearings, depends on the microscopic structure of their surfaces. New techniques use computers to analyze optical interference patterns and display surface features as small as a few hydrogen atoms. These methods have already cut costs and improved product performance.
keywords: light interferometry; Optical interferometry; optical interferometry; Sensitive devices; sensitive devices; Surface texture; surface texture; surface topography measurement; Wave nature of light; wave nature of light
thesaurus: Light interferometry; Surface texture; Surface topography measurement
|Jul 1991||Biological Control of Weeds||
No one knows for sure when an unwanted plant was first termed a weed, but the idea certainly precedes the writing of the Old Testament. These plants have been pulled up, plowed under and poisoned, but the age-old battle rages on. The latest ploy: enlisting such natural enemies of weeds as insects and fungi. Willthese new allies give humans the edge?
|Jul 1991||Trends in Transportation: Along for the Ride?||
keywords: aircraft control; aircraft instrumentation; Computerised control systems; computerised control systems; Passenger aircraft; passenger aircraft
thesaurus: Aircraft control; Aircraft instrumentation
|Jul 1991||Copper-Alloy Metallurgy in Ancient Peru||
When Francisco Pizarro and the conquistadores invaded Peru in the 16th century, they carted away tons of gold and silver. Yet they ignored the most ancient and sophisticated metallurgical tradition. For six centuries, copper alloys had been the mainstay of Peruvian technology and commerce.
|Jul 1991||The Austronesian Dispersal and the Origin of Languages||
The word, it seems, was borne by farmers seeking new agricultural lands. The ancient diffusion of language through Polynesia is yet another example. Traveling great distances by boat, these societies spread their languages from Taiwan to Madagascar and Hawaii.
|Jul 1991||Insectoids Invade a Field of Robots|
|Jul 1991||Along for the Ride?||
Today's ``smart'' aircraft can virtually fly themselves to any point on the globe. Computerized navigation systems and flight controls are replacing pilots' Right Stuff with expertise in systems management. Airframe manufacturers insist these are the safest planes ever flown, but pilots are sometimes ill at ease in these ``glass cockpits.''
|Aug 1991||Antiscience Trends in the U.S.S.R.||
The sweeping changes set in motion by Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of glasnost and perestroika have had an odd consequence: antiscience and antitechnology sentiment are on the rise in the Soviet Union. Just as American hippies reacted during the Vietnam years, the Soviets are responding to their social crisis by turning to extrasensory perception, extraterrestrials, astrology and mysticism.
|Aug 1991||The Human Telomere||
In the language of genetics, TTAGGG means ``the end.'' This sequence of nucleotides repeats over and over at the tips of each chromosome, forming a protective cap that prevents the chromosome from being degraded or shortened during DNA replication. This same sequence has been found in all of some 100 vertebrate species tested so far, from fish to humans.
|Aug 1991||Tracking and Imaging Elementary Particles||
A. single ``event'' at CERN's Large Electron-Positron Collider can produce 500,000 bits of digital data. Computers translate the information into striking images that help physicists interpret the complicated dynamics of elementary particles.
keywords: Electronic signals; electronic signals; LEP detectors; nuclear electronics; physics computing
thesaurus: Nuclear electronics; Physics computing
Take a component of banana pulp, crab antennae, cucumber leaves or rabbit muscle, then hook it into an electrical circuit or connect it to optical fibers. The result is a real-time sensor for biologically important substances, ranging from blood oxygen or glucose levels to drugs and environmental toxins. Many biosensors will soon become a routine part of medical diagnosis and monitoring.
Females of this group of common wasps are voracious predators that provide food for their larvae by loading sealed underground chambers with paralyzed bees, thus earning the name ``beewolves.'' Males simply mate --- and defend their territory aggressively. Like their prey, both adult sexes feed on nectar.
|Aug 1991||Trends in Biology: Smart Genes|
|Aug 1991||Antichaos and Adaptation||
If the tentative conclusions of this biophysicist and his colleagues are correct, there is more to evolution than natural selection. He argues that the mathematical idea of antichaos --- that disorder in complex systems can suddenly crystallize into order --- plays a crucial role in biology.
|Aug 1991||Smart Genes||
The answer to why a rose is a rose, or what tells a liver cell to be a liver cell, is a ``sloppy'' genetic computer that instructs a gene when to turn on or off. These elaborate assemblages of proteins, known as transcription complexes, choreograph the forms and functions of cells by transmitting both intercellular and extracellular signals.
|Aug 1991||What in Heaven is a Digital Sundial?|
|Aug 1991||Ordering chaos||
keywords: chaos, order
As the diversity of computer applications increases the burgeoning flow of megabit traffic between machines will be accommodated by wider and smoother highways.
|Sep 1991||Communications, Computers and Networks||
The transformation of civilization through the fusion of computing and communications technologies has been predicted for at least 50 years. Now the revolution has truly begun. The impact will be as profound as was the shift from an agrarian to an industrial society.
keywords: Civilization; civilization; Communications technologies; communications technologies; computer networks; Computing; computing; factory automation; Infrastructure; infrastructure; office automation; social aspects of automation
thesaurus: Computer networks; Factory automation; Office automation; Social aspects of automation
Just as the dirt roads of the early 20th century could not begin to handle today's traffic, so will current computer networks be unequal to the burgeoning flow of information. Advanced packet-switching systems and new schemes for interconnecting networks will help to prevent digital gridlock.
keywords: circuit switching; computer networks; distributed computing; interconnecting networks; Interconnecting networks; internetting; megabit traffic; Megabit traffic; network security; networking technology; packet switching; packet-switching systems; Packet-switching systems; protocol hierarchy; quality of service; Quality of service; security; Security
thesaurus: Computer networks; Packet switching
|Sep 1991||Networked Computing in the 1990s||
Not so long ago, computers were electronic megaliths served by a white-coated elite. Today they are simple tools that are as common as pencils on desks or clipboards in factories. The next generation of computers will become active collaborators in the creation and acquisition of information.
keywords: Active collaborator; active collaborator; Flat screens; flat screens; Human interaction; human interaction; interactive devices; microcomputers; Microphones; microphones; personal computing; Productivity tool; productivity tool; Styli; styli; Wireless transmitters; wireless transmitters
thesaurus: Interactive devices; Microcomputers; Personal computing
|Sep 1991||The Computer for the 21st Century||
The most useful, ordinary technologies are invisible. No one consciously reads a street sign or the floor indicator on an elevator. In the same way, the computer will become an integral part of office and domestic surroundings. It will be ubiquitous, woven into the fabric of daily life from the desktop to the light switch.
keywords: active badges; board computer; electronic chalk; embodied virtuality; pad computer; potential of information technology; tab computer; ubiquitous computing; Dynabooks; dynabooks; Information technology; information technology; Knowledge navigators; knowledge navigators; Laptop machines; laptop machines; microcomputers; office automation; Personal computers; personal computers; personal computing; social aspects of automation
thesaurus: Microcomputers; Office automation; Personal computing; Social aspects of automation
|Sep 1991||Products and Services for Computer Networks||
The power of the computer and the capacity of the network will make possible a wide variety of products and services that give the consumer new opportunities at work and at play. The ultimate product may well be freedom from the conventional constraints of space and time.
keywords: Bandwidth developments; bandwidth developments; Computer networks; computer networks; Computing; computing; Services; services; telecommunication services
thesaurus: Computer networks; Telecommunication services
|Sep 1991||Computers, Networks and Public Policy: Common Law for the Electronic Frontier|
|Sep 1991||Computers, Networks and Public Policy: Infrastructure for the Global Village|
|Sep 1991||Computers, Networks and Public Policy: Civil Liberties in Cyberspace|
|Sep 1991||Computers, Networks and Work||
``Does anybody know...?'' Such public vulnerability on corporate electronic bulletin boards indicates how radically networks are changing the nature of work. Employees grow more open as well as less hierarchical and status conscious. Can management adapt to a more flexible and dynamic environment?
keywords: computer networks; electronic mail; manager-worker relations; nature of work; networked communication; sociology of computer conferences; Computer memory; computer memory; computer networks; Electronic mail; electronic mail; Networked organization; networked organization; office automation; Reporting relationships; reporting relationships; social aspects of automation; Task structures; task structures
thesaurus: Computer networks; Office automation; Social aspects of automation
|Sep 1991||Computers, Networks and the Corporation||
By coordinating activities, the computer network has begun to change production and marketing, forcing redefinition of competitive advantage. In order to prevail in the changing environment, firms have begun to restructure their management, pushing strategic decisions downward in the organization.
