Scientific American 1970-1992 Article Index

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May 1948The Future of the Amazon

keywords: Amazon; developing countries; economic planning; electric power; forest management; mineral resources; resource prospecting; tropical rain forest

May 1948The Man-apes of South Africa

keywords: Australopithecus Paranthropus; human evolution; man-apes; Plesianthropus; primates

May 1948Concerning `Social Physics'

keywords: `social physics'; physical sciences; social sciences; statistics

May 1948Vesalius: Discoverer of the Human Body

keywords: human anatomy; medical history; Renaissance; Vesalius

May 1948The Dust Cloud Hypothesis

keywords: cosmology; dust cloud hypothesis; gravitational collapse; gravity; light pressure; solar system; Sun; thermonuclear reaction

May 1948The Luminescence of Living Things

keywords: `cold light'; abyssal fish; bioluminescence; firefly; glow worm; luciferase

May 1948Davisson and Germer

keywords: Davisson-Germer experiment; diffraction; electron; electron diffraction; interference fringes; wave-particle duality

May 1948Smelting under Pressure

keywords: blast furnace; iron ore; smelting; steel production

Jun 1948The National Science Foundation

keywords: fundamental research; National Science Foundation (NSF); science education; science funding; university research

Jun 1948Histoplasmosis: the Unknown Infection

keywords: airborne infection; coccidioidomycosis; epidemiology; fungal infection; histoplasmosis; respiratory infection

Jun 1948The Army Ant

keywords: ants; army ant; comparative psychology; feedback; insect behavior; natural history; pheromones; philosophy of science; reproduction; social insect; trophallaxis

Jun 1948The Ultimate Particles

keywords: electron; elementary particles; mesons; neutrino; neutron; nuclear binding force; particle accelerator; particle counters; photon; positron; proton

Jun 1948The Biology of Old Age

keywords: aging; death; life expectancy

Jun 1948If a Slave Girl Fled...

keywords: cuneiform script; Hammurabi; law code; Lipit-Ishtar; Sumer

Jul 1948Recovery of Europe (C.E. Report)

keywords: East-West trade; Economic Commission for Europe; economic development; European economy; industrial reconstruction; trade deficit

Jul 1948Antiquity of Modern Man

keywords: Charente skull; Galley Hill skull; Homo sapiens; Neanderthal man; Swanscombe cranium

Jul 1948Galaxies in Flight

keywords: `synthetic' elements; cosmology; element abundance; galactic recession; red shift; universe expansion

Jul 1948Allergy: A Definition

keywords: allergy; antibodies; antigens; hypersensitivity; immune reaction; serum sickness

Jul 1948Physics and Music

keywords: acoustics; harmony; musical scale; physics; piano; string instruments; voice; wind instruments

Jul 1948Insect Vision

keywords: color perception; compound eye; insect behavior; insect eye; optical resolution

Jul 1948The Beginnings of Coal

keywords: Carboniferous period; coal; flora; fossil; Mississippian period; Pennsylvanian period; tropical flora

Jul 1948The Philips Air Engine

keywords: external combustion engines; heat engines; hot-air engine; Philips air engine; Stirling engine

Aug 1948Measurement by Mercury

keywords: interference fringes; interferometry; mercury 198; standard of length

Sep 1948The Transistor: Basic research in the electrical properties of solids has opened up an entirely new way of manipulating electrons to do useful work
Nov 1948Gulliver was a bad biologist
Jan 1949The Invention of Analytic Geometry

keywords: analytic geometry; conic sections; Descartes; Euler; Fermat; mathematics; mathematics history

Aug 1949Galileo

keywords: Galileo; gravity; inertia; moons of Jupiter

Dec 1949The Nobel Prizes
May 1950An Imitation of Life

Reports experiments with two autonomous, electronic ``turtles'' --- Elmer & Elsie --- equipped with various sensors and simple control circuitry which wander around their environment and interact with one another.

keywords: ai-history; ai-philos; ai-robotics; history

Jul 1950The Limits of Measurement

keywords: Brownian motion; measurement; Planck's constant; time; uncertainty principle; velocity

Feb 1951Friction

keywords: `coppering'; Coulomb; friction; Leonardo; molecular cohesion; sliding surfaces; technology history

Jul 1951The Theory of Numbers

keywords: binary arithmetic; composite numbers; magic squares; number theory; prime number

Aug 1951A Machine that Learns

Further experiments with Elmer & Elsie.

keywords: ai-history; ai-philos; ai-robotics; history

Mar 1952Stream Pollution

keywords: biological oxygen demand; radioactive waste disposal; sewage treatment; stream pollution; water pollution

Nov 1952Is There an Infinity?

keywords: Cantor; cardinal number; equivalent sets; infinity; set theory

May 1953Mars
Nov 1953How Children Form Mathematical Concepts
Nov 1954The Origin of Meteorites
Jan 1955Projective Geometry

keywords: Desargue's theorem; Duer; Leonardo; mathematics; Pascal's theorem; projective geometry; Renaissance paintings

Feb 1955Game Theory and Decisions

keywords: decision theory; games theory; minimax; mixed strategy; pure strategy; worst-case analysis

Apr 1955Man Viewed as a Machine

keywords: man-machine; refs-general

May 1955The Monte Carlo Method

keywords: Buffon needle problem; mathematics; Monte Carlo method; probability; random numbers

Oct 1955Maupertuis, A Forgotten Genius
Dec 1955Isaac Newton
Jun 1956The Chemistry of Jupiter

keywords: frozen free radicals; hydrazine radical; imine radical; Jupiter

Sep 1956The Distribution of Galaxies

keywords: cosmology; galactic clusters; gravitation; Monte Carlo method; probability; universe

Oct 1956Artificial Living Plants

Proposal for a species of self-reproducing machines which would mine and refine raw materials to construct offspring, and which would then be harvested for the materials from which they constructed themselves.

keywords: alt-mat; applications; automata-biol; plants

Jan 1957Chemical Milling
Nov 1957Subjective Probability

keywords: decision making; gambling; Monte Carlo fallacy; probability; psychology; subjective probability

Jan 1958Experiments in Discrimination
Sep 1958The Creative Process

keywords: creativity; Leonardo; philosophy of science; Renaissance; scientific revolution

Dec 1958Mathematical Sieves

keywords: mathematics; prime number; science history; sieve of Eratosthenes

Apr 1959The Solar System Beyond Neptune

keywords: Neptune; orbital motion; Pluto; solar system

Jun 1959Self-Reproducing Machines

Self-reproducing machines constructed out of simple mechanical blocks which can hook onto one another to form chains.

keywords: history; self-rep

Dec 1959Computer Music

keywords: computer music; information theory; music; redundancy

Jan 1960The Green Flash
Jan 1961The Growth of Snow Crystals
Jan 1962The fine structure of the gene
Jun 1962The Schooling of Fishes

Study of the development of schooling behavior in young fish.

keywords: schooling

Jan 1963The Lesson of the Pygmies
Jul 1963The Voyage of Mariner II

keywords: Mariner 2; navigation; orbital motion; space exploration; telemetry; Venus

Jul 1964Radio Waves from Jupiter

keywords: Jupiter; magnetic field; radio emissions; Van Allen belts

Jul 1964Computer Experiments in Chemistry

keywords: computer modeling; gas kinetics; mathematical model; Monte Carlo method

Sep 1964Probability

keywords: Brownian motion; combinatorial analysis; Markov chain; mathematics; normal curve; Pascal's triangle; probability; statistics

Sep 1964Mathematics in the Biological Sciences

Moore predicts that the most significant applications of mathematics in the biological sciences will stem from the analysis of problems in the theory of computing machines.

Aug 1965Infrared Astronomy

keywords: atmospheric windows; extraterrestrial life; infrared astronomy; Jupiter; Mars; moon; spectrometry; Venus

Sep 1965The superellipse: A curve that lies between the ellipse and the rectangle
Nov 1965Microelectronics

keywords: electronic components industry; integrated circuits; microelectronics; silicon `chips'; transistor

Jan 1966The Ranger Missions to the Moon

keywords: lunar exploration; lunar surface; moon; space exploration; spacecraft design

Mar 1966The Voyage of Mariner IV

keywords: artificial satellite; Mariner 4; Mars; space exploration; spacecraft; spacecraft navigation; telemetry

Apr 1966The Photographs from Mariner IV

keywords: computer enhancement; computer graphics; Mariner IV photographs; Mars; Martian topography; space exploration; telemetry; television camera

Apr 1966Early Metallurgy in the New World

keywords: copper; gold; lost-wax casting; metallurgy; New World archaeology; Old Copper culture; Peru

May 1966The Scientific Experiments of Mariner IV

keywords: atmosphere; cosmic radiation; interplanetary space; magnetosphere; Mariner 4; Mars; micrometeorites; solar wind; space exploration; trapped radiation

Sep 1966Information

keywords: binary arithmetic; computer applications; computer industry; computer privacy; computer technology; information theory

Sep 1966Information Storage and Retrieval

keywords: computer technology; electronic scanner; information retrieval; information storage; library science; microfiche; microrecording

Jan 1967Electric Currents in Organic Crystals
Nov 1967The Sociology of the Nobel Prizes

keywords: education; Nobel prizes; scientific careers; sociology; university education

Jul 1968Radar observations of the planets

keywords: astronomical observations; general relativity; planets

Jul 1968X-ray crystallography

keywords: teaching; X-ray crystallography

Aug 1968High-power carbon dioxide lasers

keywords: carbon compounds; gas lasers

Aug 1968The infrared sky

keywords: astronomical observations; astronomical telescopes

Aug 1968Movements of the eye

keywords: cameras; eye

Sep 1968Light
Oct 1968Pulsars

keywords: radiofrequency cosmic radiation

Oct 1968Cargo-handling

keywords: batch-processing; load dispatching; materials handling

Oct 1968How fast can computers add?

keywords: computer facilities

Nov 1968Strong and ductile steels

keywords: alloys; brittleness; mechanical strength; steel

Nov 1968Artificial plasma clouds in space

keywords: ionosphere; magnetosphere; space research

Dec 1968Radio signals from hydroxyl radicals

keywords: free radicals; oxygen compounds; radiofrequency cosmic radiation

Dec 1968Sea-floor spreading

keywords: oceanography

Jan 1969Seyfert galaxies

keywords: galaxies

Mar 1969Brownian Motion and Potential Theory

keywords: Brownian motion; harmonic functions; potential theory; probabilistic potential theory

Mar 1969The Atmospheres of Mars and Venus

keywords: atmosphere; Mars; space exploration; Venus

May 1969Typesetting

keywords: cathode-ray tube; computer applications; digital computer; electronic typesetting; mechanical composition; photographic typesetting; printing

Jul 1969Systems analysis of urban transportation

keywords: engineering applications of computers; simulation; transportation

Jul 1969Neutrinos from the sun

keywords: cosmic ray apparatus; cosmic ray neutrinos; solar cosmic ray particles

Jul 1969Liquid metals

keywords: liquid metals

Aug 1969Metallising

keywords: diffusion in solids; electrolysis; metallurgy

Aug 1969The size and shape of atomic nuclei

keywords: nuclear size

Sep 1969The origin of the oceans

keywords: oceanography

Sep 1969The atmosphere and the ocean

keywords: atmospheric movements; atmospheric pressure and density; atmospheric temperature; oceanography

Oct 1969Acoustical holography

keywords: holography

Nov 1969Amorphous-semiconductor switching

keywords: amorphous state; semiconductor devices; semiconductor switches

Nov 1969Magnetic recording

keywords: recording

Dec 1969New methods for approaching absolute zero

keywords: low-temperature production; reviews

Dec 1969Measuring Earth strains by laser

keywords: laser beam applications; light interferometers; seismology

Jan 1970Aerodynamic whistle

keywords: acoustic noise; acoustic waves; aerodynamics

Jan 1970The shapes of organic molecules

keywords: molecular rotation; organic molecule configurations and dimensions; reaction kinetics

Jan 1970Gigantopithecus

keywords: Australopithecus; Gigantopithecus; hominid; human evolution; pongids

Feb 1970Large-scale integration in electronics

keywords: circuits; large scale integration

Feb 1970Particles that go faster than light

keywords: elementary particles; general relativity

Mar 1970The lunar laser reflector

keywords: laser beam applications; length measurement; Moon

Mar 1970Monomolecular layers and light

keywords: light absorption; light interference; luminescence; organic compounds

Apr 1970Liquid-crystal display devices

keywords: colour; display systems; electric field effects; liquid crystals

May 1970The Surface of Mars

keywords: cratering; Mariner 6; Mariner 7; Mars; orbital motion; polar cap; telemetry; television camera

May 1970`Second sound' in solid helium

keywords: solid helium

May 1970How We Remember What We See

keywords: image processing; linguistic material; memory; perception; visual memory

Jun 1970The origin of galaxies

keywords: galaxies

Jun 1970Computer Displays

keywords: computer graphics; display systems

Jul 1970Globular-cluster stars

keywords: age; globular clusters; stars; stellar evolution

Jul 1970Network analysis

keywords: computer networks; cost reduction; critical path analysis; digital computers; effectiveness; flow; flow handling systems; gas pipelines; mathematics; network analysis; power grids; power transmission; reliability

Jul 1970Negative viscosity

keywords: eddies; fluid systems; hydrodynamics; negative viscosity; nonuniform flows; rotating systems; viscosity

Aug 1970The lunar soil

keywords: Moon

Aug 1970Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators

keywords: linear accelerators

Oct 1970The breakup of Pangaea

keywords: geophysics

Oct 1970The fundamental physical constants

keywords: physics fundamentals

Oct 1970Mathematical Games: The Fantastic Combinations of John Conway's New Solitaire Game `Life'

The original description of Conway's game of LIFE. See Bays:1987:CGL.

keywords: CA-LIFE

Nov 1970Fast breeder reactors

keywords: nuclear reactors

Nov 1970Superdense water

keywords: liquid structure; water

Nov 1970Why the sea is salt

keywords: seawater

Dec 1970The absorption lines of quasi-stellar objects

keywords: absorption line shifts; astronomical spectra; emission lines; quasars; quasi-stellar objects; red shift; red shifts; spectra

Dec 1970Optical interference coatings

keywords: film stacks; light interference; optical components; optical films; optical interference coatings; optical materials

Dec 1970Permanent magnets

keywords: alloys; cobalt compounds; cobalt-rare earth alloys; ferromagnetic properties of substances; magnetic materials; magnetic properties; magnets; permanent magnets

Jan 1971The nature of pulsars

keywords: Crab Nebula; neutron stars in rapid rotation hypothesis; pulsars

Jan 1971Circuit breakers

keywords: circuit breakers; circuit breaking arc dousing; circuit-breaking arcs

Feb 1971Solid stars

keywords: density; matter; neutron stars; pulsars; rigidity; solid stars; stars; white dwarfs

Feb 1971The prospects of fusion power

keywords: feasibility; fusion power; fusion reactors; nuclear power; nuclear reactors; plasma containers

Feb 1971The fastest computer

keywords: computer; ILLIAC IV; multiprocessing systems; overlapping; pipelining; processing units; simultaneous operation; ultimate limitations

Feb 1971Leonardo on Bearings and Gears

keywords: bearing; friction; gears; Leonardo; technology history

Feb 1971Mathematical Games: On Cellular Automata, Self-Reproduction, The Garden of Eden and the Game of `Life'

Follow-up article on LIFE and other CA rules.

keywords: automata-selfrepro; automata-theory; CA; CA-LIFE

Mar 1971The magnetic structure of superconductors

keywords: magnetic field effects; magnetic fields; magnetic structure; superconducting materials; superconducting metals

Apr 1971A high-resolution scanning electron microscope

keywords: electron microscopy; high resolution scanning electron microscopy

Apr 1971Advances in pattern recognition

keywords: character recognition equipment; experimental reading machine; pattern recognition

Apr 1971Superconductivity at high pressure

keywords: high pressure; high-pressure phenomena and effects; metals; pressure chamber; superconductivity

May 1971Mercury in the Environment

keywords: mercury cycle; mercury poisoning; mercury pollution; Minamata disease

May 1971The detection of gravitational waves

keywords: galactic centre; gravitational radiation bursts; gravitational waves; gravitational waves detection; theory of relativity

May 1971The evolution of quasars

keywords: evolution of quasars; quasars

May 1971The induction coil

keywords: coils; induction coil

Jun 1971Fusion by laser

keywords: fusion reactions; fusion reactors; laser applications; laser beam applications; nuclear fusion

Jun 1971The structure of the proton and the neutron

keywords: electron-proton scattering; neutron; neutron scattering; proton; proton scattering; scattering; ultrahigh energy electrons

Jun 1971Magnetic bubbles

keywords: computer memory; cylindrical domains; domains; ferromagnetic garnets; ferromagnetic properties of substances; magnetic bubbles; magnetic devices; magnetic film stores; magnetic storage devices; magnetic thin film devices; magnetisation; thin films

Jul 1971A new class of diode lasers

keywords: carrier wave generators; communications; diode lasers; heterostructures; semiconductor lasers

Jul 1971Supernova remnants

keywords: catastrophic stellar explosions; debris; emitted radiation; novae; supernova remnants

Jul 1971Photons as hadrons

keywords: hadrons; photons

Aug 1971The magnetism of the Moon

keywords: Apollo 12; Apollo 14; astronauts; electric currents; fossil magnetic material; lunar interior; lunar magnetic field; lunar surface; magnetic field measurement; magnetism; magnetometers; Moon; permanent magnetic fields; rock magnetism; solar wind magnetic field; transient fields

Sep 1971Energy in the universe

keywords: cosmology; energy flows; gravitation; nuclear reactions; nuclear reactions and scattering; radiation; universe

Sep 1971The energy resources of the earth

keywords: Earth; earth; earth's heat; energy resources; fission fuels; fossil fuels; fusion fuels; solar energy; the tides

Sep 1971The conversion of energy

keywords: automobile engines; conversion of energy; demand for energy; earth's heat load; energy resources; energy source; furnaces; light bulbs; steam turbines

Sep 1971Energy and information (thermodynamics and information theory)

keywords: energy; information; information theory; thermodynamics

Nov 1971New superconductors

keywords: alloys; high superconducting transition temperatures; intermetallic compounds; layered materials; organic molecules; structural and chemical conditions; superconducting materials; superconductor anisotropy; superconductors

Dec 1971The Gum nebula

keywords: Gum nebula; nebulae; reviews

Dec 1971The rotation of the Earth

keywords: Earth rotation; Earth rotation nonuniformities; earthquakes; seismology; wobble

Jan 1972The scanning electron microscope

keywords: cathode ray picture tube; electron microscopes; electron tubes; scanning electron microscope; three dimensional pictures

Jan 1972Geothermal power

keywords: Earth's heat; energy resources; explorings; geophysical prospecting; geothermal power; hot water; steam; terrestrial heat

Jan 1972The spectrum of the airglow

keywords: airglow; airglow spectrum; chemical processes; physical conditions; upper atmosphere

Feb 1972Technology assessment and microwave diodes

keywords: economic and sociological effects; EM spectrum efficient use; health hazards; microwave devices; microwave diodes; microwave technology; social complications; technology assessment; telecommunication

Feb 1972The synthesis of speech

keywords: acoustics; data communication systems; digital computers; speech synthesis; synthesis of speech; voices for computers

Feb 1972The pressure of laser light

keywords: applications; focused beam; laser beam applications; laser light; radiation pressure

Feb 1972Intercontinental radio astronomy

keywords: electromagnetic wave interferometry; interferometers; radio astronomy; radio sources; radioastronomy; radiotelescopes; structures of quasars

Mar 1972Electrostatics

keywords: charged body; contact electrification; corona discharge; electrostatics; field; fly ash precipitators; meteorological effects; modern applications; paint sprayers; particles of matter; photography; Xerography; Xerox copying machines

Mar 1972How did Kepler discover his first two laws?

keywords: celestial mechanics; distance; distances; ellipse; epicycle theory; first two laws; initial hypothesis; Kepler; Mars; orbit of Mars; planet; planetary motion; planets; Ptolemy; sun; Sun; Tycho Brahe

Apr 1972Collective-effect accelerators

keywords: collective effect accelerators; particle accelerators; proton accelerators

Apr 1972Tides and the Earth-Moon system

keywords: Earth; Earth Moon system; evolution; Moon; oceanography; origin; tidal friction

Apr 1972Superconductors for power transmission

keywords: power cables; power transmission; superconducting devices; superconductors; underground cables; underground lines

May 1972How we control the contraction of our muscles

keywords: automatic feedback system; biocontrol; man-machine systems; muscle contraction; power assisted steering; servomechanism; voluntary muscular movements

May 1972Black holes

keywords: black holes; gravitational collapse; gravitational waves; massive star collapse; radiation of gravitational waves; stellar radiation

Jun 1972Organic matter in meteorites

keywords: carbonaceous chondrites; meteorites; organic matter

Jun 1972Contour and contrast

keywords: contour; contrast; neural mechanisms; vision

Jul 1972The X-ray sky

keywords: celestial X-ray sources; clouds of Magellar; Crab Nebula; galaxies; neutron star; pulsar; pulsars; quasar; quasars; state of the art; X-ray sources (astronomical)

Jul 1972The Tokamak approach in fusion research

keywords: confinement; controlled fusion; diffuse pinch; fusion research; heating; high temperature plasmas; nuclear reactors; plasma confinement; thermonuclear reactor feasibility; Tokamak approach; toroidal plasma

Sep 1972Communication channels

keywords: coaxial cables; communication channels; optical channels; optical links; radio waves; reviews; telecommunication; telecommunications; wires

Sep 1972Communication networks

keywords: branch minimization; capacity; communication networks; reviews; switching

Sep 1972Communication terminals

keywords: communication networks; communication terminals; reviews

Oct 1972Acoustic surface waves

keywords: acoustic surface waves; acoustoelectric effects; electronic devices; piezoelectric devices; semiconductor devices; signal recognition; signal separation; signal storage

Oct 1972The carbon chemistry of the moon

keywords: analysis; Apollo samples; carbon chemistry; life origin; moon; Moon; organic compounds

Oct 1972The texture of the nuclear surface

keywords: alpha particles; cluster; neutrons; nuclear cluster model; nuclear size; nuclear surface; nuclei of atoms; protons; texture

Nov 1972Microcircuits by Electron Beam

keywords: circuit components; computer technology; computer-controlled fabrication; electron beam applications; electron beam tracing; electron optics; electronic circuits; integrated circuits; microcircuit fabrication; monolithic integrated circuits; Si chips; silicon `chips'; transistors

Nov 1972Pictorial perception and culture

keywords: Africa; culture; learning; pictorial perception; pictures; vision

Nov 1972Exotic atoms

keywords: 6.2 BeV accelerator; exotic atoms; kaonic atoms; mesic and muonic atoms; reviews; X-ray photons

Dec 1972The tensile strength of liquids

keywords: liquids; tensile strength

Jan 1973Mars from Mariner 9

keywords: erosion; evidence; information; internal heating; Mariner 9; Mariner 9 results; Mars; Martian atmosphere; Martian topography; planets; polar cap; solar system; space exploration

Jan 1973The control of sensitivity in the retina

keywords: ambient illumination; eye; high contrast; nerve cell interactions; neural image; neurophysiology; response range; retina; sensitivity; sensitivity control

Jan 1973Conduction electrons in metals

keywords: band structure; conduction electrons; crystal; crystal electron states; electrical properties; electrical properties of substances; energy structure; metal theory; metals; quasi-particles; quasiparticles

Jan 1973Snow crystals

keywords: arrangement; crystal growth; formation conditions; natural environment; snow; snow crystals; specific appearance; water molecules

Feb 1973The microstructure of the ocean

keywords: mapping; microstructure; ocean; oceanography; saltiness; seawater; stirred; temperature; temperature distribution; tides; wind; winds

Feb 1973Metal-vapor lasers

keywords: continuous laser radiation; gas; gas lasers; laser light; metal vapour lasers; power levels; vaporized metal; wide range of wavelengths

Feb 1973Rotation in high-energy astrophysics

keywords: energy; enormous magnetic fields; gravitational collapse; gravitational contraction; high energy astrophysics; magnetohydrodynamics; pulsars; quasars; radiosources; radiosources (astronomical); rapid rotation; rotating bodies; rotation

Mar 1973The fine structure of the earth's interior

keywords: core; Earth interior; earth's interior; fine structure; seismic wave analysis; seismology; solid kernel

Mar 1973Interstellar molecules

keywords: formation mechanisms; interstellar matter; interstellar molecules; review; reviews; spectroscopy

Mar 1973Bicycle Technology

keywords: bicycle technology; economic development; technology history

Apr 1973The brightest infrared sources

keywords: brightest; celestial objects; debris; infrared astronomy; infrared sources; review; reviews; stars

Apr 1973Science and the citizen
Apr 1973The control of the water cycle

keywords: atmosphere; control; general circulation; hydrologic studies; terrestrial atmosphere; water; water cycle

Apr 1973Ion implantation

keywords: accelerator; doping; impurity atoms; ion implantation; ionized atoms; microelectronic devices; precision; technique; theory

May 1973Cryptography and Computer Privacy

keywords: code security; computer privacy; cryptography

May 1973Galileo's Discovery of the Law of Free Fall

keywords: falling-body velocity; free fall; Galileo; Merton rule; science history

Jun 1973The dynamics of the Andromeda Nebula

keywords: Andromeda galaxy; dust; dynamics; galaxies; gas; M31; NGC 224; spectrographic observations; spiral galaxy; stars; stellar spectrophotometry

Jun 1973Ultrafast phenomena in liquids and solids

keywords: fluorescence; frequency spectra; laser beam applications; laser pulses; liquids; relaxation time; solids; ultrafast phenomena

Jun 1973Electronic numbers

keywords: diodes; display systems; electronic calculators; electronic numbers; integrated circuit; reviews; transistors

Jun 1973An advice-taking chess computer

keywords: arithmetical operation of the computer; chess computer; computer aided instruction; games of skill; logical operations of the computer

Jul 1973The physics of brasses

keywords: acoustic energy; acoustic impedance; brasses; fundamental; harmonics; impedance patterns; instrument; instrument's bell; musical acoustics; musical instruments; musical tones; player's lips; playing frequency; standing waves; trumpet; vibrations

Jul 1973Advanced composite materials

keywords: advanced materials; composite materials; properties

Jul 1973Meteorites and cosmic radiation

keywords: bombarded; cosmic radiation; cosmic ray particles; cosmic rays; exposure age; history; meteorites; nuclear products; origin; size; solar system; space vacuum

Jul 1973Plate tectonics and mineral resources

keywords: continental drift; deposits; location; metals; mineral resources; minerals; oil; plate tectonics; sea floor spreading; tectonics