keywords: Competitive advantage; competitive advantage; computer networks; Corporate structure; corporate structure; management; Management style; management style; Networked organisations; networked organisations; OA; office automation; social aspects of automation; Strategic decisions; strategic decisions
thesaurus: Computer networks; Management; Office automation; Social aspects of automation
|Sep 1991||Leaping into Lyapunov space|
|Sep 1991||Computers, Networks and Education||
Music comes from the musician, not the piano. So, too, the desire to learn comes from the student, not the computer. Computers in classrooms will not automatically improve education. Used wisely, though, they can be a force in education as potent as the advent of privately owned books in the Renaissance.
keywords: computer aided instruction; Easy-to-use computers; easy-to-use computers; Education; education; Educational environment; educational environment; human factors; Student centred environment; student centred environment
thesaurus: Computer aided instruction; Human factors
|Sep 1991||Infrastructure for the Global Village||
forge new rules of the road for data highways that include strong protection of personal freedom.
keywords: computer networks; Government investment; government investment; government policies; High-capacity network; high-capacity network; High-speed networks; high-speed networks; Information age; information age
thesaurus: Computer networks; Government policies
|Sep 1991||Common Law for the Electronic Frontier||
keywords: codes of conduct; Codes of conduct; CompuServe; computer bulletin boards; Computer bulletin boards; computer intruders; computer networks; cyberspace; Cyberspace; cyberspace law; data base protection; data manipulation; Electronic Information Exchange System; extraterritoriality; Extraterritoriality; global networks; Global networks; information; Information; information network; Information network; Internet Worm; legal jurisdiction; Legal jurisdiction; legislation; national laws; National laws; network security; ownership; Ownership; privacy and computers; Prodigy Services Company; rules for networks; software copyrighting; SWIFT
thesaurus: Computer networks; Legislation
|Sep 1991||Civil Liberties in Cyberspace||
keywords: access to electronic media; civil liberties agenda; Civil liberties agenda; computer crime; computer intruders; computer networks; Computer networks; Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF); electronic media; Electronic media; First Amendment and computing; government policy on computer crime; legislation; network security; search and seizure policy; social institutions; Social institutions
thesaurus: Computer crime; Computer networks; Legislation
|Oct 1991||Iron Deficiency||
Although it is often overlooked, iron deficiency is the most widespread nutritional problem in the world. It is particularly severe in those developing countries where parasitic diseases compound the effects of inadequate diet. Prevention is the best solution to a condition that can irreversibly damage brain function and impair the immune system --- and that may even be fatal.
The quest for ``buckyballs'' has been one of the hottest in chemistry. These hollow cages of carbon atoms were characterized in 1985 and dubbed ``buckminsterfullerenes'' after the inventor of the geodesic dome. Bulk quantities were made in 1990. With other materials, they form crystals having properties that range from superconductivity to ferromagnetism.
keywords: applications of fullerenes; buckminsterfullerene; C60 and C70 molecules; carbon clusters; round molecules; soccerball structure of fullerene; third form of pure carbon; atomic clusters; Buckminsterfullerene; buckminsterfullerene; Buckybabies; buckybabies; Bunnyball; bunnyball; C240; C32; C44; C50; C540; C58; C60; C60(OsO4)(4-tert-pyridine)2; C70; C960; carbon; Daedalus; Electronic structures; electronic structures; Fullerides; fullerides; Giant fullerenes; giant fullerenes; Hyperfullerene nested concentric structure; hyperfullerene nested concentric structure; molecular energy level calculations; platinum-burr ball (triethylphosphine2Pt6C60); Russian egg
thesaurus: Atomic clusters; Carbon; Molecular energy level calculations
|Oct 1991||End of the Proterozoic Eon||
Microscopic, single-celled organisms inhabited the earth for nearly four billion years. Then, just 600 million years ago, the macroscopic ancestors of modern plants and animals suddenly appeared, signaling the end of the Proterozoic eon. What caused the abrupt change? Evidence suggests that a rapid increase in atmospheric oxygen made multicellular life possible.
|Oct 1991||How the Immune System Learns About Self||
The immune system can identify and destroy hundreds of millions of foreign substances. Yet when it functions properly, it ignores the tissues of the body. How these specialized cells learn to tell ``self'' from ``nonself'' has been debated for decades. Now researchers have unraveled one of the processes: the deletion of immature clones of antiself cells by the thymus.
|Oct 1991||Trends in Environmental Technology: Soiled Shores|
|Oct 1991||Natural Selection and Darwin's Finches||
Charles Darwin despaired of ever seeing evolution taking place. The process, he believed, was so slow that only the long-term results could be observed. Fortunately, he was wrong. Numerous studies document natural selection in real time. A. classic example is the finches of the Galapagos, populations of which are altered significantly by a single season of drought.
|Oct 1991||The Origins of the Asteroids||
In the 19th century the search for a ``missing'' planet ended in the discovery of asteroids. Today astronomers believe they are remnants of a planet that never formed. By studying the asteroids, investigators are revealing important clues to understanding the birth of the solar system.
keywords: Asteroid belt; Asteroids; Collisions; Composition; Discovery; Families; Light curves; Orbits; Origins; Rotation; Shapes; Size; Solar nebula
thesaurus: Asteroids; Solar nebula
|Oct 1991||Focused Ion Beams||
Soldering irons are not much use on wires that are a mere micron in diameter. That is why most defective integrated circuits are simply discarded. But chip makers now have a new tool. Liquid-metal ion sources produce beams of charged ions that can machine and weld as well as implant dopants.
keywords: Analysis; analysis; Elemental composition; elemental composition; Focused ion beams; focused ion beams; integrated circuit technology; Integrated circuits; integrated circuits; ion beam applications; ion beam lithography; ion implantation; Liquid metal ion sources; liquid metal ion sources; Maskless implantation; maskless implantation; Micromachining; micromachining; Nanolithography; nanolithography; Optical masks; optical masks; Repair; repair; semiconductor doping; X-ray lithographic masks
thesaurus: Integrated circuit technology; Ion beam applications; Ion beam lithography; Ion implantation; Semiconductor doping
|Oct 1991||Soiled Shores||
After the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the beaches of Prince William Sound were scrubbed, hosed, hoed, fertilized and bulldozed at a cost of US$2.5 billion. Some scientists assessing the effects of that effort conclude that no method worked very well; some did more harm than good. The massive spill in the Persian Gulf is likely to teach that sobering lesson once again.
|Oct 1991||Concentration: A Winning Strategy|
|Nov 1991||Void Protein and Alzheimer's Disease|
|Nov 1991||Firearms, Violence and Public Policy||
Guns are the weapon of choice in more than 60 percent of the homicides committed annually in the U. S. Handguns in circulation now number more than 35 million. But many state and federal gun-control laws, such as the 1991 Brady bill, may be misdirected. They do little to restrict access to those weapons that are most often implicated in violent crime and fatal accidents.
|Nov 1991||The Nuclear Equation of State||
The fiery death of an exploding star cannot be duplicated in any laboratory. Yet physicists know much about what happens to matter under such extreme conditions. Just as an equation can describe the states of water (solid, liquid, vapor) at various temperatures and pressures, so it can predict similar phases as matter breaks up into its ultimate constituents, quarks and gluons.
keywords: Big bang; big bang; High energy collision experiments; high energy collision experiments; Nuclear equation of state; nuclear equation of state; Nuclear matter; nuclear matter; nuclear structure theory; Plasma phase; plasma phase; Supernova; supernova
thesaurus: Nuclear matter; Nuclear structure theory
|Nov 1991||Amyloid Protein and Alzheimer's Disease||
In Alois Alzheimer observed deposits of ``a peculiar substance'' in brains from patients who had suffered from senile dementia. Whether these amyloid plaques are a cause or an effect of Alzheimer's disease has long been debated. The author cites evidence that in at least some forms of the disease the protein is a causative agent. Understanding how the plaques form may lead to treatments.
|Nov 1991||Chromoskedasic Painting||
The well-known chemistry of black-and-white photography has an unexpected dimension. An artist has found a way to produce full-color paintings by controlling the size of the silver particles so that they scatter light in particular wavelengths.
|Nov 1991||Trends in Astronomy: Mirroring the Cosmos|
Compared with the transistors on a computer chip, the tiny red lasers in compact-disc players are clumsy behemoths. Researchers are closing the gap by making micron-scale lasers that promise eventually to be as minuscule as their electronic cousins. These efficient, low-power lasers may pave the way to optical computers and find applications from remote sensing to machine vision.