Aug 1973Experiments with neutrino beams

keywords: accelerators; neutrino beams; neutrino interactions; neutrinos

Aug 1973Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Technology

keywords: electronic calculators; integrated circuits; metal-oxide semiconductors; microelectronics; monolithic integrated circuits; MOS fabrication technique; pocket calculators; silicon `chips'; silicon chip; transistor

Aug 1973The evolution of the Andes

keywords: Andes; Earth crust; Earth's crust; evolution; geology; mountain belts; seismology

Oct 1973Electromagnetic flight

keywords: electromagnetic flight; high speed ground transportation; magnetic levitation; transportation

Oct 1973The solar corona

keywords: solar corona

Oct 1973Electron-positron collisions

keywords: annihilation; electron positron collisions; positron annihilation

Nov 1973Communication by optical fiber

keywords: fibre optics; optical communication; optical fibres

Nov 1973Proton interactions at high energies

keywords: CERN colliding beam accelerator; energy dependence; interaction probability; proton interactions at high energies; proton-proton interactions

Nov 1973The recognition of faces

keywords: machine recognition; pattern recognition; perception; recognition of faces

Nov 1973The evolution of the Pacific

keywords: crust movement; deep sea drilling; eastern basin; evolution; oceanography; sea floor sediments; Western Pacific basin

Nov 1973Mathematical Games: Fantastic patterns traced by programmed `worms'

Description of Patterson's Worm system. Also see Beeler:1973:PW.

keywords: lattice-model; pattern-formation

Dec 1973Violent tides between galaxies

keywords: computational physics; computer models of galaxies; galaxies; interaction of galaxies; multiple galaxy systems; simulation; tidal distortions; violent tides between galaxies

Dec 1973Laser spectroscopy

keywords: extremely narrow resonances; laser beam applications; laser spectroscopy; molecular spectra; optical absorption spectra of gases; optical emission spectra of gases; spectral line breadth; spectroscopy

Jan 1974The age of the elements

keywords: chemical elements age; chemical elements formation; cosmology; element origin; formation of radioactive nuclei; radioactive dating; spontaneous decay of radioactive nuclei; universe age

Jan 1974The physics of the bowed string

keywords: acoustic noise; acoustic waves; acoustics; bowed string physics; circuit concepts; electromagnetic method of observing string motion; musical acoustics; oscillations; vibrating bodies; vibration measurement; violin string

Feb 1974Charge-coupled devices

keywords: charge-coupled devices; computer memories; image sensors; information storage elements; semiconductor electronics

Feb 1974The nature of comets

keywords: Comet Kohoutek (1973f); comets; Oort cloud; solar nebula

Feb 1974The Batavia accelerator

keywords: 400 GeV; Batavia accelerator; Illinois synchrotron; proton accelerator; proton accelerators; superconducting magnet ring; superconducting magnets; synchrotrons

Mar 1974A dynamic model of cell membranes

keywords: cell membranes; cell nuclei; cell organelles; cells; cellular biophysics; dynamic model; lipid molecules; membrane proteins; membranes; protein molecules

Mar 1974The chemistry of the solar system

keywords: cloud; planetary satellites; planets; solar system; Sun; sun

Mar 1974Inorganic polymers

keywords: inorganic polymers; macromolecular configurations and dimensions; polymerisation; silicon compounds; sulphur compounds

May 1974Computer Graphics in Architecture
Jun 1974Rotating Chemical Reactions

keywords: pacemaker, chemical, spiral, reaction

Jul 1974Unified theories of elementary-particle interaction

keywords: electron; elementary particle interaction; elementary particle interactions; elementary particle symmetry; force; graviton; mutual interactions; neutrino; neutron; photon; physical phenomena; proton; unified theories

Jul 1974The glory

keywords: atmospheric optics; glory; prismatic colours; sunlight scattering; water droplets

Aug 1974The cosmic background radiation

keywords: astronomical spectra; big bang; cosmic background radiation; cosmology; galactic cosmic rays; gamma rays; microwaves; radio waves; sky brightness; X rays

Aug 1974Superhard materials (crystal binding)

keywords: bonds; boron compounds; crystal binding; cubic BN; diamond; hardness; orientation; strength; superhard materials

Oct 1974The structure of emission nebulas

keywords: cloud of interstellar gas; emission nebulas; ion distribution; nebulae; structure; three colour photography

Dec 1974The search for black holes

keywords: binary stars; black holes; Cygnus X-1; massive star; orbit; X-ray source; X-ray sources (astronomical)

Dec 1974The solidification of castings

keywords: cast metal; castings; solidification

Dec 1974The detection of neutral weak currents

keywords: detection of neutral weak currents; electromagnetic force; elementary particle weak interactions; neutral currents; neutrino interactions; weak force

Jan 1975The nature of asteroids

keywords: asteroids; astronomical spectra; evolution; meteorites; mineralogical composition; minor planets; origin

Feb 1975Computer-managed parts manufacture

keywords: automatic control; batch-processing; computer managed parts manufacturing; control engineering applications of computers; cost reduction; machining parts; manufacturing processes; process control; small batches

Feb 1975The most primitive objects in the solar system (carbonaceous chondrites)

keywords: carbonaceous chondrites; condensed; grains of material; meteorites; mixtures; origin; planets; solar nebula; solar system; unaltered minerals; wide range of temperatures

Feb 1975Dual-resonance models of elementary particles

keywords: dual resonance models; duality and dual models; elementary particles; hadrons; massless strings; multidimensional space; strongly interacting particles

Feb 1975Alfred Wegener and the hypothesis of continental drift

keywords: Alfred Wegener; continental drift hypothesis; geophysics; history; migrations; tectonic theory; tectonics

Mar 1975X-ray-emitting double stars

keywords: binary stars; X-ray emitting double stars; X-ray sources (astronomical)

Mar 1975Interactive human communication
Mar 1975The Earth's mantle

keywords: Earth mantle; earth mantle

Mar 1975Visual Pigments and Color Blindness

keywords: colour blindness; colour vision; cone cell; visual pigments

Apr 1975The rotation of the Sun

keywords: rotating bodies; solar wind; Sun; Sun rotation

Apr 1975The deformation of metals at high temperatures

keywords: deformation of metals; heat treatment; high temperatures; high-temperature phenomena and effects; hot working; metals; plastic deformation

May 1975Earthquake prediction

keywords: Earth crust; Earth crust resistivity; earthquake prediction; plate tectonics; reviews; rock cracks; rock dilatancy; rocks; seismic wave velocities; seismic waves; seismology; terrestrial electricity

May 1975Microcomputers

keywords: computer applications; integrated circuits; metal-oxide semiconductors; microcomputer; microcomputers; microelectronic chips; microelectronic circuits; microelectronics; microprocessors; minicomputers; reviews; silicon `chips'

Jun 1975Electron-positron annihilation and the new particles

keywords: electron positron annihilation; meson production; meson resonances; particle production; positron annihilation; psi particles

Jun 1975Pulsating stars

keywords: composition; fundamental vibration; harmonics; internal architecture; pulsars; pulsating stars; stellar composition; stellar internal processes; stellar structure

Jun 1975Visual motion perception

keywords: vision; visual motion perception

Jul 1975Positrons as a probe of the solid state

keywords: atomic structure; crystal defects; crystalline substance; gamma rays; positron annihilate; positron annihilation in liquids and solids; solid state

Aug 1975Giant radio galaxies

keywords: energetic radio sources; galaxies; giant radio galaxies; radio telescope; radiosources (astronomical)

Aug 1975The floor of the Mid-Atlantic Rift

keywords: continents; Earth crust; lava; Mid Atlantic Rift; ocean floor; tectonics

Sep 1975The solar system

keywords: reviews; solar system; space probes

Sep 1975The origin and evolution of the solar system

keywords: cosmogony; evolution; meteorites; origin; solar system

Sep 1975The Sun

keywords: atmosphere; reviews; solar surface; spacecraft observations; Sun

Sep 1975Mercury

keywords: Mariner 10; Mercury; Mercury (planet); reviews; structure

Sep 1975Venus

keywords: atmosphere; clouds; cratering; Earth; planets; reviews; solar system; surface; temperature; Venus

Sep 1975The Earth

keywords: atmosphere; crust; dynamic activity; Earth; living organisms; reviews

Sep 1975The Moon

keywords: geological record; geologically active outer layers; lunar geology; Moon; reviews; satellite

Sep 1975Mars

keywords: closeup photographs; cratering; Mars; planetary surfaces; reviews

Sep 1975Jupiter

keywords: atmospheric circulation; Great Red Spot; H; He; Jovian moons; Jupiter; liquid layers; liquid planets; massive planets; reviews; solar system; turbulent atmosphere

Sep 1975The outer planets

keywords: composition; Neptune; outer planets; planets; Pluto; remote unexplored planets; reviews; Saturn; Uranus

Sep 1975The smaller bodies of the solar system

keywords: asteroids; collisions; meteoroids; planetesimals; reviews; solar system

Sep 1975Interplanetary particles and fields

keywords: charged particles; energetic bursts; interplanetary fields; interplanetary magnetic fields; interplanetary matter; interplanetary particles; magnetic fields; planets; solar wind

Oct 1975Natural-uranium heavy-water reactors

keywords: U235 enrichment; CANDU system; heavy water; nuclear power station; nuclear power stations; nuclear reactors; unenriched U

Oct 1975Quarks with color and flavor

keywords: charm; colour; elementary particles; flavour; quarks

Oct 1975Image reconstruction from projections

keywords: cross section; image reconstruction; internal organs; mathematical technique; patient diagnosis; projections; radiography; X-ray exposures

Nov 1975The protein switch of muscle contraction

keywords: conformation; macromolecular configurations and dimensions; molecular biophysics; muscle contraction; protein switch; proteins; regulatory proteins; tropomyosin; troponin

Nov 1975High-gradient magnetic separation

keywords: generation; high gradient magnetic separation; strong magnetic fields; very weakly magnetic particles; wastewater purification; water treatment

Nov 1975The subduction of the lithosphere

keywords: Earth crust; Earth mantle; earthquakes; island arcs; lithosphere; mountain ranges; oceanic trenches; subduction; tectonics; volcanoes; volcanology

Nov 1975The synthesis of diamond at low pressure

keywords: crystal growth from vapour; diamond; low pressure gas rich in C; synthesis

Dec 1975X-rays from supernova remnants

keywords: exploding supernova; interstellar medium; supernova remnants; supernovae; X-ray emission; X-ray sources (astronomical)

Dec 1975The microstructure of polymeric materials

keywords: mechanical properties; mechanical properties of substances; microstructure; noncrystalline state structure; polymeric materials; polymers; thermoplastic polymers

Jan 1976The Volcanoes of Mars

keywords: Mariner 9; Mars; planetary surface; size; volcanoes

Jan 1976The search for new families of elementary particles

keywords: elementary particles; high energy neutrinos; hypothetical particles; neutrino interactions; new families

Jan 1976Mirages

keywords: atmosphere; atmospheric optics; light refraction; mirages; optical properties of fluid medium

Feb 1976Is gravity getting weaker?

keywords: cosmology; eclipses of stars; gravitation; gravitational constant; gravitational experiments; gravity; Moon; occultations

Feb 1976Robot systems

keywords: artificial intelligence; automatic control; automatic control mechanisms; control engineering applications of computers; environmental uncertainties; factories; feedback; industrial robots; instructable machines; robots

Mar 1976The meteorology of Jupiter

keywords: atmospheric circulation; Great Red Spot; Jovian meteorology; Jupiter; meteorology; model; planetary atmosphere; planetary atmospheres; planets; solar system; visible features

Mar 1976Will the Universe expand forever?

keywords: average density of matter; big bang; chemical elements age; cosmology; D abundance; recession of distant galaxies; Universe expansion

Mar 1976The resources of binocular perception

keywords: binocular perception; depth information; motion information; stereograms; vision; visual input

Mar 1976The small electronic calculator

keywords: chip circuits; digital integrated circuits; electronic calculators; information processing system; monolithic integrated circuits; single microelectronic chip; small electronic calculator

Mar 1976Fluorescence-activated cell sorting

keywords: animal cells; biological techniques and instruments; cell biology; cellular biophysics; fluorescence; fluorescence activated cell sorting; new technique

Apr 1976Subjective contours

keywords: subjective contours; vision; visual system

Apr 1976The analysis of materials by X-ray absorption

keywords: crystal atomic structure; X-ray absorption; X-ray crystallography technique

May 1976The mass of the photon

keywords: limit of accuracy; mass; photon mass; photons; rest mass

May 1976The Galilean Satellites of Jupiter

keywords: Callisto; Europa; Galilean satellites; Galileo; Ganymede; Io; Jovian satellites; Jupiter; planetary satellites; solar system

May 1976Mechanical alloying

keywords: alloys; cold welding; high energy ball mill; mechanical alloying; metal powders; powder metallurgy; welding

Jun 1976An electron-hole liquid

keywords: electron hole liquid; electron-hole drops; glowing droplets; low temperature; luminescence of inorganic solids; phase diagram; photoluminescence; quantum mechanical fluid; semiconductor crystal; semiconductors; thermal expansion

Jun 1976Navigation between the planets

keywords: aerospace applications of computers; computing methods; Mars; navigation; planets; radionavigation; space communication links; space vehicles; tracking; Viking spacecraft

Jun 1976Historical supernovas

keywords: history; stars; stellar evolution; stellar explosions; supernovae

Jul 1976A natural fission reactor

keywords: U235 abundance; dormant remains; geology; geophysics; minerals; natural fission reactor; nuclear reactors; Oklo deposit; U ore deposit; uranium; West Africa

Jul 1976The geometry of soap films and soap bubbles

keywords: bubbles; configurations; disperse systems; films; geometry; mathematical model; soap bubbles; soap films

Aug 1976Hot spots on the Earth's surface

keywords: Earth surface; fracturing of continents; hot spots; ocean floor spreading; plate tectonics; terrestrial heat; volcanic activity; volcanology

Aug 1976The photographic lens

keywords: aberrations; antireflection coatings; glasses; high performance lenses; optical materials; photographic lens; photographic lenses; plastics; production methods

Aug 1976The Curvature of Space in a Finite Universe

keywords: cosmology; curvature of space; distortion of distances; Einstein's general theory of relativity; finite universe; general relativity; infinity; relativity theory; space curvature

Oct 1976The photovoltaic generation of electricity

keywords: construction; electric power generation; electricity generation; fabrication; operation; photovoltaic devices; Si solar cell; solar cells

Oct 1976Cosmic gamma-ray bursts

keywords: cosmic gamma ray bursts; cosmic ray origin; cosmic ray photons; gamma-ray sources (astronomical); gamma-rays; models; satellite observations

Oct 1976White-light holograms

keywords: holography; incoherent light; light coherence; reviews; white light holograms

Oct 1976Dust storms

keywords: dust; dust storms; Earth; mechanisms; storms; surface; wind

Nov 1976The confinement of quarks

keywords: confinement within particles; forces; quark confinement; quarks

Nov 1976Convection currents in the Earth's mantle

keywords: convection currents; Earth mantle; Earth's mantle; plates; steady motion; tectonics; terrestrial heat

Dec 1976The Pluralistic Economy of the U.S.

keywords: employment; not-for-profit sector; pluralistic economy; private-enterprise sector; productivity; public sector; U.S. economy

Dec 1976The reprocessing of nuclear fuels

keywords: economics; fission power; fission products removal; fission reactor fuel preparation and reprocessing; nuclear fuels; Pu removal; Purex process; reprocessing; spent fuel; U reclamation; USA needs

Dec 1976Negative aftereffects in visual perception

keywords: contingent aftereffect; curve aftereffect; illusions; negative aftereffects; perceptual systems; spiral aftereffect; tilt aftereffect; visual perception

Dec 1976Superfluid helium-3

keywords: electronic structure; frictionless flow; liquid helium-3; magnetic effects; nuclear properties; superconductivity; superfluid He3; superfluid transition; superfluidity

Dec 1976Supernovas in other galaxies

keywords: external galaxies; galaxies; stellar cataclysms; supernovae

Dec 1976Fission-track dating

keywords: age; fission track dating; geophysical techniques; minerals; radioactive dating; spontaneous fission; U traces

Jan 1977The quantum mechanics of black holes

keywords: black holes; laws of thermodynamics; quantum effects; quantum theory; tunnelling

Jan 1977The perception of moving targets

keywords: human visual system; moving targets; nerve circuits; neurophysiology; visual perception

Jan 1977Exoelectrons

keywords: crack detection; cracking; exoelectron emission; exoelectrons; metal fatigue; metal surface; wear

Jan 1977Cratering in the solar system

keywords: craters; inner solar system; planetary history; planets; solar system

Feb 1977Phobos and Deimos

keywords: Deimos; Mariner spacecraft; Mars; Phobos; planetary satellites; Viking spacecraft

Feb 1977Global satellite communications

keywords: global satellite communications; microwave pathways; satellite relay systems; transoceanic communications

Feb 1977Laser separation of isotopes

keywords: isotope separation; laser beam applications; laser separation of isotopes

Feb 1977The response to acetylcholine

keywords: acetylcholine; biomembrane transport; cell membrane; cellular transport and dynamics; muscle cell; muscle contraction; nerve; neuromuscular synapse; neurophysiology; receptors

Mar 1977Superphenix: a full-scale breeder reactor

keywords: 1200 MW power station; construction in France; FBR; fission reactors; full scale breeder reactor; joint European project; nuclear power stations; Superphenix

Mar 1977Waves in the solar wind

keywords: solar wind; velocity waves

Mar 1977The acoustics of the singing voice

keywords: acoustics; larynx; lungs; mouth; musical acoustics; oscillator; pharynx; power supply; resonator; singing voice; speech; vocal folds

Mar 1977The oldest rocks and the growth of continents

keywords: continental crust; dating; Earth age; Earth crust; growth of continents; oldest rocks; tectonic processes; tectonics

Apr 1977The collision between India and Eurasia

keywords: climate; collision; Earth crust; earthquakes; Eurasia; geology; Indian subcontinent; land forms; tectonics; topography

Apr 1977Algorithms

keywords: algorithm; algorithm theory; computer language; computer memory; information retrieval; nonnumerical algorithms

Apr 1977The companions of sunlike stars

keywords: binary stars; multiple star combinations; multiple stars; planetary systems; planets; spectra; stellar spectra; sunlike stars

Apr 1977The theory of the rainbow

keywords: arcs; atmospheric optics; complex angular momentum; geometric optics; history; light reflection; light refraction; light scattering; rain; rainbow; raindrops; reviews; scattered; sunlight

May 1977Amorphous-semiconductor devices

keywords: amorphous semiconductor devices; chalcogenide glasses; electrical conductivity transitions; electronic switches; glassy materials; memory devices; semiconductor devices; semiconductor switches

May 1977The case of the missing sunspots

keywords: 1645 to 1715 period; history; Maunder minimum; missing sunspots; solar activity; sunspots

May 1977The ``jump proof'' and its similarity to the toppling of a row of dominoes
Jun 1977The disposal of radioactive wastes from fission reactors

keywords: deep geological formations; disposal; fission reactors; radioactive waste; radioactive wastes; US nuclear power plants; waste disposal

Jun 1977The uses of synchrotron radiation

keywords: synchrotron radiation; ultraviolet radiation; X-rays

Jun 1977Bok globules

keywords: gas collapse stellar evolution; interstellar dust; interstellar gas; interstellar matter; spherical clouds; stellar evolution

Jul 1977The atmosphere of Mars

keywords: atmosphere; clouds; Mars; planet surface shape; planetary atmospheres; winds

Jul 1977Biological Regeneration and Pattern Formation

Discusses the role of cellular interactions in development.

keywords: biol-behavior; pattern-formation

Jul 1977Anions of the alkali metals

keywords: alkali metal anions; alkali metals; ionisation of atoms; negative ions; very reactive anions

Jul 1977The compound eye of insects

keywords: compound eye; eye; insects; ommatidium

Jul 1977Gauss

keywords: applied physics; astronomy; biographies; biography; Gauss; mathematician; number theory

Aug 1977BL Lacertae objects

keywords: BL Lac-type objects; BL Lacertae objects; intense radiation; nature; radiosources; small nucleus

Aug 1977Light-wave communications

keywords: glass fibres; laser; light wave communications; light wave telephone service; optical communication; solid state light sources; telephone systems

Aug 1977The flow of heat from the Earth's interior

keywords: continental crust; Earth interior; Earth's interior; global heat flow map; heat flow pattern; oceanic crust; plate tectonics; tectonics; terrestrial heat

Aug 1977`Second messengers' in the brain

keywords: brain; chemical messages; long lasting physiological actions; nerve cell communication; neurophysiology; neurotransmitters; second messengers; transient physiological actions

Sep 1977Microelectronics

keywords: economics; electronic circuitry; electronic functions; integrated circuits; microelectronics; monolithic integrated circuits; reviews; silicon `chips'; technological innovation; technology

Sep 1977Special Issue on Microelectronics
Sep 1977Microelectronic circuit elements

keywords: integrated circuits; microelectronic circuit elements; monolithic integrated circuits; reviews; transistor; transistor circuits

Sep 1977The large-scale integration of microelectronic circuits

keywords: Boolean logic; field effect integrated circuits; integrated logic circuits; large scale integration; logic gates; microelectronic circuits; n-MOS technology; reviews

Sep 1977The fabrication of microelectronic circuits

keywords: cost; fabrication; integrated circuit technology; integrated circuits; microelectronic circuits; photolithography; reviews

Sep 1977Microelectronic memories

keywords: charge coupled devices; information storage; integrated circuit memories; integrated memory circuits; magnetic bubble devices; reviews; transistors

Sep 1977Microprocessors

keywords: complete computer systems; microcomputers; microcomputing system; microprocessor; single chip

Sep 1977The role of microelectronics in data processing

keywords: computer architecture; computer systems; data processing; digital integrated circuits; integrated circuits; microelectronics; reviews

Sep 1977The role of microelectronics in instrumentation and control

keywords: automatic control; control; digital instrumentation; digital integrated circuits; industrial processes; instrumentation; integrated circuits; machinery; microelectronics; reviews

Sep 1977The role of microelectronics in communication

keywords: circuit technologies; communication; computerised signal processing; digital integrated circuits; integrated circuits; microelectronics; radio; reviews; signal processing; telephone; television

Sep 1977Micro-electronics and computer science

keywords: computer architecture; computer science; integrated circuits; microelectronics; reviews

Sep 1977Microelectronics and the personal computer

keywords: microelectronics; minicomputers; personal computer

Oct 1977X-ray stars in globular clusters

keywords: accretion; binary stars; black hole; black holes; dense central cores; double stars; globular star clusters; neutron star; neutron stars; stellar radiation; X-ray sources (astronomical); X-ray stars

Oct 1977Fundamental particles with charm

keywords: charm; charm particles; electron positron annihilations; electron-positron inclusive interactions; fundamental particles; high energy physics; quantum mechanical properties; quark models

Oct 1977Side-looking airborne radar

keywords: 1 to 30 cm wavelength; all weather imaging system; cartography; Earth surface topography; geophysical techniques; microwave antennas; microwave images; radar antenna; radar antennas; radar applications; remote sensing; SHF; side looking airborne radar; terrain evaluation; UHF

Nov 1977The Search for Life on Mars

keywords: biological experiments; chemistry; extraterrestrial life; life processes; Mars; planet; space research; surface; Viking landers

Nov 1977The clustering of Galaxies

keywords: clusters of galaxies; cosmology; galaxy clustering; Local Supercluster

Dec 1977The nucleotide sequence of a viral DNA

keywords: bacterial virus phi X174; coding ability; DNA; molecular biophysics; nucleotide sequence; viral DNA

Dec 1977The motion of the ground in earthquakes

keywords: earthquake prediction; earthquakes; fault; ground motion; seismic waves; slippage

Dec 1977The Retinex Theory of Color Vision

keywords: colour vision; retina and cortex system; retinex theory

Dec 1977Disclinations

keywords: disclinations; thin periodic structures; twisted materials; virus shells; warped materials

Jan 1978The carbon dioxide question

keywords: air pollution; atmospheric composition; carbon compounds; climate; climatology; CO2 content; Earth's atmosphere; forests; ocean

Jan 1978The surgical replacement of the human knee joint

keywords: artificial knee; design; human knee joint; materials; prosthetics; Spherocentric knee; surgical replacement

Jan 1978The structure of the interstellar medium

keywords: galactic structure; interstellar gas; interstellar matter; interstellar medium; pictorial analysis; radio signals; radioastronomical observations; structure

Jan 1978The efficiency of algorithms

keywords: algorithm theory; algorithms; computational complexity; efficiency; operations research; travelling salesman problem

Feb 1978The origin of metal deposits in the oceanic lithosphere

keywords: Earth crust; geochemical processes; geochemistry; metal deposits; mid ocean ridges; minerals; oceanic crust; oceanic lithosphere; plates; spreading centres

Feb 1978Computer-controlled assembly

keywords: assembling; computer controlled; computerised materials handling; high volume products; machines; process computer control; product assembly; production control; robot; robots

Feb 1978Microcircuits in the nervous system

keywords: behaviour; bioelectric phenomena; dendrites; microcircuits; nerve circuits; nervous system; neurophysiology

Feb 1978Supergravity and the unification of the laws of physics

keywords: basic forces; elementary particle gravitational interactions; elementary particle symmetry; gravitational force; physics fundamentals; quantum field theory of gravitation; supergravity; supersymmetry; unified theory

Mar 1978Heavy leptons

keywords: antiparticle; antitau; heavy leptons; lepton family; SPEAR electron positron storage ring; tau

Mar 1978The electronic telephone

keywords: advanced electronic telephone set; technological forecasting; telephone sets

Mar 1978The surface of Mars

keywords: cratered terrain; flowing water; high velocity wind; Mars; Martian atmosphere; planetary atmospheres; rocks; soil; surface temperature; visible astronomical observations; volcanic activity; water vapour content

Mar 1978How cells make ATP

keywords: adenosine triphosphate; ATP synthesis; biomembrane transport; carrier molecules; cellular biophysics; chemiosmotic theory; closed envelope; energy metabolism; light; membrane; organic compounds; oxidation; proton gradient; topological properties

Mar 1978The combinatorial mathematics of scheduling

keywords: combinatorial mathematics; combinatorial theory; finite sets of quantities; productive interaction; scheduling; scheduling models; set theory; subroutines; theory of algorithms

Apr 1978Mathematical games: White and brown music, fractal curves and 1/f fluctuations

keywords: fractal

Apr 1978The Tracks of Moving Cells

Description of similarities in the behavior of the daughter cells resulting from a cell-division.

keywords: bio-behavior

Apr 1978The birth of massive stars

keywords: cool interstellar gas clouds; interstellar dust; interstellar matter; massive stars; molecular clouds; OB-type stars associations; shock wave effects; shock waves; star formation; stars; stellar clusters and associations; stellar evolution

Apr 1978Kimberlite pipes

keywords: calcite; coesite; diamonds; Earth mantle; Earth mantle rocks; eclogite; fossil volcanoes; kimberlite pipes; mantle source volcanism; olivine; peridotite; phlogopite mica; reviews; rocks; sheared nodules; ultramafic nodules; upper mantle; volcanology

Apr 1978Atmospheric halos

keywords: atmospheric halos; atmospheric humidity; atmospheric light propagation; atmospheric optics; coloured halos; ice; ice crystals shapes; lunar halos; mock Moons; mock Suns; refraction halos; solar halos; spinning ice crystals

May 1978When the Black Sea was drained

keywords: Black Sea; oceanography

May 1978The cosmic background radiation and the new aether drift

keywords: cosmic background radiation; cosmology; new aether drift; special relativity

May 1978Ultrasound in medical diagnosis

keywords: biological effects of acoustic radiation; biomedical ultrasonics; medical diagnosis; patient diagnosis; US imaging

May 1978The adjacency principle in visual perception

keywords: adjacency principle; visual perception

Jun 1978Mathematical Games: A Mathematical Zoo of Astounding Critters, Imaginary and Otherwise

Organisms with mathematically interesting structure.

keywords: models-math

Jun 1978Exotic light nuclei

keywords: exotic atoms; exotic light nuclei; light elements; nuclear decay theory; nuclear structure; radioactive decay; unequal numbers of protons and neutrons

Jun 1978Cosmic masers

keywords: interstellar matter; maser action; masers; microwave frequencies; nebulae; nebular regions; stellar atmospheres

Jun 1978Complexity Theory

keywords: complex systems; complexity theory; computers; simple components; system theory; systems analysis; telephone exchanges

Jul 1978The highest-energy cosmic rays

keywords: cosmic ray showers and bursts; EAS; extensive air showers; fast particles; high-energy cosmic ray interactions; highest energy cosmic rays; showers

Jul 1978Computer poker

keywords: computer poker; computer science; decision making model; games of skill

Aug 1978The gas centrifuge

keywords: centrifuges; fission reactor fuel preparation and reprocessing; gas centrifuge; gaseous uranium compound; isotope separation; radioisotopes; spinning; U isotopes; uranium

Aug 1978Stellar winds

keywords: mechanisms; steady matter ejection; stellar atmospheres; stellar winds

Aug 1978Negative absolute temperatures

keywords: absolute scale; negative absolute temperature; negative temperature; temperature

Aug 1978The tektite problem

keywords: glass; meteorites; origin; tektite problem

Oct 1978Brain function and blood flow

keywords: blood flow; brain; brain energy metabolism; brain function; haemodynamics; human cerebral cortex; radioactive isotope; radioisotope scanning and imaging

Oct 1978The upsilon particle

keywords: massive new quark; meson resonances; quark models; unobserved elementary subparticles; upsilon particle

Oct 1978Did a supernova trigger the formation of the solar system?

keywords: cosmogony; cosmology; developing solar system; formation; isotope relative abundance; isotopes; massive star; meteorites; primitive meteorites; solar system; supernova; supernovae

Oct 1978Fermat's Last Theorem

keywords: Euler; Fermat's last theorem; Kummer; mathematical proof; mathematics; number theory; Pythagorean theorem

Oct 1978Pattern Formation in Biological Development

This and the preceding paper discuss of the manner in which the context in which cells find themselves affects their development.

keywords: pattern-formation

Dec 1978Nuclear molecules

keywords: clusters; neutrons; nuclear cluster model; nuclear dynamics; nuclear molecules; nuclear structure; nuclei; protons

Dec 1978Fuel-cell power plants

keywords: electric utilities; electricity generation; electricity supply industry; fuel cell power plants; fuel cells; power plants

Dec 1978Hemoglobin structure and respiratory transport

keywords: haemodynamics; haemoglobin structure; macromolecular configurations; molecular biophysics; proteins; respiratory transport; structure

Dec 1978Animal eyes with mirror optics

keywords: animals; eye; eyes; mirror optics; mirrors

Dec 1978Gaseous nebulas

keywords: clouds; gaseous nebulae; nebulae; radiospectroscopy; star formation; stellar evolution

Jan 1979The Assembly of Cell Membranes

Details of low-level self-assembly of cell membranes.

keywords: bio-behavior; coop-behave

Jan 1979Guided-wave optics

keywords: communication; design; devices; guided wave optics; integrated optics; laser beams; light waves; optical communication equipment; optical waveguides; thin transparent films

Jan 1979The deep structure of the continents

keywords: chemical composition; continents; deep root zones; deep structure; Earth structure; rock; tectonic plates; tectonics

Jan 1979The coupled motions of piano strings

keywords: coupled motions; frequency; musical acoustics; musical instruments; piano strings; tone; vibrating bodies

Jan 1979Robert A. Millikan

keywords: biographies; cosmic rays; Nobel prize winner; Robert A Millikan

Feb 1979Solitons

keywords: hypothetical particles; massive elementary particles; nonlinear field theory; shape; size; solitons

Feb 1979The source of the Earth's magnetic field

keywords: dynamo; Earth core; Earth's core; Earth's magnetic field; geomagnetism; gravitational l energy; sinking of heavy material; source

Mar 1979Apollo objects

keywords: Apollo objects; asteroid like bodies; asteroids; nuclei of comets; orbits

Mar 1979The spectrum of atomic hydrogen

keywords: atomic H2; atomic hydrogen; atomic spectra; hydrogen neutral atoms; laser beam applications; lasers; light emission; structure of matter

Mar 1979The perception of surface blacks and whites

keywords: colour vision; distribution of light; distribution of shadow; perceived spatial relation; perception; shade of gray; surface; surface blacks; surface whites; visual perception

Mar 1979Ion channels in the nerve-cell membrane

keywords: biomembrane transport; cellular transport and dynamics; ion channels; K+; molecular channels; Na+; nerve cell membrane; nerve impulse; neurophysiology; potassium; sodium

Apr 1979The evolution of disk galaxies

keywords: clusters of galaxies; disk galaxies; environment; evolution; galaxies; galaxy clusters; lenticular galaxies; rich cluster; S0-type galaxies; spiral galaxy

Apr 1979The physics of karate

keywords: bare hand; concrete blocks; fracture; karate; physical force; sports and entertainment; velocity; wood

Apr 1979Ink-jet printing

keywords: computer; drops; ink; ink jet printing; nozzle; printed characters; printing

May 1979Carbon monoxide in the Galaxy

keywords: carbon compounds; CO radio emission; cold star forming clouds; emission wavelength; inner Milky Way; interstellar CO; interstellar matter; invisible inner reaches of the Milky Way; molecular clouds; radiosources (astronomical); stellar evolution; The Galaxy

May 1979The spin of the proton

keywords: proton; proton+proton interactions; proton-proton interactions; protons; spin; violent collisions

May 1979The molecular basis of cell movement

keywords: cell motility; cell movement; creeping; internal streaming of cytoplasm; molecular biophysics; muscle cells; proteins

May 1979Laser chemistry

keywords: chemical pathway; chemical reactions; frequency; laser chemistry; photochemistry

May 1979A brain-cooling system in mammals

keywords: biothermics; brain; brain cooling system; carnivorous mammals; cooling; extremes of heat and exertion; heat exchange network; mammalian prey; mammals

May 1979Intrinsically Difficult Problems

keywords: `inherently exponential problem'; algorithms; checkers; computability theory; efficiency of algorithm; four-color-map problem; mathematical proof; roadblock; Turing machine; uncomputable problems

Jun 1979Automatic control by distributed intelligence

keywords: automatic control; control; distributed intelligence; industrial computer control; industrial plant; integration of the entire plant; microelectronics

Jun 1979Ultracold neutrons

keywords: fundamental properties; metal bottle; neutron; neutrons; ultracold neutrons

Jun 1979The history of the Atlantic

keywords: Atlantic; deep probes; geochronology; geomagnetism; growth; heat flow; history; magnetism; oceanic crust; oceanography; plate tectonic theory; tectonics; terrestrial heat; topography of its bottom

Jun 1979The year without a summer

keywords: 1816; AD 1816; August; climatology; economic and sociological effects; frosts; history; ice; Indonesia; June snow; meteorology; New England; snow; social consequences; Tambora eruption; volcano; volcanology; year without summer

Jul 1979The central parsec of the Galaxy

keywords: black holes; central parsec; dust; Galaxy; gas; IR observations; massive black hole; radio observations; swirling mass of stars; The Galaxy; ultracompact object

Jul 1979The bag model of quark confinement

keywords: bag model; bubbles; liquid; quark confinement; quark models

Jul 1979The visual perception of motion in depth

keywords: human visual perception system; motion in depth; visual information processing; visual perception

Aug 1979Progress toward a Tokamak fusion reactor

keywords: fusion reactors; superhot H plasma; Tokamak fusion reactor; toroidal magnetic bottle

Aug 1979Supernovas and star formation

keywords: explosive death; massive star; meteorites; star formation; stellar evolution; supernova remnants; supernovae

Aug 1979The Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography

keywords: computer privacy; cryptography; electronic communications; encoding; encryption; knapsack problem; mathematics; P-NP problem; public key cryptography; public-key cryptosystem; random numbers; security of data; trap-door one-way functions

Aug 1979Problems in physics with many scales of length

keywords: classical theories of fluid structure; fluid dynamics; fluids; magnetism; magnets; many scales of length; physics; renormalisation; renormalization group

Sep 1979Small Systems of Neurons
Sep 1979Brain mechanisms of vision

keywords: brain; brain visual mechanisms; neuronal organisation; neurophysiology; primary visual cortex; sensory information processing; vision

Oct 1979Acid rain

keywords: acidity; air pollution; atmospheric composition; fossil fuel burning; N oxides; nitrogen compounds; pH; rain; S; snow; sulphur

Oct 1979Linear-chain conductors

keywords: electronic properties; linear chain conductors; one dimensional conductivity; one-dimensional conductivity; reviews; single axis

Oct 1979The acoustic microscope

keywords: acoustic microscope; acoustic microscopes; resolution; ultrasonic imaging technology

Oct 1979The photosynthetic membrane

keywords: asymmetry; biomembranes; chemical energy; conversion of light energy; electron microscope examination of materials; electron microscopy; green plants; photosynthesis; photosynthetic membrane; plant cell; thylakoid membrane

Oct 1979The lava lakes of Kilauea

keywords: Earth mantle; Earth's mantle; eruptions; Hawaiian volcano; lava lakes; magma; molten basalt; volcanology

Nov 1979Shape-memory alloys

keywords: martensitic transformations; plastic deformation; shape; shape memory alloys; shape memory effects; temperature

Nov 1979Primeval galaxies

keywords: cosmology; galaxies; older galaxies; primeval galaxies; red shift

Nov 1979The quantum theory and reality

keywords: quantum mechanics; quantum theory; reality

Dec 1979Energy-storage systems

keywords: batteries; compressed air; energy storage; energy storage systems; pumped water

Dec 1979Programming languages

keywords: computer; encoding complex problems; information processing; mechanisms; procedure oriented languages; programming languages

Dec 1979Electrical responses evoked from the human brain

keywords: brain; electrical responses; electroencephalography; health; human brain; neurological disease; neurophysiology; scalp; sensory regions; voltage shifts

Dec 1979The decay of the vacuum

keywords: antimatter; binding energy; matter; quantum electrodynamics; superheavy atomic nucleus

Dec 1979Tephra

keywords: airborne fragments; dating of ancient events; erupting volcano; geochronology; tephra; tephra deposits; volcanic deposits; volcanology

Jan 1980The next generation of particle accelerators

keywords: multinational sponsorship; particle accelerators; smallest of objects

Jan 1980World uranium resources

keywords: development; fission reactor fuel; limiting factor; mineral resources; minerals; natural resources; nuclear power; uranium; US mining records; world U resources

Jan 1980The Galilean moons of Jupiter

keywords: Amalthea; Callisto; earthlike bodies; Europa; Galilean moons; Ganymede; IO; Io; Jovian satellites; Jupiter; moons of Jupiter; planetary satellites; terrestrial bodies; Voyager expeditions; Voyager spacecraft

Feb 1980The allocation of the radio spectrum

keywords: 10 kHz to 300 GHz; allocation policy; frequency allocation; ITU; radio spectrum; radiocommunication

Feb 1980The Einstein X-ray observatory

keywords: artificial satellites; astronomical observatory; astronomical telescopes; Einstein X-ray observatory; HEAO-2 satellite; high energy phenomena; X-ray apparatus; X-ray astronomical observations; X-ray telescope

Feb 1980Yellowstone Park as a window on the Earth's interior

keywords: Earth crust; Earth's crust; Earth's interior; geology; geology, intraplate volcanism; hot spot; seismically active region; tectonic activity; tectonics; USA; volcanic activity; volcanology; Yellowstone Park

Feb 1980Hydrogen storage in metal hydrides

keywords: ambient temperature; energy storage; energy storage compounds; fuel; fuel for motor vehicles; H storage; hydrogen; hydrogen compounds; metal hydrides; storage methods

Mar 1980The safety of fission reactors

keywords: fission reactor safety; fission reactors; quantitative methods of assessing risks; safety; Three Mile Island

Mar 1980The inner structure of the proton

keywords: inner structure; jet of debris; particles; proton; protons; quark models; quarks; violent collision of particles

Mar 1980The spin of comets

keywords: comets; icy nucleus; orbital period; Periodic Comet Encke; rotating bodies; rotation; spin; thrust of gases

Apr 1980Metallic glasses

keywords: metallic glasses; noncrystalline atomic structure; noncrystalline state structure; reviews

Apr 1980The structure of the early Universe

keywords: cosmology; early Universe; large scale structure

Apr 1980The transport of substances in nerve cells

keywords: axon; cellular transport; cellular transport and dynamics; nerve endings; neurophysiology; neutronal transport; reviews

May 1980The superconducting computer

keywords: Josephson effect; logic devices; microelectronic technology; superconducting computer; superconducting junction devices; superconducting switches; switches; transistors

May 1980The role of gravity in quantum theory

keywords: general relativity; gravitational fields; gravity; interferometers; neutron interferometer; neutron waves interfere; quantum theory

May 1980The chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle

keywords: chemical evolution; continental rock samples; Earth composition; Earth crust; Earth mantle; Earth's mantle; geochemistry; isotope relative abundance; isotopic ratios; mantle's differentiation; oceanic crust; rock samples; trace elements

May 1980The N-ray affair

keywords: history; N-ray affair

Jun 1980Basaltic meteorites

keywords: basaltic meteorites; eucrites; meteorites; shergottites; solar system; volcanic activity

Jun 1980Gauge theories of the forces between elementary particles

keywords: elementary particle symmetry; elementary particle theory; elementary particles; gauge field theory; symmetries

Jun 1980The deep-Earth-gas hypothesis

keywords: deep Earth gas; Earth mantle; earthquakes; fuel resources; mantle; methane; natural resources; organic compounds

Jul 1980Gamma-ray-line astronomy

keywords: astronomical spectra; astrophysical processes; EM radiation; gamma ray line astronomy; gamma-ray astronomy

Jul 1980Megalithic monuments

keywords: astroarchaeology; megalithic monuments; Neolithic period; Stonehenge

Jul 1980Convection

keywords: convection; surface tension; temperature; viscosity

Jul 1980Convection
Aug 1980The surface of Venus

keywords: cartography; cratering; geology; radar; radar astronomy; radioastronomical observations; surface; Venus; volcanoes

Aug 1980The isolated electron

keywords: electron; electrons; g factor; g-factor

Aug 1980Disk-storage technology

keywords: disc storage technology; laser applications; magnetic disc and drum storage; read facility; write facility

Aug 1980Newton's Apple and Galileo's Dialogue

keywords: Galileo; gravity; Newton

Oct 1980The bizarre spectrum of SS 433

keywords: emission lines; jets; radiosources (astronomical); spectrum; SS 433; stellar spectra; variable star; variable stars; X-ray sources (astronomical)

Oct 1980The causes of color

keywords: atomic transitions; band gap colours; colour; colour centres; crystal field colours; crystal field interactions; energy ladder; metals; molecular orbitals; semiconductors

Oct 1980The southern Appalachians and the growth of continents

keywords: COCORP; continent growth; plate margins; seismic reflection survey; seismology; southern Appalachians; tectonics

Oct 1980Positron-emission tomography

keywords: biological investigations; clinical diagnosis; computerised tomography; nuclear medicine; positron emission tomography; radioisotope scanning and imaging

Nov 1980The discovery of a gravitational lens

keywords: 0957+561 A, B; double quasar; elliptical galaxy; gravitational lens; gravitational lenses; quasars; single quasar multiple images

Nov 1980Superconductors in electric-power technology

keywords: electric-power technology; superconducting machines; superconductors

Dec 1980The cosmic asymmetry between matter and antimatter

keywords: antimatter; conservation laws; cosmic asymmetry; cosmology; elementary particle theory; matter; particle physics

Dec 1980Galileo's Sighting of Neptune

keywords: Galileo; Jovilabe; Jupiter; Neptune; orbital motion; telescopes

Dec 1980Mirror images

keywords: curved mirrors; mirror image; mirrors; optical images; transformations

Jan 1981The total artificial heart

keywords: artificial organs; cardiology; total artificial heart

Jan 1981The Andromeda Galaxy

keywords: apparent luminosities; distance; galaxies; globular clusters; H I; hot gas clouds; M31; NGC 224; planetary nebulae; spiral-arm; star content; star formation; structure

Jan 1981The Mind Body Problem

Hardware of the brain vs. behavior of that hardware.

keywords: ai-philos

Jan 1981Two paths to the telephone

keywords: Alexander Graham Bell; Elisha Gray; history; telephone; telephony

Feb 1981The activity cycles of stars

keywords: activity cycle; Ca; close stars; cyclic activity; emission line; HD 101501; HD 103095; HD 10700; HD 156026; HD 160346; HD 165341; HD 201091; HD 22049; HD 32147; nearby stars; spectra variation; star; stars; stellar spectra; Sun; variable star; variable stars; visible astronomical observations

Feb 1981A deep-sea neutrino telescope

keywords: array; astronomical techniques; astronomical telescopes; astronomy; deep-sea; marine; neutrino detection and measurement; neutrino telescope; neutrinos; ocean; sensors

Mar 1981The eruptions of Mount St. Helens

keywords: Mount St. Helens; volcanic eruption prediction; volcano; volcanology

Mar 1981The Milky Way galaxy

keywords: galactic mass; galactic radius; Milky Way galaxy; The Galaxy

Mar 1981Anorthoscopic perception

keywords: anorthoscopic perception; psychological events; psychology; retina; visual perception

Mar 1981Newton's discovery of gravity

keywords: gravity; history; mathematical representation; Newton

Apr 1981Catastrophic releases of radioactivity

keywords: accident; accidents; detonation; fission reactor safety; nuclear explosions; nuclear reactor; nuclear weapon; pollution; radioactivity; weapons

Apr 1981A unified theory of elementary particles and forces

keywords: elementary particles; forces; instability; unified field theories; unified theory

Apr 1981Speech recognition by computer

keywords: automatic recognition; computer; human speech patterns; speech recognition

Apr 1981The Origin of Genetic Information

A good, general introduction to Eigen's theories on quasi-species, hyper-cycles, and the origin of life.

keywords: evolution; origins

Apr 1981The shells of novas

keywords: nova; novae; nuclear fuel; nucleosynthesis; shell's spectrum; stellar evolution; stellar spectra; white dwarfs; white-dwarf star

May 1981The sources of celestial X-ray bursts

keywords: celestial X-ray bursts; neutron stars; old binary systems; thermonuclear flashes; X-ray energy; X-ray sources (astronomical)

May 1981The crest of the East Pacific Rise

keywords: axial volcanic zone; chemical balance; crest; crustal formation; East Pacific Rise; geologic maps; hydrothermal vents; magma chamber; oceanic crust; rift system

May 1981Countercurrent systems in animals

keywords: animals; biological fluid dynamics; camels; countercurrent systems; fluids; inhospitable environment; whales; zoology

May 1981Highly excited atoms

keywords: atomic excited states; exotic properties; highly excited atoms; reviews; Rydberg atoms

Jun 1981Gas-cooled nuclear power reactors

keywords: fission reactor safety; high-temperature gas cooled reactor; HTGR; nuclear power; nuclear power reactor

Jun 1981The decay of the proton

keywords: baryon decay; baryon number nonconserving interactions; electroweak interactions; energy scale; proton decay; protons; strong interactions; symmetry group; unified field theories; unified field theory

Jun 1981The allocation of resources by linear programming

keywords: algorithm; linear programming; management; management science; operations research; planning; resource allocation

Jun 1981The Formation of the Earth from Planetesimals

keywords: colliding bodies; computer modeling; Earth; Earth origin; formation; gravitational focusing; Mars; Mercury; N-body computer simulations; planetesimal collision; planetesimals; planets; rocky inner planets; solar nebula; solar system; Venus

Jul 1981The salinity of rivers

keywords: agriculture; chemical composition; dissolved solid; hydrology; pollution; rivers; salination; salinity; saltification; soil; United States; USA; water quality

Jul 1981The Atmosphere of Venus

keywords: atmosphere; atmospheres; carbon dioxide; CO2; H2SO4 clouds; Pioneer Venus orbiter; planetary atmospheres; sulfuric acid; Venera probes; Venus; wind; winds

Jul 1981Fiber bundles and quantum theory

keywords: curvature; elementary particle interaction models; elementary particles; fiber bundles; Mobius strip; quantum field theory; quantum theory; topological analogues

Jul 1981Binocular depth inversion

keywords: binocular depth inversion; perspective; solid object; visual perception

Aug 1981The newest stars in Orion

keywords: gas streams; interstellar matter; IR sources; molecular clouds; Orion I; Orion Nebula; radiation; radio; star formation; stellar clusters and associations; Trapezium

Oct 1981Gravitational waves from an orbiting pulsar

keywords: accelerating mass; binary pulsar; gravitational waves; orbiting pulsar; PSR 1913+16; pulsars; radiate energy; stellar radiation

Oct 1981Neuropeptides

keywords: amino acids; hormone; nerve cells; nervous system; neuropeptides; neurophysiology

Oct 1981The acoustics of violin plates

keywords: acoustics; musical acoustics; vibrational properties; violin plates

Oct 1981Image processing by computer

keywords: blurred photograph; computer; computerised picture processing; image processing

Oct 1981Quantum logic

keywords: classical patterns of inference; lattices; quantum logic; quantum theory

Oct 1981Vitruvius' Odometer

keywords: Archimedes; Leonardo; odometer; Vitruvius

Nov 1981The microchannel image intensifier

keywords: electron multipliers; image intensifiers; microchannel image intensifier

Nov 1981Rings in the solar system

keywords: Jupiter; planetary rings; ringlets; rings; Saturn; solar system; Uranus

Nov 1981The fluid phases of matter

keywords: fluid phases of matter; gas structure; hard sphere model; kinetic theory of gases; liquid structure; liquid theory; structure of liquids

Nov 1981The Color Patterns of Butterflies and Moths

Description of the way in which the wide variety of complex wing patterns of butterflies and moths emerge from the actions of a few simple rules.

keywords: pattern-formation; refs-bottomup; self-org

Nov 1981A 16th-Century Basque Whaling Station in Labrador

keywords: Basque whalers; Labrador; underwater archaeology; whaling

Dec 1981Magnetic navigation in bacteria

keywords: aquatic bacteria; bacteria; biomagnetism; cell motility; earth's magnetic field; magnetic field effects; magnetic navigation; magnetotactic; orientation; reviews

Dec 1981The recumbent stone circles of Scotland

keywords: astroarchaeology; astronomical observatories; astronomy and astrophysics; megalithic monuments; Scotland; stone circles

Dec 1981The hearing of the barn owl

keywords: barn owl; dark; hearing; reviews; zoology

Dec 1981Jupiter and Saturn

keywords: atmospheric absorption; atmospheric circulation; coaxial cylinders; computer modeling; fluid depths; fluid planets; Great Red Spot; Jupiter; planetary atmospheres; relative abundance of elements; Saturn; surface layer; Voyager expeditions; winds

Dec 1981Fibrinogen and fibrin

keywords: blood; blood clot; fibrin; fibrinogen; molecular biophysics; proteins; reviews; structure

Dec 1981Computer Algebra

keywords: Algebra; algorithms; computer; linear algebra; numerical analysis; routine mathematical work; subroutines

Dec 1981Computer Algebra
Jan 1982The mass extinctions of the Late Mesozoic

keywords: animals; asteroid; asteroids; BP Myr 0063; dinosaurs; evolution (biological); geology; Ir rich material; Late Mesozoic; mass extinctions; plants; terrestrial atmosphere

Jan 1982The stabilization of atomic hydrogen

keywords: electron spin polarisation; hydrogen neutral atoms; quantum fluids; quantum gas; spin polarised atomic H; stabilization

Jan 1982The Moons of Saturn

keywords: cratering; craters; geological evolution; moons; planetary satellites; satellites; Saturn; terrain; Voyager expeditions

Jan 1982Supercomputers

keywords: computer selection and evaluation; Cray-1; CYBER 205; fluid dynamics; general purpose computers; ILLIAC IV; S-I multiprocessor; supercomputers

Feb 1982The biological effects of low-level ionizing radiation

keywords: artificial sources; biological effects; biological effects of radiation; hazard; health hazards; human beings; low-level ionizing radiation; natural sources

Feb 1982Titan

keywords: atmosphere; composition; models; moon; planetary satellite atmospheres; Saturn; Solar System; surface; Titan; Voyager missions

Feb 1982Quasars as probes of the distant and early Universe

keywords: cosmology; galactic muclei; galactic nuclei; quasars; Universe

Feb 1982Color vision in fishes

keywords: blue; colour vision; evolution; eye; fishes; green; near infrared; retinal pigments; visual environments

Feb 1982Henry A. Rowland

keywords: American physicist; biographies; diffraction gratings; Henry A. Rowland; ruling engine; spectroscopy

Mar 1982The search for intermediate vector bosons

keywords: intermediate bosons; intermediate vector bosons; proton antiproton collisions; weak nuclear force

Mar 1982Rings of the Gulf Stream

keywords: Atlantic Ocean; biology; currents; eddies; Gulf Stream; oceanography; Sargasso Sea