keywords: 2D optical switch array; Diode laser arrays; diode laser arrays; Diode lasers; diode lasers; Information processing; information processing; May 1989; Micro-lasers; micro-lasers; Micron-size lasers; micron-size lasers; Miniaturization; miniaturization; Optical communications; optical communications; Optical computers; optical computers; Optical computing; optical computing; optical information processing; optical switches; Semiconductor chip; semiconductor chip; semiconductor laser arrays; Single chip; single chip
thesaurus: Optical information processing; Optical switches; Semiconductor laser arrays
|Nov 1991||Cultured Cells for the Treatment of Disease||
Replacing severely damaged skin with grafts obtained by growing a patient's own cells in the laboratory is now easing the painful and protracted healing of burns. The cell culture technique is also curing intractable ulcerations and may one day be applied to other tissues and organs, including blood vessels and liver cells.
|Nov 1991||Painting in Color without Pigments|
|Nov 1991||Genes, Peoples and Languages||
Evidence for the African genesis of humanity now correlates on three major fronts. Family trees based on an exhaustive analysis of human genetics trace the divergence of languages during successive waves of migration by ancient peoples. Both are supported by the archaeological record.
|Nov 1991||Mirroring the Cosmos||
When the Hale Telescope was completed in 1947, many astronomers believed it would be the largest ever built. But thick, rigid mirrors are being replaced by multifaceted reflecting surfaces, lightweight honeycombs and flexible sheets of glass. Combined with optical technologies that cancel out atmospheric distortion, the new telescopes promise the clearest and brightest view yet of the heavens.
|Dec 1991||Homeless Families||
More than one third of the nation's homeless are families --- often headed by young women --- and their numbers are growing. Each night, as many as 100,000 children sleep in shelters or in abandoned buildings or on the street. The author proposes new social policies that will prevent the physical and psychological devastation faced by these vulnerable victims of poverty.
|Dec 1991||Quantum Cosmology and the Creation of the Universe||
Einstein's general relativity enabled cosmologists to describe the formation of matter and its coalescence into galaxies, stars and planets. But that theory cannot explain the events before the instant of creation. During the past decade, a group of cosmologists turned to the theories of quantum mechanics to fill the gap. Still missing is an observation, such as gravity waves, to verify their ideas.
|Dec 1991||Trends in Artificial Intelligence: Silicon Babies||
keywords: artificial intelligence; Artificial-intelligence; artificial-intelligence; Automated reasoning; automated reasoning; Common sense; common sense; Integrated intelligent systems; integrated intelligent systems; Knowledge representation; knowledge representation; Machine sensing; machine sensing; Machine vision; machine vision; Mechanical creatures; mechanical creatures; Natural-language understanding; natural-language understanding; Perception; perception; Planning; planning; robots
thesaurus: Artificial intelligence; Robots
|Dec 1991||The Stem Cell||
The red blood cells that transport oxygen, the platelets that promote clotting and the host of disease-fighting cells of the immune system are all progeny of a prolific resident of the bone marrow known as the stem cell. The ability to isolate, manipulate and store hematopoietic stem cells is leading to improved treatments for such ailments as cancer, aplastic anemia and some autoimmune diseases.
|Dec 1991||The Origin of Horseback Riding||
The first horse broken to the bit probably lived on the vast grasslands of the Ukrainian steppes some 6,000 years ago. That finding, based on microscopic analysis of characteristic tooth wear caused by a bit, predates the accepted origin of horseback riding in the Middle East by three millennia. The horse may have played a greater role in the spread of language and culture than previously thought.
|Dec 1991||A Short Trek to Infinity|
|Dec 1991||Chemical Fuels from the Sun||
Direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity has shortcomings. The energy cannot be stored efficiently, and it is difficult to transport over long distances. But heat from the sun can be captured in environmentally benign chemical fuels that can be used and then re-formed through reversible reactions. One possibility being explored is syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
keywords: chemical energy conversion; Chemical fuels; chemical fuels; fuel; Solar energy; solar energy; solar energy conversion; Storage; storage; Transportation; transportation
thesaurus: Chemical energy conversion; Fuel; Solar energy conversion
|Dec 1991||The Brush Turkey||
The homely image of a female bird sitting patiently on her nest does not fit these curious Australian fowl. They bury their eggs in carefully constructed compost heaps --- then they leave. The chicks emerge fully capable of surviving. Their adaptations are exceptions to many rules that govern avian development.
|Dec 1991||Sophie Germain||
The obstacles to women in science pale today before those faced by Sophie Germain in 18th-century France. Yet this self-taught, middle-class woman would not be dissuaded from the pursuit of mathematics. Firm in the conviction that her work would withstand the test of time, Germain made significant contributions.
|Dec 1991||Silicon Babies||
Artificial-intelligence researchers have found ways to automate reasoning and planning, provide computers with sight and other senses, and teach them to comprehend spoken commands. Now a small group of researchers are attempting to put all those skills into one package. They are trying to build ``integrated systems'' that they hope will function independently in the real world.
|Jan 1992||Plant Life in a CO2 Rich World|
|Jan 1992||Plant Life in a CO2 World||
Some plant scientists have argued that rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide could be a boon by causing plants to grow faster and become larger and more plentiful. Experiments with plants grown in carbon dioxide-rich environments point instead to small and costly increases in agricultural productivity that could be overshadowed by the harmful disruption of critical ecosystems.
|Jan 1992||Quantum Chaos||
Chaos lurks in the most orderly systems of the observable universe, from the perturbations of a swinging pendulum to the jitters in the moon's orbit. Not altogether surprisingly, it also inhabits the seemingly smooth, wavelike realm of atoms and subatomic particles. In the quantum world, chaos reveals itself in the distribution of energy levels and the trajectories of scattering electrons.
keywords: atomic spectra; chaos; Energy levels; energy levels; Energy spectrum; energy spectrum; Quantum chaos; quantum chaos; quantum statistical mechanics; quantum theory; Wave pattern treatment; wave pattern treatment
thesaurus: Atomic spectra; Chaos; Quantum statistical mechanics; Quantum theory
|Jan 1992||How Cells Absorb Glucose||
Glucose is both an important fuel and a chemical precursor for the carbon-based compounds in all living tissues. Yet the way this small sugar enters cells is far from simple. Glucose is channeled through the impermeable cell membrane by transporter proteins. Understanding how some of these proteins are mobilized by exposure to insulin may provide clues to diabetes.
|Jan 1992||Accretion Disks in Interacting Binary Stars||
Among the most common features in the cosmos are the disks of matter that collect around some massive objects such as stars and black holes. By studying an unusual type of highly variable star, astronomers are learning about the dynamics of such accretion disks. This knowledge may help explain the behavior of newborn stars, quasars and violent phenomena near the galactic center.
keywords: Accretion disks; accretion disks; cataclysmic binary stars; Cataclysmic variable stars; cataclysmic variable stars; Disk instability model; disk instability model; Dwarf novae; dwarf novae; Interacting binary stars; interacting binary stars; Outbursts; outbursts; stellar models; TW Vir
thesaurus: Accretion disks; Cataclysmic binary stars; Dwarf novae; Stellar models
|Jan 1992||How Sea Turtles Navigate||
From the instant sea turtle hatchlings first struggle into the surf, their course is set. Some individuals literally circle the oceans before returning years later to the site of their birth. Experiments suggest that a combination of cues from the earth's magnetic field and the steady seasonal pattern of waves are the sources of these seafaring navigators' biological maps and compass.
|Jan 1992||Trends in Parasitology: Living Together|
|Jan 1992||Tribal Warfare||
The notion that tribal societies are naturally fierce and warlike has been a fixture of the Western mind at least since the time of Thomas Hobbes. Actually, the author argues, it was the very presence of the European interlopers that escalated the native savagery by destabilizing indigenous cultures.
keywords: cultural Heisenberg effect; tribal structure; tribal warfare; Western contact with tribal peoples
|Jan 1992||Lightwave Communications: The Fifth Generation||
Optical fibers doped with erbium and powered by tiny laser chips are revolutionizing the way signals are regenerated for transcontinental communications and for fast data transmission over fiber-optic networks. abstract2 = "Since the transmission capacity of optical-fiber communications systems has increased 10 times every four years. The most recent development is an amplifier made by doping a glass fiber with erbium. It boosts capacity 100-fold by replacing electro-optical ``repeaters'' that regenerate weakened signals."