Mar 1982Superclusters and voids in the distribution of galaxies

keywords: clusters of galaxies; cosmology; galaxy superclusters; galaxy voids; Universe structure

Mar 1982The infrared `vision' of snakes

keywords: biothermics; heat-sensitive nerve fibers; heat-sensitive pits; obloid snakes; pit organs; pit vipers; pythons; rattlesnake; snakes; sources of infrared radiation; visible-light information; vision

Apr 1982A major earthquake zone on the Mississippi

keywords: continental craton; earthquake zone; earthquakes; embayment; Mississippi; North American plate; seismology; USA

Apr 1982Giant molecular-cloud complexes in the Galaxy

keywords: Galaxy; giant molecular cloud complexes; interstellar matter; nebulae; The Galaxy

Apr 1982Superheavy magnetic monopoles

keywords: magnetic monopoles; superheavy magnetic monopoles; unified field theories

May 1982Quarkonium

keywords: antiquark; heavy quark; meson resonances; quark confinement; quarkonium

May 1982NMR imaging in medicine

keywords: biomedical measurement; medicine; NMR imaging; nuclear magnetic resonance; patient diagnosis; proton magnetic resonance

May 1982Cosmic jets

keywords: cosmic jets; galactic nuclei; interstellar matter

Jun 1982Radio astronomy by very-long-baseline interferometry

keywords: atomic clocks; electromagnetic wave interferometry; radio astronomy; radio telescopes; radioastronomical techniques; very-long-baseline interferometry; VLBI

Jun 1982The quantum mechanics of materials

keywords: charge-density maps; computational methods; electron waves; quantum mechanics; quantum theory; reviews

Jul 1982Organic superconductors

keywords: organic compounds; organic superconductors; superconducting materials

Jul 1982Energetic outflows from young stars

keywords: circumstellar disks; circumstellar shells; CO; dust; energetic outflows; gas clouds; interstellar matter; star formation; stellar birth; stellar winds; young stars

Aug 1982Carbon dioxide and world climate

keywords: atmospheric CO2; atmospheric composition; carbon compounds; climatology; latitudes; world climate

Aug 1982The coronas of galaxies

keywords: coronas; galaxies; hot gas; spiral galaxies; The Galaxy

Aug 1982Surface diffusion

keywords: adsorbed atoms; adsorption; deuterium; field emission electron microscopy; hydrogen; low temperature effects; metal surface; surface diffusion; tunnelling

Aug 1982Ophiolites

keywords: oceanic crust; ophiolites; rocks; tectonics

Sep 1982The mechanization of work

keywords: computer; human brain; Industrial Revolution; information gathering; information processing; labor force; mechanization of work; production of goods; social aspects of automation; social change; technology

Sep 1982The mechanization of agriculture

keywords: agriculture; electric power; farm; farm produce; fertilizers; improved crop plants; irrigation works; labor force; mechanization; pesticides; plows; productivity; reapers; rural areas; social aspects of automation; transportation network

Sep 1982The mechanization of mining

keywords: coal; human muscular exertion; labor force; mechanization; mineral needs; mining; social aspects of automation; U.S. economy; working conditions

Sep 1982The mechanization of design and manufacturing

keywords: CAD; coordinating; data-processing technology; design; factory floor; managing; manufacturing; manufacturing data processing; manufacturing DP; mechanization; new technology; planning; social aspects of automation; social outcome; white-collar jobs

Sep 1982The mechanization of commerce

keywords: commerce; communications; distribution; distributive data processing; distributive DP; finance; financial data processing; mechanization; social aspects of automation; transport; transportation; warehouse automation

Sep 1982The mechanization of office work

keywords: administrative data processing; ADP; communications systems; electronics; information work; information-processing machines; job satisfaction; mechanization; office work; paperwork; productivity; service to customers; social aspects of automation; U.S. economy

Sep 1982The mechanization of women's work

keywords: labor force; low pay; mechanization; occupational segregation; revolutionary; social aspects of automation; technology; women's work

Oct 1982Calcium in synaptic transmission

keywords: bioelectric phenomena; calcium; Co ions; nerve cell; neuronal junction; neurophysiology; synaptic transmission

Oct 1982Charge-Coupled Devices in Astronomy

keywords: accuracy; astronomical instruments; astronomy; CCD imager; charge coupled devices; charge-coupled device circuits; image sensors; radiation detector; radiation detectors

Oct 1982Artificial intelligence

keywords: artificial intelligence; blocks world; common sense; computer programs; concept learning; heuristic principles; language understanding; visual information

Oct 1982Magnetic fluids

keywords: ferrofluid; ferromagnetic particles; magnetic fluid; magnetic fluids

Oct 1982Tidal bores

keywords: moving wall of water; rivers; tidal bores; tides

Oct 1982Historical eclipses

keywords: eclipses; lunar eclipses; solar eclipses

Nov 1982The growth of western North America

keywords: plate tectonics; tectonics; terrain translocation; tethyan fusulinids; tethyan region; western North America

Nov 1982Glueballs

keywords: atoms of colour; bound states; colour force; colour model; glueballs; gluons; QCD; quark confinement

Nov 1982The physics of kettledrums

keywords: kettledrums; musical acoustics; musical instruments; physics; pitch

Dec 1982Radar images of the Earth from space

keywords: backscatter; backscattered microwaves; Earth; radar images; remote sensing; surface features

Dec 1982Personal Computers

keywords: applications; computer revolution; computers, digital; computers, microprocessor; hardware; microcomputers; personal computers; personal computing; proliferation; software

Dec 1982Samples of the Milky Way

keywords: cosmic ray composition; cosmic ray nuclei; cosmic ray observations; galactic cosmic rays; Galaxy; isotope relative abundance; isotopic composition; Milky Way; satellite observations

Dec 1982The Search for Prime Numbers

keywords: composite number; computer programming; Fermat's test; modular arithmetic; number theory; prime number; sieve of Eratosthenes

Jan 1983Large-Scale Cultivation of Mammalian Cells

keywords: biological materials; biomedical equipment

Jan 1983The hair cells of the inner ear

keywords: balance; ear; hair cells; hearing; human beings; inner ear; mechanoception

Jan 1983Machines that Walk

keywords: control equipment; robotics

Jan 1983NMR Spectroscopy of Living Cells

keywords: biological materials; biological techniques and instruments; biomagnetism; cellular biophysics; chemical reactions of metabolism; living cells; living tissue; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; NMR spectroscopy; nuclear magnetic resonance; spectroscopy, nuclear radiation --- Applications

Jan 1983The physics of organ pipes

keywords: acoustics; musical instruments; organ pipes; organs; physics

Jan 1983The origin of the cosmic X-ray background

keywords: cosmic background radiation; cosmic rays; cosmic X-ray background; quasars; X-ray sources (astronomical); x-rays

Jan 1983Mass Production of Iron Castings in Ancient China

keywords: cast iron; iron foundry practice

Feb 1983The lattice theory of quark confinement

keywords: axiomatic field theory; chromoelectric field; colour transformations; free quark; gauge field; gauge field theory; lattice theory; quark confinement

Feb 1983Hidden visual processes

keywords: hidden visual processes; vision; visual perception

Feb 1983The optical computer

keywords: computers; digital computers; optical bistability; optical computer; optical information processing; optical logic gates; optical switches; optical transistor; optics; technological forecasting; trillion operations per second

Feb 1983The active solar corona

keywords: active solar corona; dynamic activity; solar activity; solar corona; solar magnetism; Sun

Mar 1983Microprogramming

keywords: computer metatheory --- Programming Theory; computer systems programming; computers; microprocessor; microprogramming

Mar 1983Mitochondrial DNA

keywords: biological materials; genetic engineering

Mar 1983The future of the Universe

keywords: astronomy; astrophysics; black holes; cosmology; cyclic model; expanding Universe; future forecast; galaxies; proton decay

Mar 1983Oscillating Chemical Reactions

Chemical examples of the way in which simple, local reactions can lead to complex global behavior.

keywords: chaos; chemical reactions; dynamics; pattern-formation; self-org

Apr 1983Silicon micromechanical devices

keywords: accelerometer; chemically etched; electric sensing devices; elemental semiconductor; elemental semiconductors; gas chromatograph; nozzles; pressure sensors; Si micromechanical devices; silicon; single-crystal; valves

Apr 1983Silicon Micromechanical Devices

keywords: accelerometer; gas chromatographer; mechanical engineering; microelectronics; micromechanical devices; silicon and alloys; silicon chips

Apr 1983The structure of quarks and leptons

keywords: composite model; composite models of elementary particles; leptons; quark confinement; quarks; structure

Apr 1983Hot springs on the ocean floor

keywords: chemical content; geochemistry; hot springs; ocean floor; oceanic crust; terrestrial heat; volcanic activity; volcanology

Apr 1983Intuitive physics

keywords: intuitive physics; moving objects; Newton's laws; physics

May 1983Smart Weapons in Naval Warfare

keywords: naval warfare; rockets and missiles

May 1983Vibrations of the Atomic Nucleus

keywords: atomic nucleus; nuclear collective states and giant resonances; nuclear forces; nuclear particles; nuclear spin and parity; nuclear vibrational modes; physics

May 1983Modern Pork Production

keywords: agricultural engineering; agriculture; pork production

May 1983New Inorganic Materials

keywords: cement; inorganic compounds; materials science

May 1983Computer-Intensive Methods in Statistics

keywords: mathematical statistics; statistical methods

May 1983Sudden Cardiac Death: a Problem in Topology

keywords: bioelectric phenomena; biological materials; cardiac death; cardiology; fibrillation; heart muscle fibers; mathematical theorem; muscle; sudden deaths; topology

Jun 1983Vector for Introducing New Genes into Plants

keywords: agricultural engineering; genetic engineering

Jun 1983Giant Volcanic Calderas

keywords: geophysics; volcanoes

Jun 1983Dark Matter in Spiral Galaxies

keywords: astronomy; astrophysics

Jun 1983Georg Cantor and the Origins of Transfinite Set Theory

keywords: Cantor; infinity; mathematics; science history; set theory

Jun 1983Slide Fastener

keywords: fasteners

Jul 1983How Continents Break up

keywords: continental break up; Earth crust; Earth's crust; geology; plate properties; tectonics

Jul 1983Salmonid Fishes as a Natural Livestock

keywords: aquaculture; biomass; fisheries; salmonid fish

Jul 1983Microelectronic packaging

keywords: chips; cooling; digital computer; interconnections; microcomputers; microelectronic packaging; microprocessor chips; packaging; performance

Jul 1983Microelectronic Packaging

keywords: `board'; `card'; `packaging' (of chips); chip carrier; computers, digital --- Electronics Packaging; integrated circuits, digital; microelectronics; printed-circuit board; thermal conduction module

Jul 1983Particles with naked beauty

keywords: antiquark; B mesons; CESR; e+ + e-; electron-positron annihilation; electron-positron inclusive interactions; fifth quark; flavor; hadron electroproduction; meson production; naked beauty; quark confinement; quark models

Aug 1983Trauma

keywords: accidents --- Medical Applications; biomedical engineering; trauma

Aug 1983Purification and Manufacture of Human Interferons

keywords: bacteriology; biomedical engineering; interferons

Aug 1983Magnetic Fields in the Cosmos

keywords: astrophysics; cosmos; dynamo mechanism; galactic field; geomagnetism; interstellar magnetic fields; magnetic field generation; magnetic fields; oscillating field; planetary magnetism; solar magnetism; stellar magnetism; Sun; Venus

Aug 1983Interstellar Matter in Meteorites

keywords: astrophysics; carbonaceous chondrites; interstellar matter; meteorites

Aug 1983Digital Typography

keywords: computer controlled typesetting; computerised typesetting; digital typesetter; digital typography; typesetting

Sep 1983Ocean

keywords: geochemistry; seawater

Sep 1983The dynamic Earth

keywords: dynamic Earth; Earth; geology; geophysics; plate tectonics; tectonics

Sep 1983The Earth's mantle

keywords: convection; Earth interior; Earth mantle; geochemistry; mantle; structure; tectonics

Sep 1983The Earth's core

keywords: convection; earth; Earth core; geomagnetism; geophysics; interior structure

Sep 1983The ocean

keywords: Ca; CaCO3; carbonate; chemical composition; chemistry; CO2; marine biology; O2; ocean; oceanography; phosphate; seawater

Sep 1983The oceanic crust

keywords: geology; geophysics; midocean ridges; oceanic crust; plate tectonics; tectonics

Sep 1983The continental crust

keywords: continental crust; Earth crust; geology; geophysics; tectonics

Sep 1983Ocean

keywords: geochemistry; seawater

Sep 1983The atmosphere

keywords: atmosphere; climate; earth atmosphere; general circulation; meteorology; terrestrial atmosphere; weather forecasting

Oct 1983The large-scale structure of the Universe

keywords: big bang; clusters of galaxies; cosmology; density perturbations; galactic superclusters; large-scale structure; Universe; voids

Oct 1983The engineering of magnetic fusion reactors

keywords: engineering; experimental reactors; fusion reactors; magnetic field trapping; magnetic fusion reactors; magnetic mirrors; magnetic traps; nuclear energy --- Fusion Reactions; nuclear reactors, thermonuclear; thermonuclear fusion; tokamak

Nov 1983Uncertainties of a Preemptive Nuclear Attack

keywords: military equipment; nuclear explosions

Nov 1983Slurry Pipelines

keywords: coal transportation; slurry pipelines

Nov 1983Centaurus A: the Nearest Active Galaxy

keywords: 4U 1322-42; active galaxy; astronomy; astrophysics; Centaurus A; galactic nuclei; radiogalaxies; X-ray sources (astronomical)

Nov 1983Solid-state superlattices

keywords: band structure of crystalline semiconductors and insulators; properties; reviews; semiconductor superlattices; semiconductors; solid state superlattices

Nov 1983Molecular Basis of Cancer

keywords: biomedical engineering

Nov 1983Solid-State Superlattices

keywords: physics --- Solid State; semiconductor devices

Nov 1983The eruption of Krakatau

keywords: AD 1883 08 27; air waves; Krakatau; sea waves; volcanic deposits; volcanic eruption; volcanology

Dec 1983Modern Icebreakers

keywords: Icebreakers; naval architecture; ships; waterway transportation --- Arctic

Dec 1983Io

keywords: exotic volcanic fluids; geyserlike eruptions; Io; Jupiter; massive lava flows; moon; planetary satellites; volcanic world

Dec 1983The DNA helix and how it is read

keywords: base-sequence information; DNA; DNA helix; double-helical DNA molecule; local structure; X-ray analysis; X-ray diffraction examination of molecular structure

Dec 1983Quantum gravity

keywords: continual fluctuations; geometry; quantum field theory of gravitation; quantum gravity; space; space-time configurations; time

Dec 1983Aerodynamics of Human-Powered Land Vehicles

keywords: aerodynamics --- Drag; human-powered land vehicles; vehicles

Jan 1984The atmospheric effects of El Chichon

keywords: AD 1982 03 to 04; aerosols; atmospheric composition; atmospheric effects; El Chichon; eruption; H2SO4 cloud; Mexico; stratosphere; sulphate aerosol; volcano; volcanology

Jan 1984High-Energy Collisions Between Atomic Nuclei

keywords: anomalon production; collisions; heavy ion-nucleus reactions; heavy-ion collisions; High Energy; nuclei; particle accelerators; physics

Jan 1984The packing of spheres

keywords: digital signalling; lattice theory and statistics; sphere packing

Feb 1984The Earth's orbit and the ice ages

keywords: chronology; climate; climatology; Earth orbit; geochronology; glaciations; glaciology; ice ages

Feb 1984The structure of proteins in biological membranes

keywords: biological materials; biological membranes; biological techniques and instruments; biomembranes; electron microscope examination of materials; electron-microscope techniques; lipid; lipids; macromolecular configurations; macromolecules; membranes; proteins; water

Feb 1984The spectroscopy of supercooled gases

keywords: condensation temperature; cryogenics; gases; low-temperature techniques; molecular electronic states; molecular energy states; molecular spectra; Spectroscopic Analysis; spectroscopy; supercooled gases; supercooling

Mar 1984The dynamic abyss

keywords: cold currents; deep ocean; dynamic abyss; ocean bottom; oceanography; sediment; sediments; storms

Mar 1984Muscle sounds

keywords: bioacoustics; contracting muscle; muscle; muscle sounds

Mar 1984Excitonic Matter

keywords: biexcitons; electron hole liquid; electron-hole drops; electrons; exciton; excitonic molecule; excitonic molecules; excitons; light; photons; physics; semiconductor; semiconductor materials; semiconductors

Mar 1984The Amateur Scientist: What is a Fish's View of a Fisherman and the Fly He Has Cast on the Water?

keywords: optic

Apr 1984Molecular clouds, star formation and galactic structure

keywords: galactic structure; galaxies; interstellar matter; molecular clouds; radioastronomy; spiral galaxies; star formation; The Galaxy

Apr 1984The diamond-anvil high-pressure cell

keywords: diamond-anvil high-pressure cell; high pressure engineering; high-pressure phases; high-pressure techniques; mechanisms

Apr 1984The tornado

keywords: flow; storms; thunderstorm; tornado; whirlwind; wind

Apr 1984Vision by man and machine

How the brain processes visual information may be suggested by studies in computer vision.

keywords: brain; computer programs; computerised pattern recognition; machine; man; stereo vision; vision; visual perception

Apr 1984Prehistoric Rice Cultivation in Southeast Asia

keywords: agricultural revolution; Ban Na Di site; Chinese archaeology; metal artifacts; rice; village farming communities

May 1984Computer Recreations: In the game called Core War hostile programs engage in a battle of bits

Description of a computer game in which short pieces of code reproduce and compete for occupation of memory.

keywords: models-computer

May 1984Steel Minimills

keywords: iron and steel plants; minimills; steelmaking

May 1984Oceanic fracture zones

keywords: crust; ocean basin; ocean floor; oceanic crust; oceanic fracture zones; plate tectonics; tectonics

May 1984Turing Machines

keywords: computability; computability and decidability; computability limits; computer metatheory; computers; digital computer; operation; Turing machines

May 1984The inflationary universe

keywords: cosmology; inflationary universe; primordial big bang

Jun 1984The structure and evolution of interstellar grains

keywords: chemical processes; cosmic dust; evolution; interstellar grains; interstellar matter; organic mantle; structure

Jun 1984Nuts and Bolts

keywords: bolts and nuts; fasteners --- Manufacture; Manufacture

Jul 1984Undersea volcanoes

keywords: bathymetry; Earth's crust; ocean floor; oceanic crust; rocks; undersea volcanoes; volcanology

Jul 1984Symbiotic stars

keywords: cataclysmic binary stars; celestial objects; compact hot companion star; giant stars; infrared sources (astronomical); red-giant star; small dense nebula; stellar models; stellar spectra; symbiotic stars; variable stars

Jul 1984The mathematics of three-dimensional manifolds

keywords: cosmology; mathematics; three-dimensional manifolds; topology

Jul 1984Multilingual Word Processing

keywords: Arabic; Character Sets; computerized typing; data processing; editing; Japanese; linguistics; multilingual word processing; word processing

Aug 1984The climatic effects of nuclear war

keywords: air pollution; climatic effects; climatology; dust; global nuclear winter; nuclear explosions; nuclear war; smoke; smoke clouds

Aug 1984A superluminous object in the Large Cloud of Magellan

keywords: 30 Doradus Nebula; emission lines star; giant nebula; HD 38268; Large Magellanic Cloud; LMC; Magellanic Clouds; NGC 2070; R136; spectrum; stellar evolution; stellar radiation; stellar spectra; supergiant; supergiant stars; superluminous object

Aug 1984Proteins of Oncogenes

keywords: genetic engineering; oncogenes; proteins

Aug 1984Fiber Optics in Plants

keywords: biological materials; cells; cellular biophysics; fiber optics; light pipes; optical fibers; physiology; plants; tissues

Aug 1984The mechanical manipulation of randomly oriented parts

keywords: Computer Applications; computer system; computerised pattern recognition; industrial robots; industry; mechanical manipulation; mechanisms --- Mechanization; randomly oriented parts; robotics; robots

Sep 1984Computer Software

keywords: agent-based systems; computer software; computers; dynamic spreadsheets; hypertext; programming; software techniques; state-of-the-art; user illusion

Sep 1984Programming languages

keywords: capabilities; features; language constructs; programming languages; software languages

Sep 1984Data Structures and Algorithms

keywords: algorithm theory; algorithms; arrays; binary trees; computer programming; computer software; data structure; data structures; lists; procedures; search algorithm; searching; sets; verifying

Sep 1984Operating systems

keywords: abstractions; complexity; computer operating system; electronic switching; layers; operating systems; operating systems (computers)

Sep 1984Computer Software for Graphics

keywords: computer graphics; I30 overview, software for graphics; image synthesis; interactive computer graphics; interactive systems; software developments; software packages; viewing transformation

Sep 1984Computer software for process control

keywords: computer software; process computer control; process control programs; process-control computer; real-time systems

Sep 1984Computer Software for Working With Language

keywords: ambiguity; computer software; computer translation; human languages; language; linguistic symbols; linguistics; meaning; natural language; predicate calculus; semantic network; syntactic analysis; word processing

Sep 1984Computer software in science and mathematics

keywords: complicated systems; computer software; digital simulation; mathematical systems; mathematics; science; scientific systems; simulation

Sep 1984Computer software for intelligent systems

keywords: artificial intelligence; expert systems; intelligent computer programs; intelligent problem solving; intelligent software; intelligent systems; random search

Sep 1984Computer Software for Information Management

keywords: B-trees; computer software; data base; data bases; database management systems; hierarchical data base; hierarchical systems; information management; information processing; information retrieval; network data base; relational data base; relational systems

Oct 1984Epsilon Aurigae

keywords: binary star system; eclipse; eclipsing binary stars; Epsilon Aurigae; infrared observations; stellar models; supergiant stars; ultraviolet observations

Oct 1984Continuous Processing of Metals in the U.S.S.R.

keywords: continuous processing; metal finishing --- ussr; metal forming; metal refining --- ussr; ussr

Nov 1984Japanese technology today

keywords: aerospace; biotechnology; computer applications; computers; economics; factory automation; high-technology industries; industrial robots; Japanese technology; new materials; office automation; research and development expenditure; research and development management; semiconductors; telecommunication; telecommunication networks; telecommunications

Nov 1984The infrared sky

keywords: artificial satellites; galaxy; Infrared Astronomical Satellite; infrared sky; infrared sources (astronomical); IRAS; solar system; Universe

Nov 1984The C3 laser

keywords: C3 laser; cleared coupled cavity laser; laser cavity resonators; semiconductor junction lasers; semiconductor lasers

Dec 1984Computer Recreations: Sharks and fish wage an ecological war on the toroidal planet Wa-Tor

Description of program for simulating predator-prey dynamics.

keywords: models-computer

Dec 1984Atomic memory

keywords: atomic systems; decayed; initial order; interactions; kinetic theory of gases; memory systems; optical pumping; order-disorder transformations; ordered states; recover; thermodynamics

Dec 1984The digital reproduction of sound

keywords: digital devices; digital reproduction; discrete numbers; sound; sound reproduction

Jan 1985Collapse and formation of stars

keywords: clouds of gas; debris; dust; early stages; final stages; formation; modelling; solar system; star; star-forming matter; stellar evolution; stellar models

Jan 1985Hot nuclear matter

keywords: heavy ion relativistic collisions; heavy ion-nucleus reactions; hot nuclear matter; nuclear matter; plasma; solid; vapor

Jan 1985Reliability of Computer Memories

keywords: computers, digital; mathematical techniques --- Error Analysis; memories; Reliability

Feb 1985Predicting the next great earthquake in California

keywords: California; earthquake; earthquakes; predictions; probability; San Andreas fault

Feb 1985Gamma-ray bursters

keywords: gamma ray source; gamma-ray bursters; gamma-ray sources (astronomical); high-energy radiation; mechanisms

Feb 1985Brownian Motion

keywords: Avogadro's number; Brownian motion; Einstein; Fick's law; mass of the atom; mathematical model; probability; random course; thermodynamics; time reversal

Feb 1985The functional replacement of the ear

keywords: auditory nerve; deafness; ear; electrical stimuli; functional replacement; hearing aids; implantable prosthesis; inner ear; prosthetics; sensory hair cells

Feb 1985Phased-Array Radars

keywords: antenna phased arrays; antennas --- Radar; phased array radars; phased-array radars; radar; radar antennas; radar systems; small antenna elements; wave interactions

Mar 1985Computer Recreations: A Core War bestiary of viruses, worms and other threats to computer memories

Review of self-propagating programs.

keywords: models-computer

Mar 1985The Volcanoes and Clouds of Venus

keywords: atmosphere; atmospheres; chemical analysis; clouds; crust; delay-Doppler-mapping; H2SO4 clouds; planetary atmospheres; radar; radar maps; S gases; sulfuric acid clouds; Venus; volcanoes

Mar 1985The hidden dimensions of spacetime

keywords: basic forces of nature; eleven dimensional structures; general relativity; hidden dimensions; space-time configurations; spacetime; unified account; unified field theories

Mar 1985Ion Implantation of Surfaces

keywords: composition; Ion Implantation; ion implantation; Ion Implantation; materials; structure; surface properties; surface structure; surfaces; surfaces --- Radiation Effects

Apr 1985The Earth's hot spots

keywords: Earth mantle; hot rock; hot spots; mantle; midocean plateaus; plate-tectonic cycle; swells; terrestrial heat; volcanoes

Apr 1985Elementary particles and forces

keywords: camouflage; colours; electroweak symmetry; elementary particles; forces; fundamental interactions; nuclear forces; quarks; screening; superconducting supercollider; unification; unified field theories

Apr 1985The clouds of Magellan

keywords: companion glasses; encounters; evolution; Galaxy; intergalactic gas stream; LMC; Magellanic Clouds; magellanic Clouds; SMC

May 1985How a supernova explodes

keywords: bounce; core collapses; gravitational collapse; milliseconds; nuclear fuel; shock wave; star's mass; supernova explodes; supernovae

May 1985Crystals at high pressure

keywords: atomic structure; crystals; gem-quality diamonds; high pressure; high-pressure phenomena and effects; high-pressure solid-state phase transformations; increased pressure; polyhedral geometry

May 1985Crystals at High Pressure

keywords: atomic structure; crystals; High Pressure Effects; physics --- Atomic

Jun 1985Choice of Technology

keywords: Economic and Sociological Effects; technology

Jun 1985The search for proton decay

keywords: 8000-ton underground detector; proton decay

Jun 1985Globular clusters

keywords: ancient stars; clusters; dense crowds; evolution of stars; galaxies; globular clusters; globular star clusters; gravitation; universe

Jun 1985The First Organisms

Another readable exposition of life-from-clays and genetic takeover.

keywords: alt-mat; origins-clays

Jul 1985Computer Recreations: A circuitous odyssey from Robotropolis to the electronic gates of Silicon Valley

Description of a program for wiring up simple simulated robots using actuators, sensors, motors, and etc. in order to perform simple task in a simulated environment. Should be extended to allow interactions between robots.

keywords: models-computer

Jul 1985The moons of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto

keywords: ground based studies; moons; Neptune; outer solar system; planetary satellites; Pluto; pluto; Pluto; space vehicles; Uranus; voyager 2; Voyager expeditions

Jul 1985The Fundamental Physical Limits of Computation

keywords: automata theory --- Turing Machines; computability; computation; computer metatheory; Efficiency; friction; fundamental physical limits; information processing; information theory; logic circuits; logic design; logic devices --- Gates; minimum energy; switching theory

Jul 1985Fossil Water Under the Sinai-Negev Peninsula

keywords: aquifer; aquifers; deserts; fossil water; geology --- Hydrology; glacial age; groundwater; hydrogeology; Israel; Israel, Egypt; Sinai-Negev peninsula; springs; water resources --- Underground; water supply; water wells; wells

Aug 1985Computer Recreations: A computer microscope zooms in for a look at the most complex object in mathematics

Exploring the Mandelbrot set.

keywords: models-computer

Aug 1985The scanning tunneling microscope

keywords: electron microscopy; microscopes; scanning tunneling microscope; structures; surfaces; surfaces --- Microscopic Examination; tunnelling

Aug 1985The classical vacuum

keywords: classical field theory; classical vacuum; distinctive pattern; electromagnetic field theory; electromagnetic fields; electron theory; heat radiation; matter

Aug 1985Young supernova remnants

keywords: expanding shells; intense X-ray sources; orbiting telescope; pulsar; pulsars; shock-heated gas; stellar explosions; structure; supernova remnants; X-ray sources (astronomical)

Aug 1985The Antarctic ice

keywords: Antarctic ice; bedrock; climatic history; climatology; continent; deep cores; ice; mapped

Sep 1985Helioseismology

keywords: acoustic waves; composition; dynamics; helioseismology; oscillations; solar composition; solar interior; solar rotation; solar surface; stellar pulsations; structure; Sun

Sep 1985Bimetallic Catalysts

keywords: catalysts; chemical reaction rates; metal clusters; metals and alloys --- Chemical Reactions

Nov 1985Computer Recreations: Exploring the field of genetic algorithms in a primordial computer sea full of flibs

Description of a program for experimenting with genetic algorithms.

keywords: genetic-algorithms; models-computer

Nov 1985Cosmic rays from Cygnus X-3

keywords: binary star; cosmic rays; Cygnus X-3; galactic cosmic rays; gamma rays; gamma-ray sources (astronomical); high-energy particles; infrared sources (astronomical); IR source; X-ray binary stars

Nov 1985Terranes

keywords: continents; Earth crust; fault-bounded blocks; geologic collages; Pacific Ocean; plate tectonics; sediments; subduction zone volcanism; tectonics; terranes; volcanology

Nov 1985Smart cards

keywords: credit cards; digital IC; digital integrated circuits; EFTS; microelectronic chip; smart cards

Dec 1985The development of software for ballistic-missile defense

keywords: ballistic-missile defense; military computing; missiles; SDI; software; star wars defense; Strategic Defense Initiative; weapon systems

Dec 1985Optical phase conjugation

keywords: applications; four wave mixing; optical phase conjugation; stimulated Brillouin scattering; wave motion

Dec 1985Cricket auditory communication

keywords: animal behavior; bioacoustics; biocommunications; cricket auditory communication; hearing; male's calling song; nervous-system activity

Dec 1985Polar wandering on Mars

keywords: axis of spin; lithosphere; Mars; planet's equator; polar wandering

Dec 1985The enormous theorem
Jan 1986How Close Encounters with Star Clusters are Achieved with a Computer Telescope
Jan 1986Space Science, Space Technology and the Space Station
Jan 1986Growth, Differentiation and the Reversal of Malignancy
Jan 1986The Structure of Comet Tails

keywords: comet tails; comets; interplanetary; interplanetary magnetic fields; magnetic field; Periodic Comet Giacobini Zinner (1984e); Periodic Comet Halley (1982i); plasma tail; solar wind

Jan 1986Applications of Optical Phase Conjugation

keywords: 'time-reversed' light; adaptive optics; applications; atmospheric turbulence; decode messages; image patterns; laser beams; laser-beam quality; message encoding; mirror; mirrors; optical information processing; optical phase conjugation; optics; satellite tracking; time reversed light waves

Jan 1986The Chemical Defenses of Higher Plants
Jan 1986Mineral Deposits from Sea-Floor Hot Springs

keywords: chemical exchanges; fractured volcanic rock; geochemistry; metal deposits; mineral deposits; mineralogy; minerals; ocean crust; oceanic crust; rocks; sea-floor hot springs; seawater; seawater --- Chemical Reactions; Subaqueous; terrestrial heat

Jan 1986Kin Recognition in Tadpoles
Jan 1986An Inexpensive Homemade Polarimeter Can Analyze Optically Active Compounds
Jan 1986Radiocarbon Dating by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

keywords: C14; accelerator mass spectrometry; anthropological specimens; anthropology; archaeological; archaeology; carbon; chronologies; Dating; geochronology; geology; geophysical technique; geophysical techniques; geophysics --- Radioactive Methods; mass spectroscopy; radioactive carbon 14; radioactive dating; radiocarbon

Feb 1986The King (a Chess Program) is Dead, Long Live the King (a Chess Machine)
Feb 1986The T Cell and its Receptor
Feb 1986Dioxin

keywords: air pollution; dioxin; Environmental Impact; herbicides --- Toxicity; organic compounds; tcdd; water pollution; weed control --- Environmental Impact

Feb 1986Quantum Chemical Reactions in the Deep Cold
Feb 1986The Heart as an Endocrine Gland
Feb 1986Reconstructing Bird Phylogeny by Comparing DNA's
Feb 1986Inca Stonemasonry
Feb 1986William Herschel and the Making of Modern Astronomy

keywords: astronomy; astronomy and astrophysics; biographies; history; William Herschel

Feb 1986Seismic Images of Plate Boundaries

keywords: oceanic crust; reflections; rock layers; seismic images; seismology; tectonic plate boundaries; tectonics

Feb 1986A Homemade Device for Testing Particle Scattering; Experiments in Zero Gravity
Mar 1986How a Pair of Dull-Witted Programs Can Look Like Geniuses on IQ Tests
Mar 1986Rethinking Nuclear Power

keywords: capacity factors; centrally fabricated nuclear reactors; Energy Policy; fission reactor safety; fission reactor theory and design; inherent safety; lower-power; nuclear energy; nuclear power; nuclear power stations; nuclear reactors --- Accident Prevention; pebble bed reactor; pius reactor; Pius reactor

Mar 1986The Earth's magnetotail

keywords: bright auroras; Earth's magnetic field; Earth's magnetotail; interplanetary space; magnetized gas; magnetosphere; solar wind

Mar 1986The Molecular Genetics of Hemophilia

keywords: biological materials --- Blood; biomedical engineering; cells; genetic engineering; proteins

Mar 1986The Superconducting Supercollider

keywords: accelerators; elementary particles; physics --- High Energy; superconducting devices; Superconducting Supercollider; synchrotrons

Mar 1986Computer-Simulated Plant Evolution
Mar 1986Mental Imagery and the Visual System
Mar 1986Computer-Simulated Plant Evolution

A model which traces the fossil record of the evolution of plant structure.

keywords: computer-model; evolution-model; plants

Mar 1986Crop Storage at Assiros
Mar 1986Methods and Optics of Perceiving Color in a Black-and-White Grating
Mar 1986Athletic Clothing

keywords: aerodynamics; Design; sporting goods; sports clothing

Apr 1986A Program for Rotating Hypercubes Induces Four-Dimensional Dementia
Apr 1986Can the U.S. Trust the U.S.S.R.?
Apr 1986The Quantized Hall Effect

keywords: quantized Hall effect; quantum Hall effect

Apr 1986The Dynamics of Proteins

Computer simulation of the dynamic structure of proteins.

keywords: models-computer; models-graphics

Apr 1986Islamic Astronomy
Apr 1986Internal Rhythms in Bird Migration
Apr 1986The ``Stress'' of Being Born
Apr 1986Optical Gyroscopes

keywords: gyroscopes; optical devices; optical gyroscope

Apr 1986Playing the Baroque Trumpet
Apr 1986Wonders with the Retroreflector, a Mirror that Removes Distortion from a Light Beam
May 1986Branching Phylogenies of the Paleozoic and the Fortunes of English Family Names
May 1986Sudden Cardiac Death
May 1986Glycosphingolipids
May 1986The Climate of Mars

keywords: atmospheric absorption; atmospheric circulation; carbon-dioxide cycle; climate; climate history; CO2; dust cycle; flowing water; Mars; permafrost; planet atmosphere; planetary atmospheres; poles; water cycle

May 1986Aqueous Foams
May 1986The Cheetah in Genetic Peril
May 1986Superconducting tunnel detectors in radio astronomy

keywords: photodetectors; radiation detector; radio astronomy; radiosource; radiotelescopes; star formation sites; superconducting junction devices; superconducting tunnel detectors; superconductive tunnelling

May 1986Postglacial Foraging in the Forests of Europe
May 1986Darwin as a Geologist
May 1986Superconducting Tunnel Detectors in Radio Astronomy

keywords: antennas; astrophysics; electrons --- Transport Properties; interferometers; radiation detectors; radio astronomy --- Equipment; superconducting devices; superconducting tunnel detectors; tunneling

May 1986Wire that ``Remembers'' its Shape is Put to Work Running an Engine
Jun 1986Casting a Net on a Checkerboard and Other Puzzles of the Forest
Jun 1986Beyond the Era of Materials
Jun 1986Fibronectins
Jun 1986Is Nature Supersymmetric?

keywords: supersymmetric; supersymmetry; unified field theories

Jun 1986El Nino
Jun 1986The Heart as a Suction Pump
Jun 1986Sexual Selection in Bowerbirds
Jun 1986The Perception of Apparent Motion
Jun 1986Mirrors Make a Maze so Bewildering that the Explorer Must Rely on a Map
Jun 1986Modern Windmills

keywords: aerodynamics --- Lift; blades; electric power generation; Energy Resources; rotors; wind power --- Efficiency; wind turbines; windmills

Jul 1986A Sublime Flight of Fancy over a Deserted Data Base
Jul 1986Potential New Crops
Jul 1986Very large structures in the Universe

keywords: clusters of galaxies; cosmology; early Universe; galaxy clusters; high-energy interactions; superclusters; voids

Jul 1986Anti-idiotypes and Immunity
Jul 1986The Structure of Mountain Ranges

keywords: Andes; crustal roots; dynamics; Earth crust; Earth mantle; Earth structure; gravity; Hawaii; Himalayas; mantle; mountain ranges; structure; tectonics; Tibetan Plateau

Jul 1986Exotic Atomic Nuclei
Jul 1986Space, Time and Touch
Jul 1986Flight Simulation

keywords: aircraft; computer graphics; computer simulation; Flight Simulators; pilot training

Jul 1986The Arthropod Cuticle
Jul 1986Exotic Patterns Appear in Water When it is Freezing or Melting
Aug 1986Digital Prestidigitation: The Fine Art of Magic and Illusion by Computer
Aug 1986The Strategic Nuclear Forces of Britain and France
Aug 1986Quasicrystals

keywords: amorphous; crystal structure; crystalline; noncrystalline state structure; quasicrystals; structure; tiling

Aug 1986Transplantation in the Central Nervous System
Aug 1986Progress in Laser Fusion

keywords: fusion power; fusion reactor ignition; laser fusion

Aug 1986The Origin of Corn
Aug 1986The Solar Cycle in Precambrian Time
Aug 1986Thermal Niches of Striped Bass
Aug 1986The Emergence of Maya Civilization
Aug 1986Retracing the Steps by which Aluminum Metal was Initially Purified back in 1886
Sep 1986Wallpaper for the Mind: Computer Images That Are Almost, But Not Quite, Repetitive
Sep 1986The Microwave Problem

keywords: biological effects; biological effects of microwaves; biological materials --- Radiation Damage; exposure limits; low levels; microwave; microwave hazards; Microwaves; radiation effects

Sep 1986Predicting Chemistry from Topology
Sep 1986Superstrings

keywords: duality and dual models; elementary particles; quantum theory; strings; superstrings; supersymmetry; unified field theories

Sep 1986The Blood-Brain Barrier
Sep 1986The Colors of Things
Sep 1986The Sun and the interstellar medium

keywords: Earth's climate; interstellar gas; interstellar matter; interstellar medium; Sun

Sep 1986Brachiopods
Sep 1986Leonardo's Contributions To Theoretical Mechanics

keywords: crossbow; Leonardo; Madrid Codices; mechanics

Sep 1986Rainbow Holograms, Unlike Conventional Ones, Can be Observed in Ordinary Light
Oct 1986The Compleat Computer Caricaturist and a Whimsical Tour of Face Space
Oct 1986Advanced Materials and the Economy

keywords: advanced materials; composites; economic and sociologic effects; economics; economy; engineering --- Social Aspects; materials; materials and society; materials demand; materials economics; materials science; new technology; productivity enhancement; strength of materials

Oct 1986Materials for Information and Communication

keywords: communication materials; data communication systems; electronic equipment --- Materials; information materials; integrated circuits; materials; materials research; materials science; optical communication; optical fibres; telecommunication; transistors

Oct 1986Materials for Aerospace

keywords: advanced materials; aerospace; aerospace engineering; aerospace materials; alloys; composite materials; composites; light weight; materials; materials research; materials science; resistance to heat; strength

Oct 1986Materials for Ground Transportation

keywords: automobiles --- Materials; lightweight materials; materials science; motor transportation

Oct 1986Materials for Medicine

keywords: biocompatible materials; ceramics; composites; glasses; human tissue replacement; materials; medicine; polymers; prosthetics

Oct 1986Materials for Energy Utilization

keywords: energy consumption; energy conversion; energy resources; energy transmission; energy utilization; material developments; materials; materials research; materials science

Oct 1986Materials for Medicine

keywords: biological materials --- Tissue; biomaterials; biomedical engineering; burn therapy; ceramics; composite materials; glass; materials science; Medical Applications; medical care; polymers; prostheses

Oct 1986Materials for Medicine

keywords: biological materials --- Tissue; biomaterials; biomedical engineering; materials science; Medical Applications

Oct 1986The Science of Materials

keywords: improved performance; materials; materials --- Reviews; materials preparation; materials properties; materials research; materials science; new materials synthesis; novel structures

Oct 1986Electronic and Magnetic Materials

keywords: electronic materials; high-speed logic operations; magnetic materials; materials technologies; semiconducting chips; semiconductor materials; semiconductor technology; semiconductors

Oct 1986Photonic Materials

keywords: electro-optical switch; glass fibres; lasers; light --- Transmission; materials science; nonlinear materials; nonlinear optics; optical communication; optical computers; optical fibres; optical glass; optical information processing; optical materials; photonic materials; semiconductor alloys; semiconductor materials; semiconductor technology; semiconductors; transmitting light signals; ultrapure glass

Oct 1986Advanced Metals

keywords: advanced metals; alloys; corrosion resisting alloys; heat resisting alloys; metal deformation; metallic crystalline structure; metallography; metals; metals and alloys; processing techniques; strong alloys; superalloys

Oct 1986Advanced Ceramics

keywords: advanced ceramics; brittleness; ceramic materials; ceramics; chemical attack resistance; cracking tendency; crystallography; glass; glass ceramics; glassy ceramics; hard materials; heat resistance; materials science

Oct 1986Cracks in a Surface Look Intricately Random But Actually Develop Rather Systematically
Oct 1986Advanced Polymers

keywords: advanced polymers; materials preparation; materials science; polymer fibres; polymer science; polymer structure; polymers; processing methods; structure; synthesis; tacticity

Oct 1986Composites

keywords: advanced materials; composite materials; composites; fibre reinforced composites; hybrid materials; materials science; performance; structural roles

Nov 1986Star Trek Emerges from the Underground to a Place in the Home-Computer Arcade
Nov 1986The Shadow Market in Housing
Nov 1986Engineering Voyager 2's Encounter with Uranus

keywords: Control; data compression; data transmission rates; fuel situation; heating; interplanetary navigation; light levels; mechanical breakdowns; Miranda; radio control; remote control; space communication links; space flight --- Interplanetary Flight; space vehicles; spacecraft; Uranus; voyager 2; Voyager expeditions; Voyager-2

Nov 1986Studying the Earth by Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry

keywords: astrophysics; crust; drift; Earth crust; Earth rotation; geodesy; geophysical technique; geophysical techniques; interferometry; plates; quasars; radiowave interferometry; spin rate; tectonics; VLBI; wobble

Nov 1986RNA as an Enzyme
Nov 1986The Higgs Boson

keywords: fundamental forces; GVT; Higgs Boson; intermediate bosons; magnetic monopoles; masses; unified field theories

Nov 1986Antarctic Fishes
Nov 1986Features and Objects in Visual Processing

keywords: identities; labels; meaningful wholes; memory; multidimensional wholes; objects; perception; visual information; visual perception; visual processing

Nov 1986Galileo and the Specter of Bruno
Nov 1986The Hyperscope and the Pseudoscope Aid Experiments on Three-Dimensional Vision
Dec 1986Computer Graphics at Pixar, of Fractal Mountains, Graftal Plants and Other ...
Dec 1986Corporate Medicine for Profit
Dec 1986Chaos

keywords: attractors; Brownian motion; causal relationships; causality; chaos; dynamical systems; fractals; order; Poincare recurrence; prediction; randomness; state space; turbulence

Dec 1986Dark matter in the Universe

keywords: astrophysics; clusters of galaxies; cosmology; dark matter; galaxies; interstellar matter; particle physics; stars; Universe

Dec 1986The First Human Retrovirus
Dec 1986The Functional Architecture of the Retina

keywords: cells; cellular biophysics; eye; functional architecture; retina; vision

Dec 1986How Roots Respond to Gravity
Dec 1986Human-Powered Watercraft
Dec 1986A Roman Apartment Complex
Dec 1986Methods for Going Through a Maze Without Becoming Lost or Confused
Jan 1987Computer Recreations: A program called MICE nibbles its way to victory at the first Core War tournament

Results of the first international competition.

keywords: models-computer

Jan 1987The Yields of Soviet Strategic Weapons
Jan 1987Uranus

keywords: ammonia clouds; atmosphere; atmospheres; composition; Coriolis force; electroglow; internal heat source; magnetic field; magnetosphere; methane clouds; planet; planetary atmospheres; planetary magnetism; plasma motions; rotating bodies; rotation rate; structure; Uranus; Voyager 2 mission; Voyager-2

Jan 1987The AIDS Virus

keywords: aids; biomedical engineering; biotechnology; human retrovirus; virus

Jan 1987Learning by Instinct
Jan 1987Fractal Growth

keywords: air bubbles; bubbles; crystallisation; diffusion; fluids; fractals; lattice theory; lattice theory and statistics; percolation

Jan 1987Power from the Sea

keywords: closed cycle; desalination; designs; electric power generation; fresh water production; low-boiling-point fluid; low-pressure system; ocean thermal energy conversion; open cycle; OTEC system; power generation; seawater; working fluid

Jan 1987Liposomes
Jan 1987The Solution of the Fleece
Jan 1987Reflections from a Water Surface Display Some Curious Properties
Feb 1987The Game Life Acquires Some Successors in Three Dimensions
Feb 1987Computer Recreations: The Game of Life Acquires some Successors in Three Dimensions

Description of Carter Bays' 3D extensions of Conway's game of LIFE. See also Bays:1987:CGL.

keywords: CA-LIFE; models-computer

Feb 1987Hunger in the U.S.
Feb 1987The Microtubule as an Intracellular Engine
Feb 1987The oldest pulsars in the Universe

keywords: pulsars; stellar evolution; stellar rotation

Feb 1987Genetic Recombination
Feb 1987Whales and Walruses as Tillers of the Sea Floor

keywords: Bering Sea; bioturbation; bivalve mollusc; Chuckchi; coast; crustacean; feeding; furrow; gray whale; groove; mammal; marine biology; Norton Sound; oceanography; Pacific; pit; sea floor; seafloor disturbance; seal; sediment; sedimentation; sediments; walrus; zoology

Feb 1987Marriage, Motherhood and Research Performance in Science
Feb 1987The Secret of a Microwave Oven's Rapid Cooking Action is Disclosed
Feb 1987Ballistic Electrons in Semiconductors

keywords: ballistic electron devices; ballistic electrons; electron's quantum-mechanical properties; electrons; FET; high field effects; quantum theory; semiconductor devices; semiconductors; theta device; Transport Properties

Feb 1987The Computer as a Musical Instrument

keywords: audio acoustics; computer; Computer Applications; computer generated music; digital sound synthesis; electronic music; musical instrument; musical instruments; musical instruments, electronic

Mar 1987Braitenberg Memoirs: Vehicles for Probing Behavior Roam a Dark Plain Marked by Lights
Mar 1987Computer Recreations: Braitenberg Memoirs --- Vehicles for probing behavior roam a dark plain marked by lights

Discussion of programming techniques for implementing Braitenberg's vehicles Braitenberg:1984:VES.

keywords: models-computer

Mar 1987Dyslexia
Mar 1987The Structure of Poliovirus

keywords: macromolecular configurations; model; molecular biophysics; poliovirus; structure; viral research

Mar 1987Cooling and Trapping Atoms

keywords: cooling; laser cooling; laser light; magnetic bottles; magnetic fields; radiation pressure; trapped atoms

Mar 1987Monoculture
Mar 1987The Rifting of Continents

keywords: continental crust; continents; Earth crust; hot spot; mantle; ocean; rifting; tectonics; terrestrial heat; upwelling molten rock

Mar 1987Thermoregulation in Winter Moths

keywords: biothermics; feed; fly; mate; near-freezing temperatures; thermoregulation; winter moths

Mar 1987Optical Neural Computers

keywords: Computer Applications; computer systems, digital; neural nets; optical elements; optical information processing; optical neural computer; optical neural computers; pattern recognition systems; recognizing patterns

Mar 1987A Mesolithic Camp in Denmark
Mar 1987Calculating the Distance to the Sun by Observing the Trail of a Meteor
Apr 1987The Sound of Computing is Music to the Ears of Some
Apr 1987Third-Generation Nuclear Weapons
Apr 1987Third-Generation Nuclear Weapons

keywords: military equipment; Nuclear Energy; nuclear explosions; nuclear weapons

Apr 1987How Photoreceptor Cells Respond to Light

keywords: biological materials; brain; core cells; electrical signal; eye; neural junctions; neural signals; photoreceptor cells; Radiation Effects; retina; rod cells; synapses; vision

Apr 1987The Moons of Uranus

keywords: Ariel; composition; cratering; densities; maps; Miranda; moons of Uranus; Oberon; planetary satellites; satellites; structure; surface features; Titania; Umbriel; Uranus; Voyager 2 mission; Voyager-2; vulcanism

Apr 1987Antiviral Therapy

keywords: antiviral strategy; biomedical engineering; Patient Treatment; therapy; viruses

Apr 1987The Emergence of Animals
Apr 1987Photovoltaic Power

keywords: CdTe; charge carriers; CuInSe2; efficiency; GaAs; million-watt power plants; photovoltaic cell; photovoltaic cells; photovoltaic effects; semiconductor; Si; solar cells; solar power plants; sunlight

Apr 1987Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells

keywords: acoustic characteristics; bells; Chinese bronze chime bells; instrumentation; music; musical acoustics; musical instruments; octaves; pitches; scales

Apr 1987The First Technology
Apr 1987Making a Barometer That Works with Water in Place of Mercury
May 1987Of Bulls, Bears and Programs in the Pit
May 1987A Surge in Inequality
May 1987The Cosmic Synthesis of Lithium, Beryllium and Boron

keywords: astrophysics; B; Be; beryllium; beryllium and alloys; big bang; boron; cosmic rays; cosmic synthesis; cosmology; dust; element origin; interstellar matter; interstellar space; Li; lithium; lithium and alloys --- Synthesis; low-density gas; nuclear reactions; nuclei; nucleosynthesis; primordial explosion

May 1987Synapses that Compute Motion

keywords: biophysical mechanism; brain; direction; eye; information-processing; mechanoception; motion; moving stimulus; nerve cell; neuron; neurophysiology; vision

May 1987Climate Modeling

keywords: atmosphere; atmospheric movements --- Mathematical Models; climate; Climatology; climatology; Climatology; Cretaceous; El Chichon; evolution; greenhouse effect; meteorology; nuclear war; physical principles; pollution; volcanic eruptions

May 1987Glucose and Aging

keywords: Aging; biological materials; collagen; glucose; proteins; sugar

May 1987Reappearing Phases

keywords: liquids --- Research; materials science; phases

May 1987Symbiosis in the Deep Sea
May 1987The Detonation of Explosives

keywords: Chapman; chemical processes; Detonation; detonation; Detonation; detonation; Doering; eigenvalue; explosions; explosives; hugoniot curves; Hugoniot curves; Jouquet; pathological; Rayleigh lines; shock waves; small-scale perturbations; von Neumann; Zel'dovich

May 1987Concerning Disappearances, Including the Cheshire Cat's Odd Vanishing Act
Jun 1987Drought in Africa
Jun 1987Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis

keywords: molecular biophysics; molecular genetics; molecular mechanisms; photosynthesis; spectroscopy; X-ray crystallography

Jun 1987Gravitational Wave Observatories

keywords: Einstein's general theory of relativity; extragalactic signals; general relativity; gravitational wave observatories; gravitational waves

Jun 1987The Anatomy of Memory
Jun 1987Collapsing Volcanoes

keywords: avalanches; catastrophic collapse; deposits; volcanoes; volcanology

Jun 1987Diving Adaptations of the Weddell Seal
Jun 1987The Connection Machine

keywords: artificial intelligence; Connection Machine; parallel computer; parallel machines

Jun 1987The Birth of the U.S. Biological-Warfare Program
Jun 1987Puzzles in Two and Three Dimensions, and Ways to Simplify Their Solution
Jun 1987Algopuzzles: Wherein Trains of Thought Follow Algorithmic Tracks to Solutions
Jun 1987The Connection Machine

keywords: computer graphics; computer hardware; computer technology; computers, digital; Connection Machine; connection machine; convolution; parallel processing