keywords: Communications systems; communications systems; Efficient radiation source; efficient radiation source; Er doped fibre amplifiers; erbium; fibre lasers; Laser diode chip; laser diode chip; Laser pumping; laser pumping; Optical amplifier; optical amplifier; optical communication equipment; optical pumping; Transmission capacities; transmission capacities
thesaurus: Erbium; Fibre lasers; Optical communication equipment; Optical pumping
|Jan 1992||How to Generate Chaos at Home|
|Jan 1992||Living Together||
For all their clever adaptations, parasites have been regarded as uninteresting and unpleasant organisms that inhabited the darker recesses of biology. Now ecologists are looking at these ``degenerate'' creatures in a new light. The intimate associations that develop between host and parasite in their battle for survival may have fundamentally shaped the evolution of all living things.
|Feb 1992||Indochinese Refugee Families and Academic Achievement||
Many refugees from Southeast Asia arrived in the U.S. with little more than the clothes on their backs and with no exposure to Western culture or knowledge of the English language. Yet their children display stunning scholastic achievement in American schools. The authors attribute this academic success to supportive families in which all members participate equally in the learning process.
|Feb 1992||Mud Volcanoes of the Marianas||
Near the edge of the Mariana Trench, where the great Pacific plate of the earth's crust is being forced down into the mantle, mountains of green mud loom from the ocean floor. These unusual mud volcanoes have solved a geologic mystery. Their presence confirms a theory that water squeezed from descending plates reacts with the mantle, creating minerals that ooze back to the seafloor.
|Feb 1992||Cancer Cell Invasion and Metastasis||
The deadly ability of cancer cells to spread throughout the body and invade healthy tissues is not purely a malign aberration. The complex process is a natural characteristic of many normal cells. Recent identification of regulatory genes and proteins that control metastasis has produced a promising class of synthetic drugs that may prevent or block the growth of secondary tumors.
|Feb 1992||The Mammals of Island Europe||
Fifty million years ago the island that is now Europe was colonized by animals from Africa and the New World. Their extraordinarily detailed fossil images are engraved in the shale of an ancient lake bed near Messel in Germany.
|Feb 1992||Laser Trapping of Neutral Particles||
Atoms normally zip along with Brownian abandon at speeds of several hundred miles an hour. Getting atoms to remain still for detailed study was impossible until researchers cooled them in an ``optical molasses'' of laser light. Since then, workers have created optical traps and tweezers, molecular fountains --- even an atomic trampoline. All are important tools for physics, chemistry and biology.
|Feb 1992||Trends in Consumer Electronics: Picture Perfect|
|Feb 1992||Turquoise in Pre-Columbian America||
Centuries before the arrival of the conquistadores, dazzling ornaments encrusted with turquoise already had great religious, social and economic significance in Mesoamerica. Yet the nearest deposits of this gemstone are 1,000 miles away. Trade routes extended to Nevada and Arizona, in the American Southwest.
|Feb 1992||Nikolai V. Timofeeff Ressovsky||
Can a scientist be productive in a society that challenges human values? The life of Russian geneticist Timofeeff-Ressovsky offers some answers. He worked in Nazi Germany, was imprisoned by the Soviets and continued his research in a military laboratory. After receiving amnesty in 1955, he opposed the Lysenkoists.
|Feb 1992||The Kissing Number|
|Feb 1992||Picture Perfect||
As Europeans watched foreign competition ravage the U.S. electronics industry, they vowed that it would not happen there. They drew the line with high-definition television and set out to develop a uniquely European system. After a six-year government-industry effort, broadcasts are beginning. Will the rush into HDTV assure the technological competitiveness of a unified Europe?
|Mar 1992||Building a Market Economy in Poland||
Disgruntled residents of the former Soviet Union, who were greeted on the new year by astonishing prices and virtually bare shelves, may take some comfort from the example of Poland. When similar economic shock therapy was administered in 1990, prices and unemployment also soared. That econom is imperiled by unprivatized industry, but affordable goods are available: entrepreneurs are flourishing.
|Mar 1992||The Patch Clamp Technique||
Over the past 15 years researchers have learned an immense amount about the transmission of electrical and chemical signals by neurons and other cells. They owe their success to a simple technique that won the authors a 1991 Nobel Prize. By isolating a tiny section of membrane on a living cell, scientists can manipulate the pore-forming proteins that permit ions to enter or leave cells.
|Mar 1992||Textures and Cosmic Structure||
A bugbear of the big bang theory is that it fails to explain how the matter in the initially smooth universe clumped into vast sheets and bubbles of galaxies. Cosmologists have proposed numerous theories, from inflation to cosmic strings. The latest explanation to be offered, called textures, builds on the theories of particle physics to derive testable predictions of cosmic structure.
|Mar 1992||Why Aromatic Compounds Are Stable||
The closed-carbon rings of the aromatic compounds are built to endure. They are found in soot and meteorites and have been identified among the gases of distant nebulae. In industrial chemistry, aromatics are essential as solvents and as reagents for dyes and resins. Chemists have only recently understood their incredible stability by drawing on quantum mechanics and topology.
|Mar 1992||Spider Webs and Silks||
Spider webs are marvels of engineering. The silks from which they are spun are highly variable materials whose properties are adapted to the design of these gossamer tension structures. The elaborate orb webs of the common garden cross spider, the heroine of E. B. White's Charlotte's Web, achieve remarkable effectiveness by turning to advantage an inherent weakness of silk --- its softness when wet.
|Mar 1992||Trends in Astrophysics: Catching the Wave|
|Mar 1992||Infrared Video Cameras||
The difference between images that capture light and those made from thermal radiation is like that between night and day. But there is more to infrared imaging than seeing in the dark. Video cameras based on silicon heat detectors can penetrate foul weather, monitor industrial processes and observe distant galaxies.
|Mar 1992||The Gundestrup Cauldron||
Who created this ancient silver cauldron embellished with elephants and deities? Scholars have sought the answer since it was dug from a Danish peat bog a century ago. The author believes the cauldron was made in southeastern Europe by silversmiths of a transcultural caste whose ritual traditions can be traced to Asia.
|Mar 1992||Seeing Infrared|
|Mar 1992||Catching the Wave||
The gravitational waves that ripple the fabric of space have never been conclusively observed. A team of U.S. scientists hopes by the end of the decade to be the first to build a device that will detect these extremely weak undulations. If they succeed, their unique telescope may also illuminate black holes and detect unknown cosmic structures invisible in the electromagnetic spectrum.
|Apr 1992||The Multiregional Evolution of Humans||
The reasoning behind a molecular clock is flawed, these paleoanthropologists assert. Fossil remains and artifacts speak eloquently of a web of interconnected lineages that gave rise to modern humans. Africans, Asians, Australian Aborigines and Europeans evolved roughly where they are found today.
|Apr 1992||The Recent African Genesis of Humans||
By tracing DNA that is transmitted to successive generations only by mothers, these geneticists argue that everyone is descended from a single ``Eve'' who lived in Africa just 200,000 years ago. If they are right, modern humans must have recently emerged from Africa to populate the other continents.
|Apr 1992||Mountain Belts and the Supercontinent Cycle||
When German meteorologist Alfred L. Wegener proposed the idea of continental drift in 1912, he claimed that all the continents were fragments of a single, ancient landmass called Pangaea. The authors believe such supercontinents have formed repeatedly in a tectonic cycle that lasts about 500 million years. They cite as evidence the location and structure of folded and volcanic mountain belts.
keywords: 500E6 to 700E6 y; 500E6 y; Composition of seawater; composition of seawater; Continental rifting; continental rifting; Evolution of life; evolution of life; Global climate; global climate; Mountain building; mountain building; Pangaea; Plate tectonics; plate tectonics; Supercontinent cycle; supercontinent cycle; tectonics; Thermal effects; thermal effects; Worldwide sea level; worldwide sea level
|Apr 1992||Superantigens in Human Disease||
Most antigens trigger an orderly attack on an invader. But some proteins arouse the immune system to a destructive frenzy --- just a few hundred molecules stimulate a response that would require a billion copies of a normal antigen. These superantigens have been implicated in the toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning. Recent studies suggest they may also explain the lethality of AIDS.