Jul 1987Can Advanced Technology Save the U.S. Steel Industry?
Jul 1987The Molecules of Visual Excitation

keywords: molecular biophysics; molecules; protein; proteins; retina; transducin; vision; visual excitation

Jul 1987Can Advanced Technology Save the U.S. Steel Industry?

keywords: direct casting; integrated steel plant; iron and steel industry --- United States; iron and steel plants --- United States; steelmaking; United States

Jul 1987The Rings of Uranus

keywords: planetary rings; rings; Roche zone; Uranus; Uranus' rings; Voyager 2 encounter; Voyager 2 mission

Jul 1987Beaches and Barrier Islands
Jul 1987Lyme Disease
Jul 1987Aerodynamics of Wind Pollination
Jul 1987Arches and Vaults in the Ancient Near East
Jul 1987Cold Nuclear Fusion

keywords: cold nuclear fusion; commercial energy source; Fusion Reactions; muon-catalyzed fusion; muon-nucleus reactions; muons; nuclear energy; nuclear fusion; nuclear fusion reactions; nuclear reactions involving few nucleon systems; nuclear reactors, fusion --- Research; nuclei with mass number 1 to 5

Jul 1987Why a Fluid Flows Faster When the Tube is Pinched
Jul 1987Probing the Strange Attractions of Chaos
Aug 1987Collisions Between Spinning Protons

keywords: AGS; Alternating Gradient Synchrotron; baryon spin and parity; colour model; polarisation in elementary particle interactions; polarized protons; proton+proton producing X; proton-proton inclusive interactions; QCD; spin directions; Zero Gradient Synchrotron; ZGS

Aug 1987Stars & Stripes

keywords: boats --- United States; Computer Aided Design; hulls; keels; sailing vessels; velocity prediction program

Aug 1987The Causes of Down Syndrome
Aug 1987The Clonal-Selection Theory
Aug 1987Salt Tectonics

keywords: diapirs; gas; geology; geophysical prospecting; oil; prospecting; salt deposits; salt structures; Tectonics; tectonics; upwelling

Aug 1987Gazelle Killing in Stone Age Syria
Aug 1987Gallium Arsenide Transistors

keywords: electron drift velocity; electrons --- Transport Properties; GaAs; gallium arsenide; III-V semiconductors; Materials; semiconducting gallium arsenide; semiconductor devices; transistors

Aug 1987Music and Ammonia Vapor Excite the Color Pattern of a Soap Film
Aug 1987Word Ladders and a Tower of Babel Lead to Computational Heights Defying Assault
Aug 1987Air Pollution by Particles

keywords: Acid Rain; acidic particles; air pollution; atmosphere; earth atmosphere; fossil fuels

Sep 1987Strategic Defense and Directed-Energy Weapons
Sep 1987The Large-Scale Streaming of Galaxies

keywords: clusters of galaxies; cosmology; galaxies; large-scale streaming; mass; Milky Way; Universe

Sep 1987Strategic Defense and Directed-Energy Weapons

keywords: directed energy weapons; military engineering; military equipment; strategic defense

Sep 1987Reverse Transcription
Sep 1987Electrides

keywords: crystalline materials; crystals; electrical properties of substances; electrides; electronic properties; Microstructure; negatively charged atoms; optical properties; optical properties of substances; physics --- Atomic; trapped electrons

Sep 1987Mimicry in Plants
Sep 1987The Swahili Corridor

keywords: Byzantine civilization; Holy Roman Empire; Mtambwe Mknu site; mtepe sailing vessel; Shanga site; Swahili corridor; trade

Sep 1987How Children Learn Words
Sep 1987Sticky Threadlike Substances That Tend to Draw Themselves out into Bead Arrays
Sep 1987Coal-Fired Power Plants for the Future

keywords: air pollution --- Gaseous Effluents; boiler firing --- Coal; coal fired plants; coal fired power stations; coal gasification; combustion --- Fluidized Beds; costs; electricity; emissions; fossil fuel power plants; steam power stations

Sep 1987Diverse Personalities Search for Social Equilibrium at a Computer Party
Oct 1987Chips for advanced computing

keywords: computer architectures; integrated circuits; microprocessor chips; parallel architectures; reviews

Oct 1987The Next Computer Revolution

keywords: accessibility; computer architecture; computer hardware; computer revolution; computing power; convenience; fifth generation systems; historical review; parallel machines; Reviews; reviews; systems design; technological forecasting

Oct 1987Programming for advanced computing

keywords: advanced computing; independent processes; message exchange; parallel programming; reviews; tuple space

Oct 1987Advanced Computer Architectures

keywords: computer architecture; computer operating systems --- Program Processors; distributed memory; parallel architectures; parallel processing; pipelining; Reviews; reviews; shared memory; supercomputers

Oct 1987Chips for Advanced Computing

keywords: chips; computer technology; field-effect transistor (MOSFET); integrated circuits; inverter circuit; logic circuits; metal-oxide-silicon; mosfet; MOSFET; packing density; rent's rule; Rent's rule; scaling factor; semiconductor devices, mosfet; semiconductor devices, MOSFET; silicon chips; single-chip computer

Oct 1987Programming for Advanced Computing

keywords: compiler; computer metatheory; computer programming; computer technology; Connection Machine; digital language; message-passing program; parallel computing; software; symmetric programming language; symmetric-language program; tuple-space program; tuples

Oct 1987Data-Storage Technologies for Advanced Computing

keywords: advanced computing; data storage technologies; data storage, magnetic; data storage, optical; disk drives; magnetic fields; magnetic storage; magnetic storage devices; magnetization; magneto-optical devices; magneto-optical technology; magnetooptical storage devices; parallel processing; reviews

Oct 1987Interfaces for Advanced Computing

keywords: advanced computing; artificial realities; computer graphics; computer interfaces; computer simulation; dataglove; electronic pad; eye movement; glove; handwriting; mouse; object manipulation; peripheral interfaces; reviews; sensors; speech recognition; supercomputers; touch screen; user interfaces; user-computer communication; voice communication

Oct 1987Networks for Advanced Computing

The information generated by computing is useless until it is communicated, and so the nature of the networks that link computers is as important as raw computing power. Establishing an effective network can be as difficult a task as getting the machines to think.

keywords: advanced computing; circuit switching; collision detection; computer hardware; computer networks; data sharing; hardware sharing; networks; packet switching; physical link; program sharing; protocols; reviews; wide-area networks

Oct 1987Advanced Computing for Science

keywords: advanced computing; astronomy; astrophysics --- Computer Applications; astrophysics computing; computational experiments; Computer Applications; computer images; galactic collisions; galaxies; interacting galaxies; natural sciences computing; reviews; scientific investigation; small effects; stellar dynamics

Oct 1987Advanced computing for medicine

keywords: advice systems; communication systems; expert systems; medical diagnostic computing; medical information systems; medical practice; medicine; patient diagnosis

Oct 1987Advanced Computing for Medicine

keywords: artificial intelligence --- Expert Systems; biomedical engineering; Computer Applications; computer systems, digital; computers --- Medical Applications; hospital information systems; hospitals --- Computer Applications; information retrieval systems; medical workstations

Oct 1987Now There is Rubik's Magic, a New Puzzle that Provides a Study in Permutation Operators
Oct 1987Advanced Computing for Manufacturing (aircraft industry)

keywords: aerodynamic-flow analysis; aerodynamics --- Computer Applications; aerospace computing; aircraft; aircraft industry; airflow; cad; CAD/CAM; cam; computational analysis; Computer Aided Design; computer aided design; computer aided manufacturing; manufacture; manufacturing; nacelles; supercomputer; supercomputers

Oct 1987``After Mad'': A Computer Game of Nuclear Strategy That Ends in a Prisoner's Dilemma
Nov 1987Diet and Cancer
Nov 1987Helium-Rich Supernovas

keywords: classification; evolution; galaxies; galaxy; model; spectra; stellar evolution; stellar interior; stellar internal processes; stellar models; stellar spectra; supernovae; Type Ib supernovae

Nov 1987Artificial Chromosomes
Nov 1987Synchrotron Radiation

keywords: light sources; storage ring; storage rings; synchrotron radiation; technological applications; ultraviolet light; undulators; wigglers; X-ray production; X-rays

Nov 1987The Ancestry of the Giant Panda
Nov 1987Demons, Engines and the Second Law

keywords: engines; heat engines; Maxwell's demon; second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamics

Nov 1987Early Farming in Northwestern Europe
Nov 1987Modeling Tidal Power

keywords: computer simulations; economic cost; environmental cost; geophysics computing; modelling; tidal power; tides; wave power generation

Nov 1987Fluid Interfaces, Including Fractal Flows, Can be Studied in a Hele-Shaw Cell
Nov 1987Beauty and Profundity: The Mandelbrot Set and a Flock of its Cousins Called Julia
Nov 1987Computer Recreations: Beauty and profundity: the Mandelbrot set and a flock of its cousins called Julia

keywords: fractals

Dec 1987Technology in Services
Dec 1987The Moon's Ancient Magnetism

keywords: axis of spin; directions; Earth-Moon system; impacts; large craters; magnetic field; meteorite craters; meteorites; Moon; orientation; planetary magnetism; planetary satellites; polar wandering; strengths

Dec 1987How Animal Cells Move

keywords: animal cells; cell motility; endocytic cycle; locomotion; motive force; nutrient molecules; outer membrane

Dec 1987Cosmic Strings

keywords: big bang; cosmic strings; cosmology; galaxy formation; interactions; loops; string theory; unified field theories; Universe

Dec 1987Courtship in Unisexual Lizards: A Model for Brain Evolution
Dec 1987H.M.S. Warrior
Dec 1987How to Capture on Film the Faint Glow Emitted When Sticky Tape is Peeled off a Surface
Dec 1987Simple Special Effects Illustrate the Art of Converting Algorithms into Programs
Dec 1987Collective Computation in Neuron-Like Circuits

keywords: analog VLSI; biomedical engineering; computation theory; computational properties; content-addressable storage; decision theory; decisions; electronic circuits; neural models; neural nets; neurobiological models; neuronlike circuits; parallel computation; VLSI

Dec 1987The Fracturing of Glass

keywords: atmosphere; atomic interactions; atomic structure; catastrophic failure; chemical interactions; chemical models; crack propagation; critical size; Fracture; fracture; fracture mechanics; fracturing; glass; growth rate; incubation period; interatomic bonds; oxide materials; physics --- Atomic; product reliability; rupture; surface cracks; water

Jan 1988The Antarctic Ozone Hole

keywords: air pollution; Antarctic ozone hole; Atmosphere; atmosphere; atmospheric chemistry; atmospheric composition; O3; ozone; Ozone layer; ozone layer; ozonosphere; South Pole; Ultraviolet-absorbing layer; ultraviolet-absorbing layer

thesaurus: Air pollution; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric composition; Ozone; Ozonosphere

Jan 1988How Killer Cells Kill
Jan 1988The Reality of the Quantum World

keywords: Benchtop experiments; benchtop experiments; Particle; particle; Photon; photon; Quantum mechanics; quantum mechanics; quantum theory; Quantum world; quantum world; Wave; wave; wave mechanics

thesaurus: Quantum theory; Wave mechanics

Jan 1988The Very-Long-Baseline Array

keywords: antennas; Antennas; array; Array; black holes; Black holes; geodesy; quasars; Quasars; radio telescope; Radio telescope; radiotelescopes; radiowave interferometers; radiowave interferometry; Very-Long-Baseline Array; VLBA

thesaurus: Geodesy; Radiotelescopes; Radiowave interferometers; Radiowave interferometry

Jan 1988Intertidal Fishes
Jan 1988The Not-So-Rare Earths
Jan 1988Art, Illusion and the Visual System

keywords: Brain; brain; Colour information; colour information; Form; form; Images; images; Spatial information; spatial information; Visual effects; visual effects; visual perception; Visual system; visual system

thesaurus: Visual perception

Jan 1988The Transformer

keywords: Electricity; electricity; High-current output; high-current output; history; Low-current power; low-current power; power transformers; reviews; Transformer; transformer; Transmission; transmission

thesaurus: History; Power transformers; Reviews

Jan 1988What Explains Subjective-Contour Illusions, Those Bright Spots That are not Really There?
Jan 1988Nanotechnology: Wherein Molecular Computers Control Tiny Circulatory Submarines
Feb 1988A Flaw in a Universal Mirror

keywords: Big bang; big bang; cosmology; Cosmos; cosmos; CP invariance; Matter antimatter balance; matter antimatter balance; Particle physics; particle physics; Universal mirror; universal mirror

thesaurus: Cosmology; CP invariance

Feb 1988Gabaergic Neurons
Feb 1988Chromosome Mapping with DNA Markers
Feb 1988How Climate Evolved on the Terrestrial Planets

keywords: Climate evolution; climate evolution; climatology; Earthlike climates; earthlike climates; Mars; Mathematical models; mathematical models; planetary atmospheres; Solar System; Terrestrial planets; terrestrial planets; Venus

thesaurus: Climatology; Mars; Planetary atmospheres; Venus

Feb 1988The Adaptable Opossum
Feb 1988Ramanujan and Pi
Feb 1988The Bubonic Plague
Feb 1988The Feathery Wake of a Moving Boat is a Complex Interference Pattern
Feb 1988A Blind Watchmaker Surveys the Land of Biomorphs
Feb 1988Plastics that Conduct Electricity

keywords: conductivity; Conductivity; doped polymers; Doped polymers; Electric Conductivity; electrically conducting plastics; Electrically conducting plastics; ionic triplets; Ionic triplets; lightweight battery; Lightweight battery; monomeric repeat units; one-dimensional conductivity; plastics; polymer films; polymers; polymers --- Doping

thesaurus: One-dimensional conductivity; Plastics; Polymers

Mar 1988The Nonacoustic Detection of Submarines
Mar 1988The nonacoustic detection of submarines

keywords: detectors; marine systems; military systems; Nonacoustic detection; nonacoustic detection; Operating principles; operating principles; remote sensing by laser beam; Submarines; submarines

thesaurus: Detectors; Marine systems; Military systems; Remote sensing by laser beam

Mar 1988Gravity and Antimatter

keywords: Antimatter; antimatter; Antiproton experiment; antiproton experiment; Gravitational acceleration; gravitational acceleration; gravitational experiments

thesaurus: Gravitational experiments

Mar 1988Catalytic Antibodies
Mar 1988Construction Cranes
Mar 1988How the Leopard Gets its Spots
Mar 1988Fatness and Fertility
Mar 1988The Quantum-Effect Device: Tomorrow's Transistor?

keywords: AlGaAs-GaAs; aluminium compounds; Disruptive effects; disruptive effects; field effect transistors; gallium arsenide; III-V semiconductors; Integrated circuits; integrated circuits; Quantum dot structure; quantum dot structure; Quantum-effect device; quantum-effect device; Semiconductor device; semiconductor device; semiconductor superlattices; Transistor; transistor; tunnelling

thesaurus: Aluminium compounds; Field effect transistors; Gallium arsenide; III-V semiconductors; Semiconductor superlattices; Tunnelling

Mar 1988The Roman Port of Cosa
Mar 1988Why Sidespin Helps the Bowler to Keep Scoring Strikes
Mar 1988A Home Computer Laboratory in Which Balls Become Gases, Liquids and Critical Masses
Apr 1988The Self, the World and Autoimmunity
Apr 1988Computers in Music

keywords: Computer Applications; computer-generated music; Computer-generated music; computers, digital; electronic music; Electronic music; music composing; musical acoustics; musical instruments; sound; Sound; spatialization program

thesaurus: Electronic music; Musical acoustics

Apr 1988The Membrane Paradigm for Black Holes

keywords: black holes; electrically conducting spheroidal membrane; general relativity; membrane paradigm; spacetime

Apr 1988Energy-Efficient Buildings
Apr 1988Light Switches for Plant Genes
Apr 1988The Effects of Spin in Gases

keywords: atom; gases; H; He; heat conduction; helium; nucleus; spin; spin polarised atomic hydrogen; thermal conductivity of gases

Apr 1988The Behavior of Baleen Whales
Apr 1988Energy-Efficient Buildings

keywords: buildings; electric lighting; Energy Conservation; energy consumption; energy demand; energy efficient buildings; energy utilization; heating

Apr 1988Trembley's Polyps
Apr 1988How to Map Electrically Charged Patches with Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme
Apr 1988An Ancient Rope-and-Pulley Computer is Unearthed in the Jungle of Apraphul
May 1988Squeezed Light

keywords: fluctuations; Light waves; light waves; Noise; noise; Quantum fluctuations; quantum fluctuations; quantum optics; Squeezed light; squeezed light; Uncertainty; uncertainty

thesaurus: Fluctuations; Quantum optics

May 1988Tumor Necrosis Factor
May 1988Controlling Indoor Air Pollution

keywords: air pollution; houses --- Climate Control; Indoor; indoor pollution; radon; regulations

May 1988Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo

keywords: Core dynamo model; core dynamo model; Earth; Geodynamo; geodynamo; Geomagnetic excursions; geomagnetic excursions; Geomagnetic reversal; geomagnetic reversal; geomagnetic variations; Geomagnetism; geomagnetism; Magnetic field; magnetic field; Magnetic reversals; magnetic reversals; Rebounds; rebounds

thesaurus: Geomagnetic variations; Geomagnetism

May 1988The Platypus
May 1988The Indian Neck Ossuary
May 1988The Mystery of the Cosmological Constant

keywords: constants; Cosmological constant; cosmological constant; cosmology; Energy; energy; Hubble constant; Universe; Vacuum; vacuum

thesaurus: Constants; Cosmology

May 1988Icicles Ensheathe a Number of Puzzles: Just How Does the Water Freeze?
May 1988Aerogels

keywords: aerogels; gels; materials science; Reviews; sol-gel process

May 1988The Invisible Professor Holds a Chalk-Talk Session on the Display Monitor
Jun 1988Economic Growth
Jun 1988``Snurps''
Jun 1988Particle Accelerators Test Cosmological Theory
Jun 1988Particle accelerators test cosmological theory

keywords: big bang; cosmological theory; cosmology; elementary-particle physics; families; higher generation particles; leptons; nucleosynthesis; particle accelerators; quarks; spacetime; theory of everything; unified field theories; Universe

Jun 1988Perovskites

keywords: BaTiO3; ceramics; crystal atomic structure of inorganic compounds; crystal structure; electrical properties; high temperature superconductor; high-temperature superconductors; perovskites; structure

Jun 1988Bacteria as Multicellular Organisms

They differentiate into various cell types and form highly regular colonies that appear to be guided by sophisticated temporal and spatial control systems.

Jun 1988Polynyas in the Southern Ocean

keywords: Antarctic; chemical composition; ice cover; large-scale motion; oceanography; polar atmosphere; polynyas; Southern Ocean; surface waters; temperature

Jun 1988The Neurobiology of Feeding in Leeches
Jun 1988Early Iron Smelting in Central Africa
Jun 1988Does Convection or the Bernoulli Principle Make the Shower Curtain Flutter Inward?
Jun 1988Imagination Meets Geometry in the Crystalline Realm of Latticeworks
Aug 1988The hodgepodge machine makes waves
Jul 1988The Geography of U.S. Presidential Elections
Jul 1988Gravitational Lenses

keywords: Cosmology; cosmology; Einstein ring quasars; Galaxies; galaxies; Gravitational lenses; gravitational lenses; Large scale structure; large scale structure; quasars; Source images; source images; Universe

thesaurus: Cosmology; Galaxies; Gravitational lenses; Quasars

Jul 1988Hormones that Stimulate the Growth of Blood Cells
Jul 1988The Supercontinent Cycle

keywords: Conduction; conduction; Convective motions; convective motions; Crust; crust; Decay; decay; Earth crust; Heat; heat; Mantle; mantle; Plate tectonics; plate tectonics; Radioactive elements; radioactive elements; Supercontinent cycle; supercontinent cycle; tectonics; terrestrial heat

thesaurus: Earth crust; Tectonics; Terrestrial heat

Jul 1988How the Human Eye Focuses

keywords: Biochemistry; biochemistry; eye; Eye's geometry; eye's geometry; Focus; focus; Human eye; human eye; vision

thesaurus: Eye; Vision

Jul 1988The Chaco Canyon Community
Jul 1988Randomness in Arithmetic

keywords: algorithmic information theory; computability theory; halting problem; incompleteness theorem; number theory; Pascal's triangle; randomness

Jul 1988Shadows Cast on the Bottom of a Pool are not like Other Shadows. Why?
Jul 1988Capacitors

keywords: capacitors; Construction; construction; Design; design; Efficiency; efficiency; Electrolytic capacitor; electrolytic capacitor; electrolytic capacitors; insulators; integrated circuit manufacture; Leyden jar; leyden jar; Leyden jar; manufacturing; multilayer ceramic capacitor; Multilayer ceramic capacitor; multilayer ceramic capacitor; Reviews; tantalum capacitors

thesaurus: Capacitors; Electrolytic capacitors

Jul 1988How to Pan for Primes in Numerical Gravel
Aug 1988The High Fidelity of DNA Duplication
Aug 1988The Challenge of Acid Rain

keywords: Acid Rain; acid rain; acidified lakes; air pollution; atmosphere; ecology; environmental impact; flue gases --- Desulfurization; fossil fuel power station; industrial pollution; pollution detection and control; rain and rainfall; river systems; soil; USA; water pollution

Aug 1988Measuring Crustal Deformation in the American West

keywords: America; Canada; crustal deformation; geodesy; geophysical techniques; Global Positioning Satellite; GPS; measurement technique; plate tectonics; radioastronomical very-long baseline interferometry; radionavigation satellite method; tectonics; USA; VLBI radioastronomy method

Aug 1988Beyond truth and beauty: a fourth family of particles

keywords: fourth family; fundamental particles; hypothetical particles; leptons; quarks; unified field theories

Aug 1988Light-Activated Drugs
Aug 1988Perceiving Shape from Shading

keywords: brain; perception; shading; single light source; three-dimensional shape; visual perception

Aug 1988X-Ray Imaging with Coded Masks

keywords: astronomical techniques; cameras; coded mask telescope; coded masks; high-energy X-ray sources; pinhole camera; plasma diagnostic techniques; plasmas; reactors; X-ray astronomy; X-ray imaging; X-ray telescope

Aug 1988Perceiving Shape From Shading


Aug 1988Some Entertaining Lessons in Optics That May Make Air Travel Easier to Endure
Aug 1988The Hodgepodge Machine Makes Waves
Aug 1988Dr. Atanasoff's Computer

keywords: atanasoff-berry computer; computers, digital; digital computers; electronic digital computers; history; logic circuits; Reviews

Sep 198850 and 100 Years Ago

1888: How gravity would impart high velocity to an urban railroad train.

Sep 1988Civilian Casualties from Counterforce Attacks
Sep 1988Finding the Antioncogene
Sep 1988Finding the Anti-Oncogene

Whereas oncogenes initiate cancer by actively promoting excessive cell growth, an anti-oncogene normally constrains growth; lacking it, a cell may proliferate out of control. The author and his colleagues have isolated the first anti-oncogene, whose inheritance in a mutated, inactive form confers an inborn susceptibility to retinoblastoma, an eye tumor.

Sep 1988Detecting Individual Atoms and Molecules with Lasers

The laser, tuned precisely to the frequency of the radiation emitted or absorbed by an atom or a molecule, becomes a highly sensitive probe. It can detect minute amounts of one substance in another (plucking a single platinum atom out of a trillion molecules of seawater, for example) or explore the energetic structure of an atomic nucleus

keywords: atomic spectra; Individual atom detection; individual atom detection; Individual molecule detection; individual molecule detection; ionisation of atoms; ionisation of molecules; molecular spectra; Resonance ionisation spectroscopy; resonance ionisation spectroscopy; spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopy

thesaurus: Atomic spectra; Ionisation of atoms; Ionisation of molecules; Molecular spectra; Spectrochemical analysis; Spectroscopy

Sep 1988The discovery of the visual cortex

keywords: brain; Brains visual center; brains visual center; Discovery; discovery; Head wounds; head wounds; history; Russo-Japanese War; Soldiers; soldiers; vision; Visual cortex; visual cortex

thesaurus: Brain; History; Vision

Sep 1988The Insulin Factory

Insulin is made in the beta cell of the pancreas --- but how, and in what stages? Combining biochemistry with advanced electron micrography, the authors and others have traced the subcellular assembly line, identifying successive workstations where a precursor molecule is synthesized and processed into insulin and the hormone is exported from the cell.

Sep 1988Shock-Front Phenomena and Other Oddities to Entertain a Bored Airline Passenger
Sep 1988A Close Look at Halley's Comet

It has been two and a half years since an armada of spacecraft lifted off for a close encounter with Halley's comet. Intensive analysis of the data that were telemetered from European, Japanese and Soviet probes confirms the ``dirty snowball'' model of comet structure and provides clues to the nature of the materials that formed the solar system.

keywords: Comet nucleus; comet nucleus; comets; Element relative abundance; element relative abundance; Giotto; Halley's Comet; Periodic Comet Halley (1986 III); Quantitative information; quantitative information; Space probes; space probes

thesaurus: Comets

Sep 1988Old and New Three-Dimensional Mazes
Sep 1988The Fossils of Montceau-les-Mines

Some 300 million years ago, when the continents were grouped near the Equator, France's Massif Central was tropical. Steams, lakes and estuaries teemed with amphibians, fish, arthropods and mollusks, and giant ferns covered the hills. A remarkable fossil cache has enabled paleontologists to reconstruct what life there was like in the Upper Carboniferous.

Sep 1988Plasma-Sprayed Coatings

The plasma gun's high-temperature flame can convert almost any powdered material into a molten spray. Jet-engine components and other parts that will be subjected to fierce heat, mechanical stress or chemical attack can now be sheathed in an insulating ceramic almost as easily as a coat of latex paint can be laid down with a spray gun.

keywords: Ceramic; ceramic; ceramics; Coating; coating; Corrosion; corrosion; corrosion protective coatings; High temperature; high temperature; Metal; metal; metals; plasma arc spraying; Plasma sprayed coatings; plasma sprayed coatings; Powder; powder; Wear; wear; wear resistant coatings

thesaurus: Ceramics; Corrosion protective coatings; Metals; Plasma arc spraying; Wear resistant coatings

Sep 1988The Discovery of the Visual Cortex

The foundations of today's knowledge of how the brain processes visual images were laid over a period of more than a century by a series of investigators, many of them now long forgotten. Ironically, knowledge of how the world is mapped onto the cortex owes much to the introduction of a new high-velocity rifle in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5.

Sep 1988Computer Recreations

Could These have got out of the labyrinth without having a thread to follow?

Oct 1988AIDS in 1988

Where do we stand? What are the key areas of current research? The prospects for therapy or a vaccine? In their first collaborative article the two investigators who established the cause of AIDS answer these questions and tell how HIV isolated and linked to AIDS.

Oct 1988The Molecular Biology of the AIDS Virus

Just three viral genes can direct the machinery of an infected cell to make a new HIV particle --- provided that at least three other viral genes give the go-ahead. These regulatory genes give the virus its protean behavioral repertoire: they spur viral replication, hold it in check or bring it to a halt.

Oct 1988The Origins of the AIDS Virus

The AIDS virus has a past and it has relatives. An inquiry into its family history can reveal how the related viruses interact with human beings and monkeys. The inquiry may also uncover vulnerabilities: some forms of the virus have evolved toward disease-free coexistence with their hosts.

Oct 1988The Epidemiology of AIDS in the U.S.

Since 1981 more than 66,000 people in the U.S. have contracted AIDS; by 1992 there may be 300,000 more cases --- even if the incidence of infection begins to decline. By identifying risk groups and risky behaviors, epidemiology can suggest nonmedical strategies for controlling AIDS.

Oct 1988The International Epidemiology of AIDS

The pandemic is still in its early stages. Although no one is certain how many AIDS cases have already developed, the World Health Organization estimates the number at 250,000. Furthermore, at least five million people worldwide are probably infected with the AIDS virus.

Oct 1988HIV Infection: The Clinical Picture

To focus only on treating AIDS is to lose the battle against HIV, the virus that causes it. AIDS is actually the final manifestation of a progressive immune disorder that may be silent for years. Early diagnosis and accurate staging of HIV infection help physicians to optimize therapy.

Oct 1988HIV Infection: The Cellular Picture

The AIDS virus can do no damage until it enters a target cell. The first step in invasion is the binding of molecule on the viral membrane to a molecule on the membrane of the target. The receptor molecule, known as CD4 antigen, exists primarily on certain immune-system cells.

Oct 1988The Social Dimensions of AIDS
Oct 1988AIDS Therapies

The prognosis for treatment was once grim, but now understanding of HIV's life cycle makes it possible to design drugs that take aim at specific targets. The authors describe an all-out effort to develop a number of drugs that can be administered in a concerted attack.

Oct 1988Drop Two Stacked Balls from Waist Height: The Top Ball May Bounce up to the Ceiling
Oct 1988On Making and Breaking Codes: Part I
Oct 1988AIDS Vaccines

A vaccine against HIV would be the most effective means of stemming the AIDS crisis. Several candidate vaccines are being tested in people, but HIV is a devious enemy and there is no evidence that any of them will work. What kinds of obstacles are investigators up against?

Nov 1988Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Celestial X-Ray Sources

keywords: accretion; Accretion; accretion disks; Accretion disks; emission; Emission; GX 5-1; magnetic field; Magnetic field; mass transfer; neutron star; Neutron star; neutron stars; QPOs; quasi-periodic oscillations; Quasi-periodic oscillations; stellar magnetism; stellar radiation; X-ray binary stars; X-ray sources

thesaurus: Accretion disks; Mass transfer; Neutron stars; Stellar magnetism; Stellar radiation; X-ray binary stars

Nov 1988Educating Poor Minority Children

The inadequate education of black children from urban ghettos condemns many of them to lives of chronic unemployment and desperation. Is there a way to bring such children into the mainstream of a technological society? The author built on his own childhood experiences to develop a strategy that is now working in 50 schools around the country.

Nov 1988The electrification of thunderstorms

keywords: Atmosphere; atmosphere; atmospheric movements; atmospheric precipitation; Cloud; cloud; clouds; Convection; convection; Dipole characteristics; dipole characteristics; Electrification; electrification; Global electrical circuit; global electrical circuit; Lightning; lightning; Microphysics; microphysics; Thunderstorms; thunderstorms

thesaurus: Atmospheric movements; Atmospheric precipitation; Clouds; Lightning; Thunderstorms

Nov 1988Quasi-periodic Oscillations in Celestial X-Ray Sources

Regular variations in the intensity of X-ray emanations can yield information about a celestial X-ray source: it may be orbited by an eclipsing star, for example, or may rotate like a lighthouse beam. What is one to make of powerful sources near the center of our galaxy whose X-ray intensity fluctuates not quite periodically but not quite at random?

Nov 1988What Makes a Tumor Cell Metastatic?

The tumor cells that undergo metastasis, traveling through the bloodstream to establish new tumors, turn out to bear on their surface a distinctive pattern of molecules that enable them to evade the immune system. This feature and others that are unique to metastatic cells point the way toward what may one day be a new kind of cancer therapy.

Nov 1988Superfluid turbulence

keywords: He4; Friction; friction; Quantum theory; quantum theory; Superfluid; superfluid; superfluid helium-4; Turbulence; turbulence; Viscosity; viscosity; Vortex; vortex; vortices

thesaurus: Superfluid helium-4; Turbulence; Vortices

Nov 1988Infrared optical fibers

keywords: Fluoride optical fibre laser; fluoride optical fibre laser; Heavy metal fluoride glasses; heavy metal fluoride glasses; Highly transparent silica glass; highly transparent silica glass; IR optical fibres; light absorption; Light attenuation; light attenuation; optical fibres; SiO2; Transparency; transparency

thesaurus: Light absorption; Optical fibres

Nov 1988The Electrification of Thunderstorms

An average thunderstorm generates several lightning flashes per minute and as much electric power as a small nuclear plant. To produce such large amounts of power a thundercloud must be charged to potentials of several hundred million volts. Models have been developed that explain aspects of the charging process, but the fundamental physics is still a mystery.

Nov 1988Superfluid Turbulence

Liquid helium cooled to within about two degrees of absolute zero can flow without viscosity or friction, but it is not immune to a form of turbulence that is quantum-mechanical in nature. For example, the rates at which superfluid atoms circulate in a vortex are precisely determined by the same equation that fixes the radii of electron orbits in an atom.

Nov 1988Infrared Optical Fibers

Optical fibers made of highly transparent silica glass can carry voice and data signals for as much as 50 kilometers without reamplification. New materials that transmit longer wavelengths of light can in theory be 20 times as transparent as silica glass. They may eventually be able to carry signals for hundreds or perhaps thousands of miles.

Nov 1988Obstacles to Developing Vaccines for the Third World

The developing nations urgently need new vaccines to control serious infectious diseases. Yet many of the vaccines --- in particular those for diseases that are largely confined to the Third World --- are unlikely to be produced if the decision is left to pharmaceutical companies. Neither the developing nations nor the United Nations can pay market prices.

Dec 1988The geometric phase

keywords: Anholonomy; anholonomy; Geometric phase; geometric phase; geometry; Oscillation plane; oscillation plane; Particle; particle; Pendulum; pendulum; Quantum states; quantum states; quantum theory; Rotation; rotation; Wave function; wave function; wave functions

thesaurus: Geometry; Quantum theory; Wave functions

Dec 1988Managing Solid Waste

Every year Americans transform cereal boxes, glassware, refrigerators and food scraps into 140 million metric tons of municipal waste; we have run out of places to put it. Yet the problem can be solved. Manufacturers.could minimize packaging, trash could be sorted and recycled, and new incinerator and landfill technology could reduce pollution.

keywords: Landfills; Recycling Programs; Refuse Disposal; Refuse Incinerators; Solid Waste

Dec 1988The Geometric Phase

Sometimes a variable describing a physical system (say an electron circling in a magnetic field) fails to return to its original value when the system returns to its original position. The geometric phase elegantly explains, in ways that are useful to physicists and technologists, the behavior of particles in certain quantum-mechanical situations.

Dec 1988Plasticity in Brain Development

The infant's brain is not a fait accompli. Experience and use refine and restructure the web of fibers connecting one nerve cell to another. Now a protein has been discovered that plays a major role in rewiring the visual system-the first such protein to be identified. The finding could lead to better understanding of how other brain areas are shaped by experience.

Dec 1988Patterned Ground

Cycles of freezing and thawing can shape rocks, soil and vegetation into varied and striking geometric figures. The authors have developed models that show how convection could account for some of the patterns.

Dec 1988Fertilization in Mammals

Multitudes of sperm bind to an ovum and penetrate its outer coat, but only one manages to fertilize the egg. A single molecule called the sperm receptor, a glycoprotein, governs many of the events of fertilization, including the processes by which the fertilized egg is rendered immune to the blandishments of late arrivals.

Dec 1988Soft-X-ray lasers

keywords: Lasers, X-ray; Nova Laser; Nova laser; Photons; Physics --- Atomic; Reviews; Soft X-Ray Lasers; Soft X-ray lasers; soft X-ray lasers; Wavelengths; wavelengths; X-ray lasers; X-rays --- Transport Properties

thesaurus: X-ray lasers

Dec 1988Canal builders of pre-Inca Peru

keywords: Archaeology; Canals; Construction; Inland Waterways --- Peru

Jan 1989Deep earthquakes

keywords: Deep earthquakes; deep earthquakes; earthquakes; Failure; failure; High pressures; high pressures; Laboratory studies; laboratory studies; Rock behavior; rock behavior; rocks; Seismological observations; seismological observations; Temperatures; temperatures

thesaurus: Earthquakes; Rocks

Jan 1989On Science Advice to the President

What worked for presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy will work for President-elect Bush. The author advocates reviving the President's Science Advisory Committee (which he headed under Kennedy) to give the new president the scientific community's best thinking on issues such as industrial policy, defense and the environment.

Jan 1989How Gene Activators Work

A cell does not need all its genes all the time; it switches them on and off. Regulatory proteins bind to specific regions of DNA and start or stop the production of protein from nearby or distant genes. By studying gene regulation in viruses and yeast, the author and his colleagues have uncovered principles that also apply in more advanced organisms.

Jan 1989Deep Earthquakes

Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. What gives in deep earthquakes?

Jan 1989Carbohydrates and Depression
Jan 1989The Mixing of Fluids

Marbled endpapers, the eruption of a volcano and the making of puff pastry are all instances of mixing by stretching and folding. Laboratory mixing experiments offer insights into the stunning complexities of everyday mixing and serve as models of chaotic behavior: the time-varying flows wreck disorder that nonetheless has a certain symmetry.

keywords: Agitation Processes; Chaos; Chaotic Models; Computer models; Diffusion; Flow of Fluids; Fluid Mechanics; Fluid mechanics; Fluid Mechanics; Fluids; Mechanism; Mixing; Periodic patterns; Two dimensions; Viscous fluids

thesaurus: Chaos; Flow simulation; Flow visualisation; Mixing

Jan 1989The Hunt for Proconsul
Jan 1989Andre-Marie Ampere
Jan 1989The Colors Seen in the Sky Offer Lessons in Optical Scattering
Jan 1989The Shortest-Network Problem

keywords: algorithms; computer capabilities; exponential-time algorithms; graph theory; Graph theory; Integrated Circuits --- Design; Mathematical Programming; Mathematical Techniques; mathematics; mathematics computing; Mathematics computing; Melzak's Algorithm; Network Problems; network problems; Network Problems; operations research; Operations research; polynomial-time algorithms; Pruning Methods; Shortest Network Problem; shortest-network problem; Shortest-network problem; Steiner problem; Topology

thesaurus: Graph theory; Mathematics computing; Operations research

Jan 1989People Puzzles: Theme and Variations
Feb 1989Soviets in Space
Feb 1989The Genes for Color Vision
Feb 1989Giant Ocean Cataracts

keywords: Cataracts; cataracts; Deep ocean; deep ocean; Denmark Strait; Dynamics; dynamics; Ocean basins; ocean basins; oceanography; Salinity differences; salinity differences; Sills; sills; Strait of Gibraltar; Temperature differences; temperature differences

thesaurus: Oceanography

Feb 1989The New Superconductors: Prospects for Applications

keywords: Electrical energy storage; electrical energy storage; Generators; generators; High temperature superconductors; high temperature superconductors; high-temperature superconductors; Industrial applications; industrial applications; Levitating trains; levitating trains; Materials processing; materials processing; Power lines; power lines; SQUIDs; Superconducting computers; superconducting computers; superconducting devices; Supermagnets; supermagnets; Theoretical limits; theoretical limits

thesaurus: High-temperature superconductors; Superconducting devices

Feb 1989From Bird Song to Neurogenesis
Feb 1989The Chemical Effects of Ultrasound
Feb 1989Teeth and Prehistory in Asia
Feb 1989The History of Census Tabulation
Feb 1989In an Emergency Stop, Should a Car's Wheels be Locked or Should the Braking be Controlled?
Feb 1989A Tour of the Mandelbrot Set aboard the Mandelbus
Feb 1989Computer Recreations: A tour of the Mandelbrot set aboard the Mandelbus

keywords: fractals

Mar 1989U.S. Access to Space
Mar 1989Multidrug Resistance in Cancer
Mar 1989Plasma Particle Accelerators

keywords: collective accelerators; Electrons; electrons; Fields; fields; Plasma; plasma; Plasma particle accelerators; plasma particle accelerators

thesaurus: Collective accelerators

Mar 1989Macromolecular Crystals

keywords: crystal atomic structure of organic compounds; Crystal growth; crystal growth; Crystal structure; crystal structure; Large molecules; large molecules; Macromolecular crystals; macromolecular crystals; molecular biophysics; Nucleic acid; nucleic acid; Protein; protein; proteins; X-ray crystallography

thesaurus: Crystal atomic structure of organic compounds; Crystal growth; Molecular biophysics; Proteins

Mar 1989Modeling the Geochemical Carbon Cycle

keywords: Atmosphere; atmosphere; atmospheric chemistry; atmospheric CO2 enhancements; atmospheric composition; carbon; carbon compounds; climatology; Earth; Geochemical C cycle; geochemical C cycle; geochemistry; Greenhouse effect; greenhouse effect; Land; land; Long-term cycle; long-term cycle; Model; model; Sea; sea

thesaurus: Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric composition; Carbon; Carbon compounds; Climatology; Geochemistry

Mar 1989The Biology of Obsessions and Compulsions
Mar 1989Lessons of Sunraycer
Mar 1989The Roman Aqueduct of Nimes
Mar 1989How to Get the Playground Swing Going: A First Lesson in the Mechanics of Rotation
Mar 1989Of Worms, Viruses and Core War
Apr 1989Global Climatic Change
Apr 1989The Turnover of Messenger RNA
Apr 1989Quantum Interference and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect

keywords: Aharonov-Bohm effect; Counterintuitive effects; counterintuitive effects; Electromagnetic interactions; electromagnetic interactions; Microelectronic devices; microelectronic devices; Quantum interference; quantum interference; quantum theory; Solid-state physics; solid-state physics

thesaurus: Quantum theory

Apr 1989Astrocytes
Apr 1989Free-Electron Lasers

keywords: Crystalline structures; Free electron lasers; Light waves; Magnetic field

thesaurus: Free electron lasers

Apr 1989Sensory Function in the Harbor Seal
Apr 1989The Trireme Sails Again
Apr 1989Children of the Garden Island
Apr 1989How to Build a Planck-Mass Accelerator in your Solar System
Apr 1989A Matter Fabricator Provides Matter for Thought
May 1989Technology, Employment and U.S. Competitiveness
May 1989Creating Superheavy Elements

keywords: Heavy ion collision; heavy ion collision; heavy ion-nucleus reactions; nuclear binding energy; nuclear fusion; nuclear shape; nuclei with mass number 220 or higher; Quantum-mechanical effects; quantum-mechanical effects; Superheavy elements; superheavy elements

thesaurus: Heavy ion-nucleus reactions; Nuclear binding energy; Nuclear fusion; Nuclear shape; Nuclei with mass number 220 or higher

May 1989Topobiology
May 1989The Dynamic Aurora

keywords: Activity; activity; aurora; Auroral curtain; auroral curtain; Auroras; auroras; Electromagnetic conditions; electromagnetic conditions; Electrons; electrons; Geomagnetic field; geomagnetic field; Ionosphere; ionosphere; Magnetosphere; magnetosphere; Solar wind; solar wind; Sun; sun

thesaurus: Aurora; Magnetosphere; Solar wind

May 1989The Past and Future Amazon
May 1989Marsupial Frogs
May 1989Optical Fibers in Medicine

keywords: Blood; blood; Fiber-optic technologies; fiber-optic technologies; fibre optic sensors; Internal anatomy; internal anatomy; laser applications in medicine; Laser systems; laser systems; optical fibres; patient diagnosis; Surgery; surgery

thesaurus: Fibre optic sensors; Laser applications in medicine; Optical fibres; Patient diagnosis; Surgery

May 1989Henry Norris Russell
May 1989How to Stop Worrying about Vibration and Make Holograms Viewable in White Light
May 1989Simulated Evolution: Wherein Bugs Learn to Hunt Bacteria
Jun 1989Toward a New Industrial America
Jun 1989Hidden Earthquakes

keywords: Activated fold belts; activated fold belts; Armenian earthquake; Basement-cover relations; basement-cover relations; Blind faults; blind faults; Cover rocks folding; cover rocks folding; Earth crust; earthquakes; faulting; Folded terrain; folded terrain; Folds; folds; geology; Hidden earthquakes; hidden earthquakes; Hidden faults; hidden faults; Seismic faultings; seismic faultings; seismology; Seismotectonics; seismotectonics; Stress release; stress release

thesaurus: Earth crust; Earthquakes; Faulting; Geology; Seismology

Jun 1989A Different Kind of Inheritance
Jun 1989The Fossils of Monte San Giorgio
Jun 1989The Fourier Transform
Jun 1989The Channeling of Electrons and Positrons

keywords: Channeling radiation; channeling radiation; channelling; channelling radiation; Crystal structure; crystal structure; Electron channeling; electron channeling; Nuclear reactions; nuclear reactions; Positron channeling; positron channeling

thesaurus: Channelling; Channelling radiation

Jun 1989Authenticating Ancient Marble Sculpture
Jun 1989Absinthe
Jun 1989The Mechanics of Rock Climbing, or Surviving the Ultimate Physics Exam
Jun 1989A Potpourri of Programmed Prose and Prosody
Jul 1989Testing Weapons in Space
Jul 1989Memory Storage and Neural Systems
Jul 1989Spin Glasses

keywords: Antiferromagnetic properties; antiferromagnetic properties; antiferromagnetic properties of substances; Composition; composition; Disorder; disorder; Energy states; energy states; ferromagnetic properties of substances; Ferromagnetism; ferromagnetism; Lattice; lattice; Magnetic interactions; magnetic interactions; Magnetic properties; magnetic properties; Modelling; modelling; Spin glasses; spin glasses; Thermodynamic properties; thermodynamic properties

thesaurus: Antiferromagnetic properties of substances; Ferromagnetic properties of substances; Spin glasses; Thermodynamic properties

Jul 1989Volcanism at Rifts
Jul 1989The Gastrointestinal Tract in Growth and Reproduction
Jul 1989Space Coloristics

keywords: colorimetry; Colour vision; colour vision; Errors; errors; Human observers; human observers; Perception; perception; Radiation spectra; radiation spectra; remote sensing; Remote-sensing colorimeters; remote-sensing colorimeters; Space flight; space flight; Spectral characteristics; spectral characteristics

thesaurus: Colorimetry; Colour vision; Remote sensing

Jul 1989Visual Thinking in the Ice Age
Jul 1989Synthetic Zeolites
Jul 1989What do Phonograph Records have in Common with Windshield Wipers?
Jul 1989Catch of the Day: Biomorphs on Truchet Tiles, Served with Popcorn and Snails
Aug 1989Alternatives to Animals in Toxicity Testing
Aug 1989The Great Supernova of 1987

keywords: Large Magellanic Cloud; LMC; Sk-69 degrees 202; SN 1987A; Stellar explosion; stellar explosion; supernovae; Type II P; Type II supernova

thesaurus: Large Magellanic Cloud; Supernovae

Aug 1989Viral Alteration of Cell Function
Aug 1989The Mating of Tree Crickets
Aug 1989The Middle-Ear Muscles
Aug 1989The Metamorphosis of Information Management
Aug 1989Maya Writing
Aug 1989The Age-Of-The-Earth Debate
Aug 1989How to Analyze the Shock Waves that Sweep through Expressway Traffic
Aug 1989A Cellular Universe of Debris, Droplets, Defects and Demons
Sep 1989Managing Planet Earth
Sep 1989The Changing Atmosphere
Sep 1989The Changing Climate
Sep 1989Threats to the World's Water
Sep 1989Threats to Biodiversity
Sep 1989The Growing Human Population
Sep 1989Strategies for Agriculture
Sep 1989Strategies for Manufacturing
Sep 1989Strategies for Sustainable Economic Development
Sep 1989Toward a Sustainable World
Sep 1989A Drop of Water Becomes a Gateway into the World of Catastrophe Optics
Sep 1989Two-Dimensional Turing Machines and Turmites Make Tracks on a Plane
Sep 1989Strategies for Energy Use

keywords: energy alternatives; energy consumption; Energy consumption; energy efficiency; Energy efficiency; energy resources; Energy resources; Fossil fuel; fossil-fuel combustion

thesaurus: Energy resources

Oct 1989The Quiet Path to Technological Preeminence
Oct 1989The Mitotic Spindle
Oct 1989The Stanford Linear Collider

keywords: electron-positron inclusive interactions; Electroweak force; electroweak force; intermediate boson decay; intermediate boson mass; Lifetime; lifetime; linear accelerators; Mass; mass; Stanford linear collider; unified field theories; Z bosons; Z0 factory; Z0 mediator

thesaurus: Electron-positron inclusive interactions; Intermediate boson decay; Intermediate boson mass; Linear accelerators; Unified field theories; Z bosons

Oct 1989The Cycling of Calcium as an Intracellular Messenger
Oct 1989Carbon Monoxide and the Burning Earth

keywords: air pollution; Atmospheric CO; atmospheric CO; carbon compounds; CO; From space; from space; Gas; gas; Industry; industry; remote sensing; Transportation; transportation; Tropical burning; tropical burning

thesaurus: Air pollution; Carbon compounds; Remote sensing

Oct 1989Waterweed Invasions
Oct 1989Scanned-Probe Microscopes

keywords: Features; features; Properties; properties; Scale; scale; Scanned-probe microscopes; scanned-probe microscopes; scanning tunnelling microscopy; Single atom-diameter probe; single atom-diameter probe; Surface; surface; surface structure; surface topography; Very close range; very close range

thesaurus: Scanning tunnelling microscopy; Surface structure; Surface topography

Oct 1989The Origins of Indoeuropean Languages
Oct 1989How to Build a Hele-Shaw Cell and Watch Bubbles Playing Tag in a Viscous Fluid
Oct 1989A Tinkertoy Computer that Plays Tic-Tac-Toe
Oct 1989The Origins of Indo-European Languages

keywords: cultural change; diffusion of agriculture; Indo-European languages; Kurgan-invasion hypothesis; language diffusion; linguistic family trees; wave-of-advance model

Nov 1989The Yellowstone Fires
Nov 1989Double-Beta Decay

keywords: beta-decay; Cosmic evolution; cosmic evolution; cosmology; Double-beta decay; double-beta decay; lepton mass; Neutrino mass; neutrino mass; neutrinos

thesaurus: Beta-decay; Cosmology; Lepton mass; Neutrinos

Nov 1989How T Cells See Antigen
Nov 1989The Mammalian Choroid Plus
Nov 1989Shoe Glow
Nov 1989The World's Oldest Road
Nov 1989Neptune

keywords: Neptune's magnetic field; Neptune's moons; Neptune's rings; outer planets; Triton; Voyager 2 mission

Nov 1989The Case for Methanol
Nov 1989Colored Segments of a Grid Can Shed a Diffuse Glow Like the Light from a Neon Tube
Nov 1989A Microgolf Game Gives Professionals and Amateurs an Equal Chance for a Hole in One
Dec 1989Getting out of the Starting Block
Dec 1989The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field

keywords: Core surface; core surface; Earth; Earth core; Earth's magnetic field; Evolution; evolution; Fe; Fluid flow; fluid flow; geomagnetism; geophysical fluid dynamics; Magnetic activity; magnetic activity; Outer core; outer core

thesaurus: Earth core; Geomagnetism; Geophysical fluid dynamics

Dec 1989The First Color Photographs
Dec 1989Microclusters

keywords: Aggregates; aggregates; atomic clusters; Atoms; atoms; Catalysis; catalysis; Chemistry; chemistry; Electronics; electronics; Microclusters; microclusters; Optics; optics

thesaurus: Atomic clusters

Dec 1989The Birds of Paradise
Dec 1989Teleoperators

keywords: Hostile environment; hostile environment; materials handling; telecontrol equipment; Teleoperator; teleoperator

thesaurus: Materials handling; Telecontrol equipment

Dec 1989Synapse Formation in the Developing Brain

keywords: Kalil

Dec 1989The Mithraic Mysteries
Dec 1989Why are the First Few Puffs the Hardest When You Blow up a Balloon?
Dec 1989A Pandora's Box of Minds, Machines and Metaphysics
Jan 1990Is the Brain's Mind a Computer Program?

Many people working in artificial intelligence believe that a computer simulation of mental processes could actually think. The author argues that computer programs merely manipulate symbols, without reference to meaning, and so are fundamentally incapable of understanding.

keywords: Artificial intelligence; Computer model; Machine intelligence; Programming; Tuning test

thesaurus: Artificial intelligence; Programming

Jan 1990Could a Machine Think?

Machines that manipulate symbols according to rules may well never achieve intelligence, but, the authors argue, the proposition does not have absolute force. New kinds of systems (such as artificial neural networks) whose physical organization mimics the brain might well succeed.

keywords: AI research; Artificial intelligence

thesaurus: Artificial intelligence

Jan 1990Antisense RNA and DNA

A cell translates code-carrying ``sense'' RNA into protein. Some cells also make ``antisense'' RNA, which can bind to a particular messenger and thwart translation. In the laboratory, such a molecule can block the expression of a gene and thus reveal the gene's function. In the future, antisense molecules might be recruited to turn off viral genes.

Jan 1990What Drives Glacial Cycles?

Astronomical changes are ultimately responsible. Their effect, though, is to alter the intensity of summer sunlight in the northern latitudes. How are the astronomical changes converted into global climatic changes that trigger ice ages? The authors think the variations in the heat of northern summers force a worldwide reorganization of the ocean and atmosphere.

keywords: Climate; climate; climatology; Earth orbit; Earth's orbit; Geochronology; geochronology; Glacial cycles; glacial cycles; Ice sheets; ice sheets; Ocean-atmosphere system; ocean-atmosphere system; oceanography

thesaurus: Climatology; Earth orbit; Geochronology; Oceanography

Jan 1990The Handedness of the Universe

From electrons and atoms to molecules, from DNA and proteins to spiraling vines and seashells and on to human beings, nature exhibits handedness, or chirality. The preference for left- or right-handedness seems to be related to fundamental asymmetries in the universe at the atomic scale, but the cause-and-effect relations have yet to be figured out.