|Apr 1992||Trends in Genetics: Hacking the Genome|
|Apr 1992||The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor||
Forty years after scientists first began pursuing the controlled release of energy by forcing hydrogen atoms to merge in a magnetic vise, nuclear fusion is still the fuel of the future. Now researchers' hopes are resting on ITER, an international fusion reactor planned for completion in 2005. The most powerful tokamak designed, its goal is ignition --- achieving a self-sustaining fusion reaction.
keywords: Conceptual design; conceptual design; D-T fuel; Engineering knowledge; engineering knowledge; Experimental fusion power plant; experimental fusion power plant; fusion reactor theory and design; International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor; ITER; Scientific knowledge; scientific knowledge; Design Overview; First Walls; iter Program; Nuclear Energy --- International Cooperation; Nuclear Reactors, Fusion; Reviews; Tokamak Devices
thesaurus: Fusion reactor theory and design
|Apr 1992||Solid Acid Catalysts||
By careful design, the tiny pores and cavities of solid acid catalysts shape many of the products made by the chemical industry, from drugs to fuel additives. Compared with traditional liquid catalysts, these compounds are safer to handle. They also minimize toxic by-products and are easier to keep out of the environment.
keywords: Acids; Aluminophosphates; Catalysis; Catalysts; Ions; Solid Acid Catalysts
|Apr 1992||All Paths Lead away from Rome|
|Apr 1992||Phantom Limbs||
For many amputees, the missing limb remains frighteningly real. These invisible appendages often seem to move and feel sensations of pressure, warmth or wetness. Some 70 percent of them are also a source of intractable pain. A new explanation of the cause of phantom limbs is stimulating research into treatments.
|Apr 1992||Hacking the Genome||
Parsing the three billion nucleotides that make up the genetic totality of a human is one of the most ambitious scientific efforts ever undertaken. The information will be useless unless it is entered into data bases that provide answers to questions scientists have not yet thought of. Translating the code of DNA into the digital language of computers falls to a group of ``informatics'' workers.
|May 1992||Understanding the AIDS Pandemic||
The only truly effective weapon against AIDS is altering sexual behavior. Mathematical models that untangle the complex relations between the biology of the AIDS infection in individuals and the transmission of the disease in communities provide some surprisingly counterintuitive revelations. These results should be considered in future educational and prevention programs.
|May 1992||Biological Roles of Nitric Oxide||
One of the body's most versatile regulatory chemicals is not a complex protein but a simple, highly toxic inorganic molecule that persists for less than 10 seconds. Nitric oxide transmits messages between neurons, signals blood vessels to dilate and is the weapon of white blood cells against tumors and bacteria. Its intricate physiological functions have been revealed over the past five years.
|May 1992||Trends in Molecular Archaeology: Eloquent Remains|
|May 1992||Planetary Nebulae||
In 1785 the English astronomer William Herschel called these clouds of glowing gas planetary nebulae because they looked like ghostly planets. Astronomers now know that these nebulae are the last wisps of matter streaming into space from a dying star. The study of planetary nebulae illuminates the life cycle of sun-like stars and may provide clues to the ultimate fate of the universe.
keywords: Appearance; appearance; astronomical spectra; Central star; central star; Distances; distances; Dynamics; dynamics; Life cycle; life cycle; planetary nebulae; Planetary nebulae characteristics; planetary nebulae characteristics; Shapes; shapes; Spectra; spectra; stellar evolution
thesaurus: Astronomical spectra; Planetary nebulae; Stellar evolution
|May 1992||Blind Spots||
Every child has made a dot on a piece of paper disappear by moving it into the blind spot of the eye. Here the author uses the blind spot to explore a sophisticated perceptual function: the ability of the brain to interpolate visual information.
keywords: Blind spot demonstration illustrations; blind spot demonstration illustrations; Brain visual image processing; brain visual image processing; Perceptual gaps compensation; perceptual gaps compensation; vision defects; visual perception
thesaurus: Vision defects; Visual perception
|May 1992||Watching the Death of a Star|
|May 1992||Binary Optics||
Advanced optics that make it possible to etch delicate circuits on semiconductors created the microelectronics revolution. Now those same photolithographic techniques are having an important impact on optics. Arrays of tiny lenses carved into silicon wafers promise machine vision systems that mimic biological sight and integrated optical processors for communications.
keywords: Binary optics; binary optics; etching; Focusing properties; focusing properties; High lens quality; high lens quality; Lens design; lens design; Lens fabrication; lens fabrication; Lens making; lens making; lenses; Optical elements; optical elements; Optical material; optical material; optical workshop techniques; Surface etched lens shapes; surface etched lens shapes; Binary Lenses; Binary Optics; Lenses; Microelectronics; Optics
thesaurus: Etching; Lenses; Optical workshop techniques
|May 1992||Why American Songbirds Are Vanishing||
Pesticides were blamed when familiar birdsongs were suddenly stilled in the 1960s. The worst culprits were banned, but migratory songbirds continue to decline. The reasons, the author argues, are increased pressure from predators and parasites in North American nesting sites and deforestation of tropical wintering areas.
|May 1992||Heisenberg, Uncertainty and the Quantum Revolution||
At the age of 25, Werner Karl Heisenberg formulated the theory that bears his name and established him as a seminal figure in 20th-century physics. Germany's youngest full professor, Heisenberg trained a generation of modern physicists who were dispersed throughout the world by Hitler's rise to power.
keywords: causality principle; gamma-ray microscope thought experiment; Heisenberg's uncertainty principle; matrix mechanics; quantum mechanics; Schroinger's wave equation; transformation theory
|May 1992||Eloquent Remains||
Among those who listen to the long dead are a new breed of archaeologists. Instead of trowels and brushes, they wield the techniques of molecular biology to analyze residues of nucleic acids and proteins that remain in ancient mummies and bones. Their efforts promise to trace the divisions, migrations, extinctions and expansions that have marked the biological history of humanity.
|May 1992||Does metaphor impede or enrich scientific discourse?|
|Jun 1992||Early Results from the Hubble Space Telescope||
Even though its primary mirror is flawed and its solar panels have given Hubble the jitters, the orbiting observatory can still match the sensitivity and exceed the resolution of the best earthbound telescopes. In its first two years of operation it has returned a stream of spectacular images, from storms on Saturn to possible black holes, that are triggering a revision of modern astronomy.
|Jun 1992||Lipoprotein(a) in Heart Disease||
The patient has low blood cholesterol levels, is not obese, does not smoke and does not suffer from high blood pressure. Yet a heart attack still occurs. The agent of heart disease in many individuals with low risk profiles may be a blood particle known as lipoprotein(a). Ironically, the ability of this substance to cause heart disease may be a side effect of its role in repairing damaged blood vessels.
|Jun 1992||Transgenic Crops||
In the past decade, genetic engineering has accelerated the age-old process of breeding advantageous traits into crops. Genes that confer resistance to diseases and pests as well as tolerance to herbicides and spoilage or that enhance nutritiousness have been inserted into more than 50 species. Plant biotechnology is now poised to make important contributions to world agriculture.
|Jun 1992||The Codex Mendoza||
To acquaint Charles V with his exotic subjects, the first Spanish viceroy in Mexico commissioned the last pre-Conquest Aztec artists to record their vanishing civilization. Completed in 1541, the magnificent Codex was captured by the French, sold to an Englishman and forgotten until 1831. The first modern edition was destroyed in the London blitz; a new edition has been completed by the authors.
|Jun 1992||Trends in Industrial Research: Redesigning Research|
|Jun 1992||Single Electronics||
Computers have become more powerful as the devices etched onto silicon chips have become tinier. Experiments have now verified the feasibility of what may be the ultimate miniaturization: devices that require the movement of just a single electron. Whereas today's most advanced chips contain 10 million devices per square centimeter, single electronics could cram 10 billion into the same space.
keywords: Continuous flow; continuous flow; Electric current; electric current; Fluid of charge; fluid of charge; Individual electrons; individual electrons; Novel electronic devices; novel electronic devices; quantum interference phenomena; Electric Current; Electric Space Charge; Electrons; Transistors; Tunnel Junctions
thesaurus: Quantum interference phenomena
|Jun 1992||Control of Rabies in Wildlife||
Wild mammals are a major reservoir for the rabies virus, which causes 25,000 human deaths every year. An epidemic in raccoons has spread unchecked up the U.S. East Coast since the 1950s. The solution, these authors say, is vaccine-filled baits, which are controlling the transmittal of rabies by foxes in Europe and Canada.
|Jun 1992||The Riddle of the Vanishing Camel|
|Jun 1992||Accounting for Environmental Assets||
When governments calculating their economic performance fail to account for the depreciation of forests, fisheries, minerals or water caused by development, the balance sheets often show growth and prosperity. In reality, the result is usually impoverishment. The experience of Costa Rica is a case in point.
|Jun 1992||Redesigning Research||
Prominent research laboratories, once the pride of U.S. industrial giants, have been sold, shuttered or simply given away. All too often, their important inventions made little or no contribution to the bottom line. But some companies are not ready to write off research. They are determined to reshape their research operations so that they serve the goals of the business. Can they succeed?
|Jul 1992||1942: Physicists are the fair-haired boys of World War II|
|Jul 1992||Building Molecular Crystals|
|Jul 1992||Origins of Western Environmentalism||
During the Age of Discovery, tropical islands became a powerful metaphor for the European idea of an untouched Eden. Those utopian images were soon shattered. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists employed by the companies exploiting colonial resources began to voice alarm over large-scale ecological changes. In doing so, they laid the foundation of modern environmentalism.
|Jul 1992||Building Molecular Crystals||
From snowflakes to semiconductors, the orderly lattice of crystals is governed by the size and shape of constituent molecules and the forces between them. Researchers have now begun to understand the conditions that influence the structure of crystals as they form. The achievement makes feasible the design of materials that have specific electronic, optical and magnetic properties.
|Jul 1992||G Proteins||
Like messages in a game of ``telephone,'' the signals between living cells are passed through a series of intermediates. Critical among them is a class of substances attached to the inner surface of the cell membrane, called G proteins. They play a central role in many cellular activities, from vision to cognition. Malfunctioning G proteins have been implicated in diseases such as cholera and cancer.
|Jul 1992||Genetic Algorithms||
Computer programs that evolve in ways that resemble natural selection can solve complex problems even their creators do no fully understand. abstract-2 = "The consummate ability of species to adapt to an environment arose through natural selection. A group of computer programmers are emulating that process in the design of software. Programs based on genetic algorithms can evolve solutions to complex problems. They have demonstrated their practicability in designing jet turbines and controlling the flow in gas pipeline systems."
keywords: Complex problems; complex problems; Evolution; evolution; Genetic algorithms; genetic algorithms; learning systems; Natural selection; natural selection; Software; software
thesaurus: Genetic algorithms; Learning systems
|Jul 1992||Trends in Physics: Quantum Philosophy|
|Jul 1992||Breath Tests in Medicine||
Since the time of Hippocrates, physicians have known that the odors of breath can convey vital information. With modern analysis and understanding of metabolic processes, breath tests can diagnose diseases of the stomach, intestine and pancreas. They can also monitor exposure to industrial chemicals. Standardized apparatus is needed before such tests take a place beside the x-ray for routine screening.
|Jul 1992||Reproductive Strategies of Frogs||
Frogs reproduce by laying eggs resembling those of fish. Yet frogs have managed to colonize niches throughout the terrestrial environment. To do so, they have developed a diversity of strategies that range from the improbable to the bizarre for ensuring that their eggs stay moist and that their young are nourished.
|Jul 1992||The Last Stone Ax Makers||
The village of Langda on the cloud-shrouded slopes of New Guinea's central cordillera provides a priceless glimpse of Stone Age technology. There, skilled craftsmen, who lived in complete isolation from the modern world until 1984, fashion stone axes that resemble those first made 20,000 years ago.
|Jul 1992||Survival of the Finest Bits|
|Jul 1992||Quantum Philosophy||
The deeper physicists inquire into the mysterious world of quantum theory, the stranger it gets. New experiments continue to challenge the common notion of reality. Photons, neutrons, even objects large enough to be seen, lack from until they are observed. Observation can alter the outcome of experiments that have already occurred; measuring one entity can influence another far away.
|Jul 1992||Retrying the monkey trial in a kangaroo court|
|Jul 1992||Sexism still lurks in the language of science|
|Aug 1992||Dynamics of Kilauea Volcano||
One of the longest volcanic eruptions in recorded history began in 1983. Lava flows from Kilauea have since added 120 hectares of new land to the island of Hawaii and covered 100 square kilometers. From a nearby cliff, the authors observed and analyzed these events. Their findings clarify the mechanisms of volcanism. The techniques they developed are helping to predict other eruptions.
keywords: AD 1983 01 02; Dynamics; dynamics; Eruption; eruption; Geological activity; geological activity; Hawaii; Hawaiian island chain; Internal structure; internal structure; Kilauea volcano; Magma reservoir; magma reservoir; Midplate vulcanic activity; midplate vulcanic activity; Surface features; surface features; Tectonics; tectonics; volcanology
thesaurus: Tectonics; Volcanology
|Aug 1992||Bacterial Endotoxins||
Bacterial endotoxins are a two-edged sword. These cell-wall components of a major group of bacteria account for many symptoms of cholera, whooping cough and other diseases. But they can also enhance the immune response to other bacteria, viruses and even cancer. Recent findings may lead to ways of curbing the harmful effects of endotoxins and harnessing their disease-fighting capacity.
|Aug 1992||How Cosmology Became a Science||
The big bang became the established explanation for the origin of the universe almost overnight, when Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson observed the faint signals of the cosmic background radiation in the 1960s. Their achievement relied on a rich legacy of theory and experiment that enabled big bangers to challenge successfully the earlier concept of a universe that had always existed.
|Aug 1992||Naked Mole Rats||
These African rodents have been described as saber-toothed sausages, as baby walruses or simply as ugly. Naked mole rats are also fascinating creatures. Unlike most mammals, they practice the ``eusocial'' behavior typically observed in ants and termites. In mole rat burrows, only a few individuals breed; others care for the offspring. What are the genetic and evolutionary roots of this social organization?
|Aug 1992||Evolution Comes to Life||
The curator of the American Museum of Natural History's new Hall of Human Biology and Evolution describes the daunting task of constructing lifelike figures of our distant ancestors, guided only by fragments of ancient bone.
|Aug 1992||Trends in Transportation: Air Trains|
|Aug 1992||Paradoxes of Musical Pitch||
Just as optical illusions can trick the eye, so various combinations of musical pitch can deceive the ear. Recent research shows that these auditory paradoxes may be related to the brain's processing of speech. The way individuals hear various sequences of tones seems peculiar to their particular language or dialect.
keywords: acoustic variables measurement; hearing; Key; key; Music; music; musical acoustics; Musical pitch; musical pitch; Paradoxical effects; paradoxical effects; Perception; perception; psychology; Speech; speech; Tones; tones
thesaurus: Acoustic variables measurement; Hearing; Musical acoustics; Psychology
|Aug 1992||Achieving Electronic Privacy||
All of your electronic transactions, from credit card purchases to bank withdrawals, are creating a digital dossier of your life. The author proposes an encryption system that would allow individuals and institutions to take advantage of the benefits of computer communications while protecting privacy.
keywords: Blind signature; blind signature; Credentials; credentials; Credit card; credit card; credit transactions; Cryptographic invention; cryptographic invention; cryptography; data privacy; Database; database; Digital signature; digital signature; EFTS; Electronic cash; electronic cash; Electronic privacy; electronic privacy; Identification; identification; Numbers; numbers; Personal information; personal information; Representative; representative; Untraceable transactions; untraceable transactions; blind signature cryptography; digital credentials; digital signature; electronic privacy; private keys; public keys; secure digital pseudonyms; smart credit cards
thesaurus: Credit transactions; Cryptography; Data privacy; EFTS
|Aug 1992||The Interplanetary Olympics|
|Aug 1992||Air Trains||
In the 1960s, a handful of engineers devised what they believe is the answer to ground transportation needs for the next century: high-speed trains buoyed on magnetic fields. While Europe and Japan forged ahead, Washington zeroed out U.S. programs in the 1970s. Now, with the backing of an equally zealous senator, these aging visionaries may have a second chance to see whether maglev will fly.
|Sep 1992||Neurons for Computers|
|Sep 1992||Science and the Citizen||
Quantum gravity... Population politics... Gold bugs... The evidence for dark matter... First steps for artificial life... Profile: SSC architect Roy F. Schwitters.
|Sep 1992||Mind and Brain||
The human brain is the most complex structure in the known universe. Genes and experience have jointly shaped its machinery; its design is the result of millions of years of evolution. Our survival depends on a deeper understanding of the marvelous biochemical happening that arises from it: the mind.
|Sep 1992||The Developing Brain||
Remarkably precise connections between more than 100 billion neurons account for all the properties of the mind. Yet in the fetus this intricate wiring is only an approximation of that in the mature brain. The final linkages are shaped by stimulation of the newborn through such sensory experiences as touch, speech and images.
|Sep 1992||The Visual Image in Mind and Brain||
There is a great deal more to vision than light meeting the eye. The world we see is literally an invention of the brain, actively constructed from a constantly changing flood of information. Seeing and understanding occur simultaneously through the synchronized activities of specialized areas in the visual cortex.
keywords: Blindness; blindness; brain; Cortex malfunctioning; cortex malfunctioning; neurophysiology; Vision; vision; Visual cortex; visual cortex; Visual image; visual image
thesaurus: Brain; Neurophysiology; Vision
|Sep 1992||Working Memory and the Mind|
|Sep 1992||The Biological Basis of Learning and Individuality||
Learning and memory --- the acquisition of knowledge and the retention of that information over time --- are being studied on the cellular and molecular level. These processes, which connect us to our past and are the key to individuality, engage a simple set of rules to strengthen connections between nerve cells.
|Sep 1992||Brain and Language||
In the beginning, there were no words. Language arose and persisted because it is a superb means of communication. Three sets of interacting neural structures process language in the brain. One supports nonlanguage concepts, another assembles words and sentences, and a third mediates between the first two.
|Sep 1992||Working Memory and the Mind||
Working memory has been called the blackboard of the mind. Its ability to combine moment-to-moment awareness and instantaneous retrieval of archived information is fundamental to language comprehension, learning and reason. Experiments with monkeys are identifying the key neural structures.
|Sep 1992||Sex Differences in the Brain||
The different ways in which men and women approach intellectual problem solving have often been attributed to variations in experience. Evidence indicates that reproductive hormones alter brain function permanently during fetal development. Further research may explain the evolutionary significance of these changes.
|Sep 1992||Major Disorders of Mind and Brain||
Schizophrenia and mania --- the most devastating maladies of the mind --- each afflict 1 percent of the population. Impressive advances in neuroscience and genetics are revealing the anatomic, biochemical and hereditary bases of these disorders. Research has already shaped the development of new therapies.
|Sep 1992||Aging Brain, Aging Mind||
As we age, the neural structures involved in learning, memory and reasoning undergo a number of physical changes. Yet such alterations do not necessarily signal an inevitable slow march to mindlessness and mortality. Elderly individuals who remain in good health show only a subtle decline in cognitive function.
|Sep 1992||How Neural Net Works Learn from Experience||
Networks of artificial neurons can learn to represent complicated information. Such neural networks may provide insights into the learning abilities of the human brain. abstract-2 = "Networks of artificial neurons modeled on conventional computers are helping explain the ability of the brain to process and retain information. These neural-network simulations have already ruled out many theories. They are now beginning to reveal how the brain accomplishes the remarkable feat of learning."
keywords: artificial neural networks; artificial neurons; Artificial neurons; back-propagation algorithm; Brain; brain; brain neurons; competitive learning; Information processing; information processing; Information retention; information retention; Learning; learning; neural nets; Neural networks; neural networks; population coding; principal-components learning; training neural networks
thesaurus: Brain; Neural nets
|Sep 1992||The Problem of Consciousness||
Can consciousness, the most profound and puzzling facet of the mind, be probed experimentally? Are elusive mental events explainable as the behavior of interacting neurons? The authors argue that existing evidence already provides a glimpse of the nature of visual consciousness that can guide experimenters.
|Sep 1992||Science and Business||
Ag biotech moves out of the lab and into the kitchen... Virtual reality meets the real world... The Analytical Economist: Options to the tyranny of economic growth.
|Oct 1992||Murder at Ghastleigh Grange|
|Oct 1992||50 and 100 Years Ago||
1942: Why smashing atoms will never provide a source of energy.
|Oct 1992||Science and the Citizen||
A complex metaphor; High-tech yard sale; Black programs, white lies; What the Hubble telescope sees; Questioning COBE; How milk triggers diabetes; Stowaway species; Automata autos; PROFILE: Physicist Hans A. Bethe.
|Oct 1992||How Many Species in Habit the Earth?||
Nobody really knows. Estimates of the number of plant, animal and other species vary from three million to more than 30 million, but after more than 250 years of systematic research, taxonomists have catalogued fewer than two million. The author argues that an accurate census is crucial for efforts to preserve diversity and to manage the biological and physical resources of the planet.
|Oct 1992||Quantum Cryptography||
The desire to communicate in total secrecy is probably as old as humankind. Myriad codes and ciphers have been devised only to be broken by mathematicians. Quantum physics may finally give the communicating parties a decisive edge. Because observing a quantum phenomenon perturbs that which is seen, any attempt at eavesdropping will alert the legitimate users.
keywords: code breaking; Heisenberg uncertainty principle; photon polarization; privacy amplification; public-key cryptography; quantum cryptographic devices; quantum key distribution; Vernam cipher
|Oct 1992||Mountain Sickness||
As a Chinese archivist of the fifth century watched, his companion on the Silk Route struggled to breathe, fell and fainted, a froth dotting his lips. Death soon followed. Mountain sickness, which is caused by a lack of oxygen at high altitudes, has become more common as record numbers of people visit mountains to climb, ski and vacation. But the condition is treatable --- and preventable.
|Oct 1992||Histones as Regulators of Genes||
Until recently, these proteins in the nuclei of cells were regarded as little more than passive spindles around which the crucial molecules of DNA wound. Their task turns out to be more complex: histones are vital participants in the expression and suppression of genes. Insights into their role should help explain how the process can go awry and lead to diseases such as cancer.
|Oct 1992||Singing Caterpillars, Ants and Symbiosis||
The lumbering, plump precursor of the butterfly is a favorite comestible of many predators. So a few species have arranged for protection by ants. The caterpillars advertise their presence by ``singing'' with a vibratory organ. They then trick the ants into defending them by releasing a chemical that mimics an ant alarm signal and reward their fierce bodyguards by secreting a nutritious nectar.
|Oct 1992||Trends in Science Education: Teaching Real Science|
|Oct 1992||Diamond Film Semiconductors||
Diamonds may one day be a chip maker's best friend. The ability to produce thin sheets of diamond from a low-pressure gas is a significant step toward a new generation of fast, high-temperature circuits. But formidable fabrication problems must be overcome before diamond chips become a commercial reality.
keywords: C; diamond; Diamond film semiconductors; diamond film semiconductors; Electronic devices; electronic devices; elemental semiconductors; Epitaxial layers; epitaxial layers; Impurities; impurities; MOSFETs; semiconductor devices; semiconductor epitaxial layers; semiconductor growth; semiconductor thin films; Transistor; transistor; vapour deposition; vapour phase epitaxial growth
thesaurus: Diamond; Elemental semiconductors; Semiconductor devices; Semiconductor epitaxial layers; Semiconductor growth; Semiconductor thin films; Vapour deposition; Vapour phase epitaxial growth
|Oct 1992||Scavenging and Human Evolution||
Should we identify with the lion or the hyena? The skills of hunting, so the theory runs, were a major factor in our evolution into hand-using, toolmaking lords of creation. The authors argue that the same course could have resulted from competing with hyenas and other scavengers for carcasses left by predators such as lions.
|Oct 1992||Teaching Real Science||
Aversion to science is not just socially acceptable in elementary and high schools --- it has become positively hip. And the performance of U.S. students in math and science is abysmal. Now a group of educators believes it can revitalize science education with the establishment of innovative national standards. But this is hardly the first attempt at curriculum reform. Will it succeed?
|Oct 1992||Science and Business||
The most dense data storage yet; Nanophase ceramics; Two-cycle green machine; Clinical sequencing; Isotope economics; Bulk buckytubes; The Analytical Economist: Do education vouchers make economic sense?
|Oct 1992||Mathematical Recreations||
Tracking a murderer through a Hamiltonian network.
|Oct 1992||Books: The islanders who greeted Columbus; Zen astronomy|
|Oct 1992||Essay: Gerard Piel: An important starting point for managing planet Earth|
Hubble's enhanced image ... Defending expert witnesses.
|Nov 1992||50 and 100 Years Ago||
1942: The price of success in medicine is five years of life.
|Nov 1992||Science and the Citizen||
For rent: Russian spy plane ... How bacteria resist drugs ... Stellar oscillations ... Too much industrial policy? ... Sneaker spill ... Controlling chaos pumps up a laser ... A cell transplant controversy ... Profile: Philosopher Karl Popper.
|Nov 1992||Health Care Forum|
|Nov 1992||The Expansion, Rate and Size of the Universe|
|Nov 1992||Health Care Reform||
If any national issue rivals unemployment and the grim economic outlook, it is health care. More than 35 million Americans lack medical insurance, even though the U.S. spends more of its gross domestic product on health care than does any other developed nation. The solution, the author proposes, is a radically new structure that provides universal insurance and contains escalating costs.
|Nov 1992||The Expansion Rate and Size of the Universe||
The holy grail of cosmology is an accurate determination of the Hubble constant, the rate at which the universe is expanding. Present measurements differ by a factor of two --- a door wide enough to accommodate several divergent hypotheses about the ultimate fate of the universe. New techniques that promise to refine the calculation should affect the entire field of extragalactic astronomy.
|Nov 1992||Linguistic Origins of Native Americans|
|Nov 1992||The Risks of Software||
Glitches in computer programs are annoying when they cost an hour's work. In critical applications, such as telephone networks, nuclear power plants or missile guidance systems, insidious faults can spell disaster. Since even the best proof cannot pinpoint the extent of vulnerability, the authors argue that the use of computers should be restricted wherever safety is a primary consideration.
keywords: Critical systems; critical systems; Dangerous chemical plant; dangerous chemical plant; economic and sociologic effects; safety; Safety systems; safety systems; Software reliability; software reliability; Uncertainty; uncertainty
thesaurus: Economic and sociologic effects; Safety; Software reliability
|Nov 1992||Trends in Micromechanics: Micron Machinations|
|Nov 1992||Visualizing Biological Molecules||
The form of a protein strongly influences its function, so creating accurate pictures of biological molecules is an important goal. It has been magnificently achieved by the power of the computer to create images that combine art and engineering.
keywords: Antibodies; antibodies; Biochemistry; biochemistry; biology computing; Chemical reaction; chemical reaction; chemistry computing; Complex molecules; complex molecules; Computer aided molecular design; computer aided molecular design; computer graphics; data visualisation; digital simulation; Drug design; drug design; Enzymes; enzymes; Foreign molecules; foreign molecules; macromolecules; Molecular biology; molecular biology; Molecular images; molecular images; Molecule dynamics; molecule dynamics; physics computing; Protein structures; protein structures; Scientific visualisation; scientific visualisation; computer graphics; molecular design; molecular images; NMR spectroscopy; scanning probe microscopy; visualizing biological molecules; x-ray crystallography
thesaurus: Biology computing; Chemistry computing; Computer graphics; Data visualisation; Digital simulation; Macromolecules; Physics computing
|Nov 1992||The Big Bang of Animal Evolution||
About 600 million years ago a remarkable burst of evolutionary creativity simultaneously gave rise to the basic body plans of all modern, multicellular animals. Why fundamentally new designs for living creatures seem not to have emerged from the evolutionary cauldron since then is one of the great mysteries of biology. Several possible explanations for the stability come up short.
|Nov 1992||Sighting Cepheid Variables|
|Nov 1992||Linguistic Origins of Native Americans||
The first Native Americans to settle in the New World brought with them their genes and their languages. A comparative analysis of the many native tongues reveals three distinct language families, indicating that the Americas were originally populated by three successive waves of immigration from Asia.
|Nov 1992||Astronomy in the Age of Columbus||
Columbus's discovery that a vast, unknown landmass lay between Europe and Asia vividly demonstrated that ancient knowledge of the world was woefully incomplete. The geographic revolution that followed paved the way for unorthodox astronomical ideas, including the sun-centered cosmology of Copernicus.
keywords: Columbus's geodesy; heliocentric doctrine; history of astronomy; planetary positions; spherical earth
|Nov 1992||Micron Machinations||
Researchers are borrowing chip-making technology to produce an array of motors, gears and other mechanical parts so small as to be dwarfed by the point of a pin or held in the pincers of an ant. More than displays of technical virtuosity, these minuscule gadgets may have uses ranging from the fabrication of devices capable of extremely dense data storage to instruments for microsurgery.
|Nov 1992||Science and Business||
Making work work ... More funds for Sematech? ... Biotechnology tackles second messengers ... Artificial intelligence in drug development ... A sound solution for refrigerators ... The Analytical Economist: When the poor are good credit risks.
|Nov 1992||The Amateur Scientist||
Plotting the period of Cepheid variable stars.
The first accountants ... Binding chemistry ... Structural failures.
Scientists, not M.B.A.'s, should be the captains of industry.
|Dec 1992||Letters to the Editor||
A quantum experiment worth trying ... The Ahab of the top quark?
|Dec 1992||50 and 100 Years Ago||
1892: An ingenious way to view photographs in full color.
|Dec 1992||New Challenges for 1993||
Science and technology proceed through a powerful dynamic in which answers breed yet more powerful questions. This past year discoveries about black holes, neurotransmitters, the origin of modern humans and many other subjects will propel basic research to deeper levels of inquiry. Demands for enhanced performance by users of computer networks, advanced materials and electronics will challenge the creativity of engineers.
|Dec 1992||Learning from Asian Schools||
The high achievement of Asian students contrasts with the performance of their peers in the U.S. But the reasons for the difference have not been studied systematically. Now a comparison of urban schools in Asia and America leads the author to an astonishingly simple conclusion: Asians excel because school is enjoyable, parents expect performance, and professionalism in teaching is fostered.
|Dec 1992||Extremely Cold Antiprotons||
The technology for capturing antimatter so that it can be scrutinized in the laboratory has advanced rapidly. Antiprotons cooled to energies one ten-billionth of those possible just six years ago can be stored for months. These trapped particles are already providing exceedingly accurate measurements of mass and charge. Soon researchers hope to produce the first antimatter atoms of hydrogen.
keywords: Antimatter atoms; antimatter atoms; Antiprotons; antiprotons; Au-plated Cu ring; CERN; Cooling; cooling; Cyclotron frequency; cyclotron frequency; Ion trap; ion trap; particle sources; particle traps; Slowing; slowing
thesaurus: Cooling; Particle sources; Particle traps
|Dec 1992||Trends in Biology: Why Do We Age?|
|Dec 1992||Directed Molecular Evolution||
When a horticulturist wants a redder rose and a cat fancier desires a fluffier Persian, they choose stocks that exemplify those traits and breed the progeny selectively. Similarly, techniques for amplifying, mutating and selecting the most promising macromolecules from large populations are enabling biochemists to imitate nature and direct the evolution of new drugs and catalysts.
|Dec 1992||Christmas in the House of Chaos|
|Dec 1992||What Columbus ``Saw'' in 1492||
Christopher Columbus set sail from Spain with a clear idea of his intended destination. When he found himself in quite another --- and unknown --- place, his observations of the land and its inhabitants were colored by his expectations and his desire to justify the expedition to his royal patrons. The result was a complicated, and sometimes contradictory, impression of the New World.
keywords: Columbus's preconceptions; Columbus's reports; medieval maps; mythical monsters; native Americans; New World
|Dec 1992||The Human Voice||
Despite centuries of fascination with the voices of singers and actors, the nature of human vocalization remained largely a mystery. Over the past two decades, interdisciplinary collaborations and advances in technology have clarified the way vocal sounds originate and change. Improvements in diagnostic techniques and treatments for voice complaints have reduced the need for surgery.
|Dec 1992||Experimental Market Economics||
It is no accident that economics is dubbed ``the dismal science.'' While other scientists conducted controlled experiments, economists had to infer the dynamics of the marketplace from prices and trading volume. Now computerized laboratories are illuminating the principles that govern trading decisions.
|Dec 1992||Meaning and Mind in Monkeys||
Do utterances of monkeys reflect thought? The authors have concluded that the different alarm calls of vervet monkeys resemble human words in that they convey specific, semantic information. Yet monkeys apparently communicate without the knowledge or recognition of one another's mental state.
|Dec 1992||Why Do We Age?||
Researchers probing one of the great mysteries of life are beginning to make solid progress. By creating unusually long-lived varieties of laboratory organisms, they are revealing some of the mechanisms that may contribute to deterioration and death --- and they are uncovering the genes that control those processes.
|Dec 1992||Mathematical Recreations||
Combining order and chaos to decorate the Yule tree.
|Dec 1992||Book Reviews||
The season's selections for young readers.
Why is English still the lingua franca of science?
Compiled by Dave Lo, based on Nelson H. F. Beebe's Bibliographies Page, © Scientific American