Jan 1990Stress in the Wild

The proper study of humankind may be the baboon, at least with respect to understanding the hormonal effects of stress. Observations of the olive baboon in an African wildlife preserve support the notion that personality strongly influences the hormonal response to stress and, in doing so, influences vulnerability to stress-related disorders.

Jan 1990Microplasmas

Strip electrons from some thousands of atoms, confine the atoms in an electromagnetic trap and cool them to about absolute zero, and you have a microplasma. It forms strange states of matter --- sometimes resembling a solid and sometimes a liquid --- that offer physicists a new way to investigate fundamental theories of atomic structure.

Jan 1990A Backyard Version of a Stirling Engine can be Built with Common Materials
Jan 1990The Cosmic Background Explorer

The satellite, launched late in 1989, may revolutionize our view of the origin and the fate of the universe. Scanning the skies from an earth orbit high above the obscuring atmosphere, its sensitive instruments will be measuring microwave radiation left over from the big bang and looking for infrared radiation from the very first generation of stars.

keywords: artificial satellites; astronomical instruments; Background radiation; background radiation; COBE; Cosmic Background Explorer; cosmic background radiation; Cosmology; cosmology; EHF; infrared astronomy; IR; Radio astronomy; radio astronomy; radioastronomy; submillimetre astronomy; Submm; submm; THF

thesaurus: Artificial satellites; Astronomical instruments; Cosmic background radiation; Cosmology; Infrared astronomy; Radioastronomy; Submillimetre astronomy

Jan 1990The Cellular Automata Programs that Create Wireworld, Rugworld and other Diversions
Feb 1990The Tragedy of Needless Pain

Too often patients suffering from severe pain such as that of cancer receive insufficient amounts of the drug morphine. Why? Because physicians and other health-care workers fear it will turn the patients into addicts. Such fears, the author says, are misplaced: addiction occurs primarily when morphine is taken to elevated mood and not when it is administered to control pain.

Feb 1990The Variable Sun

The sun's apparently steady light belies our star's turbulent and dynamic character. Powerful magnetic fields oscillate across its surface, creating sunspots and flares and producing outbursts of charged particles and energetic radiation. Even the solar ``constant'' varies. The sun's changing activity --- some investigators think --- may influence weather on the earth.

keywords: Charged particles emission; charged particles emission; Climates; climates; climatology; Luminosity; luminosity; Magnetic fields; magnetic fields; solar activity; Solar activity, sunlight; solar activity, sunlight; solar magnetism; solar radiation; Solar terrestrial relations; solar terrestrial relations; Solar wind; solar wind; solar-terrestrial relationships; Sun; sunlight; Sunspots; sunspots; Sunspots; Time scales; time scales

thesaurus: Climatology; Solar activity; Solar magnetism; Solar radiation; Solar wind; Solar-terrestrial relationships; Sunlight; Sunspots

Feb 1990Chaos and Fractals in Human Physiology

The healthy heart beats to a rhythm that is ever-changing --- but that can become more periodic at the onset of disease. Chaotic dynamics may underlie the formation of many fractal-like structures in the body.

Feb 1990How Plants Make Oxygen

Plants photosynthesize in order to make carbohydrates for themselves. In the process, they generate the molecular oxygen that fuels the animal world. Only now is it becoming clear how photosynthesis makes oxygen. Tucked deep in the photosynthetic center is a ratchetlike water-oxidizing clock whose every four ticks generate an O2 molecule.

Feb 1990Progress in Gallium Arsenide Semiconductors

``Gallium arsenide is the technology of the future --- always has been, always will be.'' Well, the future has arrived. Electrons move through a lattice of the alloy much faster than they do through silicon, and now the advent of super-computers and optoelectronics has created a US$1-billion market for gallium arsenide transistors, light-emitting diodes and other components.

keywords: Applications; applications; Communications; communications; Computing; computing; Digital circuitry; digital circuitry; GaAs; gallium arsenide; High-speed receivers; high-speed receivers; III-V semiconductor; III-V semiconductors; Microprocessors; microprocessors; Optical capabilities; optical capabilities; Optical generation; optical generation; semiconductor devices; Speed; speed

thesaurus: Gallium arsenide; III-V semiconductors; Semiconductor devices

Feb 1990Food Sharing in Vampire Bats

True to their name, vampire bats consume from 50 to 100 percent of their body weight in blood every night. A bat who fails to feed will perish in two days --- unless it can solicit food from a roostmate. The key to survival for these animals is an elaborate system of food sharing, which the author finds is based on the principle of reciprocal altruism.

Feb 1990The Archaeology of Novgorod

Opera, film and literature celebrate the glories of the medieval Russian city, whose power once extended from modern Poland to the Urals. Now Novgorod can speak for itself. Excavations have revealed layer on layer of wood dwellings and artifacts --- and hundreds of birch-bark manuscripts that record the details of daily life and illuminate historical and political issues.

Feb 1990When a Polymer Sheet is Stretched, It May ``Neck'' Long Before it Snaps
Feb 1990Positive Feedbacks in the Economy

Classical economics sees supply and demand, prices and costs brought into nice equilibrium by negative feedback. Yet much of the economic world is nonlinear. The author and his colleagues borrow sophisticated mathematical tools from physics and apply them to describe the dynamic state of markets, the impact of technology and other aspects of economic reality.

Mar 1990New Radioactivities
Mar 1990Observatories on the Moon

What better site could there be for astronomical observations than the surface of the moon, where there is no atmosphere, low background radiation and great seismic stability? The authors propose plans for establishing high-resolution optical, radio, infrared, gamma-ray and X-ray observatories there.

keywords: astronomical observatories; Astronomical satellites; astronomical satellites; astronomical telescopes; Low Earth orbit; low Earth orbit; Moon based observatories; Telescopes; telescopes

thesaurus: Astronomical observatories; Astronomical telescopes

Mar 1990Interleukin-2

The immune system is a diffuse organ composed of many cell types that have differing, interrelated roles. How is the system controlled? It turns out that the cells communicate, and their roles are coordinated, by means of a family of hormonelike messengers. IL-2 was the first to be recognized.

Mar 1990Trends in Communications: The Road to the Global Village
Mar 1990New radioactivities (nucleus models)

The processes whereby atomic nuclei decay through radioactivity have been well known for decades. There is still plenty of life in nuclear physics, though. Sophisticated theory and deft experiment have enabled the authors to predict --- and then to observe --- many new, rare forms of radioactivity.

keywords: Alpha -decay; alpha -decay; Bimodal fission; bimodal fission; Cluster radioactivity; cluster radioactivity; Cold fusion; cold fusion; Collective model; collective model; EM interactions; Energy levels; energy levels; nuclear collective model; nuclear decay by heavy ion emission; Nuclear drops; nuclear drops; nuclear shape; nuclear shell model; Nuclear structure; nuclear structure; Nucleus models; nucleus models; Strong interactions; strong interactions; Two centre shell model; two centre shell model

thesaurus: Nuclear collective model; Nuclear decay by heavy ion emission; Nuclear shape; Nuclear shell model

Mar 1990Earthquakes in Stable Continental Crust

The word ``earthquake'' conjures up the Pacific rim and other regions where the tectonic plates making up the planet's crust interact. Yet continental sites far from plate boundaries have experienced severe earthquakes --- Missouri, for example. Just where are such events likely to occur? By what mechanisms?

keywords: Earth crust; Earthquakes; earthquakes; Seismic activity; seismic activity; seismology; Stable continental crust; stable continental crust

thesaurus: Earth crust; Earthquakes; Seismology

Mar 1990The Road to the Global Village

The sweep of a technology as it changes contemporary life may well exceed the scope of any one investigator's experience or perception. To capture such events, the Editors of Scientific American have established a bimonthly staff-written feature called TRENDS. In this first article, editor Karen Wright asks innovators, managers and social scientists where they think the fusion of computer and communications technologies is taking us. What are the barriers that obstruct the promised road to the future?

keywords: Airline Information System (AIS); communications technology; computer networks; computer technology; human-machine network (HuMaNet); information technology; multimedia programs; virtual reality

Mar 1990Lunar Infants, Lotteries and Meteorites Expose the Dangers of Math Abuse
Mar 1990Suspension-Feeding Vertebrates

Flamingos and whales have something in common: both are suspension feeders. They obtain food by taking in large quantities of water (some whales can gulp a volume equivalent to half the mass of their body) and ejecting it through a filtering system (such as baleen), thus extracting prey or plants that are much too small to be hunted individually.

Mar 1990Unconscious Mental Functioning

Can a patient in psychotherapy (or anyone else) make strategic decisions unconsciously? Prevailing wisdom says ``no,'' but by studying transcripts of therapy sessions, the author and his colleagues find that people can actually reason, anticipate consequences and devise plans --- all without knowing they are doing so.Patients apply such skills in the service of getting well.

Mar 1990The Early History of Indo-European Languages

Generations of scholars have tried to trace the genealogy of this great family of languages in order to recover elements of the lost ancestor language --- and also to determine just who spoke it, and where. The findings that are reported here by Soviet workers indicate that the protolanguage may have arisen in eastern Anatolia more than 6,000 years ago.

Apr 1990Deforestation in the Tropics

The world's tropical forests are vanishing at the rate of tens of thousands of square miles a year, diminishing biological diversity, perhaps promoting climate change, and depriving developing countries of valuable resources. What can be done to change the government policies in many Southern Hemisphere countries that actively promote the destruction?

Apr 1990What is Happening at the Center of Our Galaxy?

Optical, radio and gamma-ray telescopes and infrared detectors --- including instruments devised by the authors --- show that the center contains antimatter, intense radiation, turbulent clouds of hot gas and dust and an unseen something with a tremendous gravitational pull. The weight of the evidence indicates that a massive black hole sits at the heart of the Milky Way.

keywords: Central region; central region; Centre; centre; galactic nuclei; Galaxy; Galaxy nucleus; galaxy nucleus; Spiral galaxies; spiral galaxies

thesaurus: Galactic nuclei; Galaxy

Apr 1990The Unusual Origin of the Polymerase Chain Reaction

PCR is a revolutionary biochemical technology that finds --- and then multiplies exponentially --- specific stretches of DNA. The basic techniques and the necessary reagents have been around for years, but it took a stroke of insight in the course of a nighttime automobile ride to put it all together. This is a personal story of the creative process in action.

Apr 1990Impact Cratering on the Earth

The earth efficiently destroys evidence of its past, particularly any traces of meteoritic cratering. Yet more than 120 impact craters have been identified. Indeed, meteorite impacts may have been more common than has been thought; they may have brought on episodes of atmospheric and geologic catastrophe, perhaps accounting for major extinctions of species.

keywords: Earth; Geology; geology; Impact cratering; impact cratering; Meteorite crater; meteorite crater; meteorite craters; Multiply shocked mineral; multiply shocked mineral; Shatter cone; shatter cone

thesaurus: Geology; Meteorite craters

Apr 1990The Transformation of the Kalahari !Kung
Apr 1990Advanced Light-Water Reactors

Environmental concerns, economics and the earth's finite store of fossil fuels argue for a resuscitation of nuclear power. The authors think improved light-water reactors incorporating ``passive'' safety features can be both safe and profitable (provided that the utilities sharpen their management act). But can such reactors be sold successfully to a justifiably skeptical public?

keywords: Advanced light water reactor; advanced light water reactor; Economics; economics; Fission reactor; fission reactor; fission reactors; LWR; Nuclear reactor; nuclear reactor; Safety; safety

thesaurus: Fission reactors

Apr 1990A Homemade Copper Chloride Laser Emits Powerful Burst of Green and Yellow Light
Apr 1990What the Brain Tells the Eye

Studies of vision in the horseshoe crab show that the animal's brain exerts substantial control over just what the eyes detect. At night, for example, the brain increases the eye's sensitivity to light by a factor of a million, thereby enabling the male to find a suitable mate in the dark. Simulations on a Connection Machine model the amplification process.

keywords: Bioelectric; bioelectric; bioelectric phenomena; Brain; brain; Circadian rhythm; circadian rhythm; Eye; eye; Eye function; eye function; Horseshoe crab; horseshoe crab; Invertebrate zoology; invertebrate zoology; Limulus; Marine biology; marine biology; neurophysiology; Vision; vision; Visual system; visual system; zoology

thesaurus: Bioelectric phenomena; Eye; Neurophysiology; Vision; Zoology

Apr 1990The Transformation of the Kalahari !Kung

Once strictly hunter-gatherers, the !Kung of southern Africa are less mobile today than in the past and they even cultivate plants and tend herds of animals. What explains the shift? It is perhaps no surprise that an influx of wealth and material goods is partly to blame. Such factors may have led earlier humans to make the changeover to agriculture in prehistoric times.

Apr 1990Ancient Glazes

For centuries artisans have labored in vain to recreate such legendary glazed ceramics as the sea-green celadons of 13th-century China and the jewel-like tiles that adorned the palaces of the Ottoman Turks. The lost secrets of ancient glazing technology are now being revealed through the marriage of archaeology, art history and the tools of modern materials Science.

May 1990When Science Takes the Witness Stand

Science is no stranger in the courtroom. Fingerprints along with ballistic and forensic evidence have long played a key role in the judicial process. But new technology demands careful scrutiny. Although DNA ``fingerprinting'' has been evidence in more than 1,000 cases, it is far from being infallible.

May 1990The Solar-Neutrino Problem

Far fewer neutrinos from the sun are detected than current physics predicts. But a grand unification theory that ties together all natural forces permits neutrinos to change so they are not readily detected on the earth. New detectors are being designed to spot these ``mutant'' neutrinos --- and confirm the theory.

keywords: cosmic ray neutrinos; Grand unification theory; grand unification theory; Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect; MSW effect; Neutrino oscillations; neutrino oscillations; reviews; solar cosmic ray particles; solar interior; Solar-neutrino problem; solar-neutrino problem; Sun; unified field theories

thesaurus: Cosmic ray neutrinos; Neutrino oscillations; Reviews; Solar cosmic ray particles; Solar interior; Unified field theories

May 1990Trends in Transportation: The Shape of Things to Go
May 1990Adoptive Immunotherapy for Cancer

Every so often, a cancer mysteriously disappears, probably destroyed by the patient's own defenses. With the aid of recombinant-DNA technology, researcher are boosting the odds by ``teaching'' patients' immune cells to attack cancer. Some patients have been helped and improved treatments are being tested.

keywords: Biological Materials---Cells; Biomedical Engineering; Cancer Treatment; Cell Transfer Therapy; Immunology; Immunotherapy; Patient Treatment

May 1990Archaeopteryx

Was it a bird? Or a reptile? It turns out that Archaeopteryx was more than a little of both. The six existing fossils of this chicken-size creature, equipped with feathers and lizardlike teeth, tell an intriguing tale about how the development of flight guided the evolution of modern birds.

May 1990How to Transform Flights of Fancy into Fractal Flora or Fauna
May 1990The Shape of Things to Go

Like all true loves, the automobile can try one's patience. Air pollution, gridlock and sprawling junkyards are just a few of the frustrations. Now automakers are reshaping industrialized society's favorite way to get around. Tomorrow's cars must minimize pollution, use fuels more efficiently and make driving safer. That requires new materials, advanced aerodynamics and electronics for everything from dashboard navigation systems to controls for engines, brakes and suspensions. Even ``smart'' highways are in the offing.

keywords: Accident Prevention; Automobile Engines --- Exhaust Gases; Automobile Materials; Automobiles; Automotive Engineering; Design; Highway Systems

May 1990The Spawning of the Capelin

Once a year waves of a small, silvery fish called capelin swim on the beaches of Newfoundland to spawn and die. When the eggs hatch, the tiny larvae remain on the beach for hours or days. Then, in response to some signal, they head out to sea. How they know when the time is right is a fascinating story with implications for the fishing industry.

May 1990High-Performance Parachutes

Few people would bet that a parachute could slow down a payload weighing as much as a family car if it were dropped from an airplane traveling faster than the speed of sound. But new designs using high-strength fibers can decelerate rockets, missiles and escape pods for pilots to a snail's pace in just a few seconds, landing them from low altitudes with barely a bump.

keywords: Aerodynamics; Computer Aided Analysis; Materials; Parachutes

May 1990High Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa

There is one exception to the nearly worldwide decline in birth rates over the past 50 years: sub-Saharan Africa. Here religious and social beliefs promote large families. The solution may be improved health care to mitigate the fear of dying without descendants. Otherwise the region will double its share of the world's population during the next century.

Jun 1990Ru 486

Most drugmakers stay out of reproductive research. The development of new contraceptives is costly, the reward slight and the risk of controversy great. France's Roussel-Uclaf was no exception. But its work on synthetic steroids turned up an unexpected result: a compound that can safely terminate pregnancy by inhibiting progesterone. Here is the investigators' own story.

Jun 1990Pluto

Astronomers have finally pierced the veil that has surrounded the ninth planet since it was first sighted 60 years ago. They find a frigid, rocky world with bright polar caps, a surface of frozen methane and a huge moon covered with ice. Yet many questions will remain unanswered as long as Pluto continues to be the only planet not visited by a scientific spacecraft.

keywords: Ar atmosphere; Charon; CO; Double planet; double planet; H2O ice surface; Methane ice surface; methane ice surface; N2; O2; occultations; outer planets; planetary atmospheres; Planetary diameter; planetary diameter; Planetary mass; planetary mass; Planetary methane atmosphere; planetary methane atmosphere; planetary satellites; Pluto; Pluto's characteristics; Pluto's similarities to Triton; Pluto-Charon eclipses; Pluto-Charon natural eclipse events; Pluto-Charon systems; reviews; Satellite diameter; satellite diameter; solar system; Solar system formation; solar system formation; space mission to Pluto

thesaurus: Occultations; Planetary atmospheres; Planetary satellites; Pluto; Reviews

Jun 1990Biosonar and Neural Computation in Bats

With an ease that would be the envy of any fighter pilot, bats use reflected sound to track and capture prey. An investigation of their complex and highly developed echolocating skill opens the way to a deep understanding of how the central nervous system processes auditory signals --- and how it extracts a wealth of information from them.

keywords: Bats; bats; bioacoustics; Biosonar; biosonar; Doppler shifts; Flying insect; flying insect; mechanoception; Neural computation; neural computation; neurophysiology; Outer ear structure; outer ear structure; Prey location; prey location; reviews; Sound interference pattern; sound interference pattern; Sound pulses; sound pulses; Target azimuth; target azimuth; Target size; target size

thesaurus: Bioacoustics; Mechanoception; Neurophysiology; Reviews

Jun 1990The Mid-Ocean Ridge

The Mid-Ocean Ridge girdles the earth like the seam of a baseball. For more than 75,000 kilometers, this submerged range of razorback mountains --- many higher than the greatest peak on land --- marks the restless boundary between continental plates. An analysis of this huge structure reveals a fascinating picture of how it is created by magma welling up as the plates pull apart.

keywords: Constructive plate boundaries; constructive plate boundaries; DEVALS; Deviations from axial linearity; deviations from axial linearity; First-order discontinuities; first-order discontinuities; Fourth-order discontinuities; fourth-order discontinuities; Magma-supply model; magma-supply model; Mid-ocean ridge; mid-ocean ridge; Mid-ocean ridge segmentation; mid-ocean ridge segmentation; oceanic crust; Oceanic spreading centres; oceanic spreading centres; Off-axis structures; off-axis structures; Overlapping spreading centres; overlapping spreading centres; Plate tectonics; plate tectonics; reviews; Second-order discontinuities; second-order discontinuities; Small-scale structure; small-scale structure; tectonics; Third-order discontinuities; third-order discontinuities; Transform faults; transform faults; volcanology; Warped distorted oceanic crust; warped distorted oceanic crust

thesaurus: Oceanic crust; Reviews; Tectonics; Volcanology

Jun 1990Oliver Heaviside
Jun 1990Sunspots and how to observe them safely
Jun 1990Frogfishes

Beautifully camouflaged as rock, coral or some other feature of the aquatic landscape, these sedentary superpredators display a modified fin that acts as a lure. When the prey is within range, they engulf the meal in milliseconds.

Jun 1990The He3 Superfluids

Physicists despair at re-creating the tremendous temperatures that prevailed at the moment of the big bang. But near the low end of the scale they routinely outdo nature. At temperatures colder than any occurring normally in the universe, matter behaves strangely. Helium 3, for example, becomes superfluid. Its properties may provide insight into conditions at the core of a star.

keywords: He3; Cooper pairs; quantum mechanics; Quantum mechanics; superfluid helium-3; superfluids; Superfluids; vortices; Vortices

thesaurus: Cooper pairs; Superfluid helium-3; Vortices

Jun 1990Sustainable Agriculture

Chemical-intensive, fossil fuel-dependent farming made U.S. agriculture the most productive in the world. The price: polluted water, barren soil and economic vulnerability. Growing numbers of farmers are now turning to practices that aim for a ``sustainable agriculture.'' They are profitably applying such techniques as crop rotation, biological pest control and natural fertilization.

Jun 1990Oliver Heaviside (biography)

Every time you talk on the telephone, you benefit from the work of this forgotten Victorian genius. A brilliant, self-taught mathematician, he held only one job --- that of a telegraph operator and quit at 24. He then clarified Maxwell's electromagnetic theory, invented a device that makes long-distance telephony possible and became the first to use vectors to describe forces.

keywords: Age; age; biographies; Biography; biography; Circuit design; circuit design; Earth; Electromagnetic induction; electromagnetic induction; Maxwell's equations; Maxwell's theory; Oliver Heaviside; Operational calculus; operational calculus

thesaurus: Biographies

Jul 1990The Great Climate Debate

There is no doubt that human activity is increasing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Whether that spells sweeping global climate change is still much debated. Should we act to blunt the impact in the face of this uncertainty? The author thinks so.

Jul 1990Homeobox Genes and the Vertebrate Body Plan

What tells some embryonic cells to become limbs and other seemingly identical cells to form complex organs? It is a fascinating group of genes with a common feature called the homeobox. Key to development in many animals, these genes are remarkably similar in fruit flies, frogs --- and humans.

Jul 1990Trends in Aerospace: The New Space Race
Jul 1990The LEP Collider

Until the U.S. builds its Superconducting Supercollider, Europe's Large Electron-Positron Collider is the big gun in particle physics. Almost from the very start in July, 1989, the LEP has produced important results. The design and construction of this giant research tool is a story in its own right.

keywords: electron accelerators; Large electron-positron collider; large electron-positron collider; LEP; storage rings; synchrotrons; Z degrees particles

thesaurus: Electron accelerators; Storage rings; Synchrotrons

Jul 1990What Causes Diabetes?

With insulin injections, the diagnosis of type I diabetes is no longer a death sentence. But this treatment is not a cure. A new understanding of how the immune system is turned against the body's own insulin-producing cells is pointing to ways this devastating disease may one day be prevented --- or halted.

Jul 1990The New Space Race

This time around the prize is not military supremacy --- it's market share. The U.S., Europe, the Soviet Union, China and Japan are competing intensely for the satellite-launch business. The front-runners will be those nations that apply fuel chemistry, materials science and electronics to engineer less expensive ways to reach orbit. There aren't enough payloads to go around, and the prospect of manufacturing in space is still elusive. So the contest won't be over until researchers discover what --- if anything --- is commercially viable in space.

Jul 1990An Odd Journey Along Even Roads Leads to Home in Golygon City
Jul 1990Pyrotechnics

Fireworks have awed and delighted for centuries. They also have illuminated battlefields and concealed weapons and troops. Early pyrotechnicians worked by guess and by gosh, often passing the secrets of those brilliant displays down through the generations. Modern chemistry reveals the processes underlying the sounds, shapes and colors --- and finds surprising new uses for pyrotechnic devices.

keywords: atomic emission; chemistry of pyrotechnics; design and composition of fireworks; fireworks displays; incandescent emission; molecular emission; pyrotechnic fuels

Jul 1990Chestnut Blight

Settlers in eastern North America were greeted by nearly unbroken forests of majestic chestnut trees. This versatile hardwood provided food, fuel, furniture and fence posts. Then, beginning around 1900, the chestnut was all but wiped out by a blight from Asia. Now biotechnology has uncovered the genetic basis for the disease's virulence, pointing to ways the fungus might be controlled.

Jul 1990Ramsey Theory

The brilliant mathematician Frank Plumpton Ramsey proved that complete disorder is an impossibility. Every large set of numbers, points or objects necessarily contains a highly regular pattern. abstract-2 = "Stargazers have always found patterns in the sky. But what governs the shape of constellations? In 1928 mathematician Frank Plumpton Ramsey proved that a large enough number of stars will produce any pattern --- from a rectangle to the Big Dipper. By figuring out just how many numbers guarantee a certain pattern, Ramsey theorists help engineers to design better communications networks."

Aug 1990Third World Ballistic Missiles

The U.S. and the Soviet Union may have buried the hatchet, but the missiles are still out there. More and more of them. Today the governments of Third World countries such as Syria, Iraq, Brazil and Korea have ballistic missiles and the technology to build them. Some may have nuclear capability. So the threat of a government or terrorist group launching an attack is more chilling than ever.

Aug 1990Superconductors Beyond 1-2-3

In the past four years researchers have developed a dozen ceramics whose electric resistance vanishes at temperatures as high as 125 kelvins. In all the best superconductors, planes of copper and oxygen atoms compete against layers of other elements for electrons. Chemists have now learned to stack the odds against one of the competitors to achieve higher transition temperatures.

keywords: Bismuth Compounds; Bismuth Strontium Copper Oxides; Ceramic Materials; crystal atomic structure of inorganic compounds; Cu-O planes; Electronic state; electronic state; Electronically active planes; electronically active planes; High Temperature Superconductors; High temperature superconductors; High Temperature Superconductors; high temperature superconductors; high-temperature superconductors; Oxide Superconductors; Reviews; Structures; structures; Thallium Barium Calcium Copper Oxides; Thallium Compounds; Transition temperature; transition temperature; Y-Ba-Cu-O; Yttrium Barium Copper Oxides; Yttrium Compounds

thesaurus: Crystal atomic structure of inorganic compounds; High-temperature superconductors

Aug 1990AIDS-Related Infections

It is not the HIV virus that kills most AIDS patients. It is a fatal progression of opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis pneumonia that flourish as the virus weakens the body's immune system. Because these infections account for as many as 90 percent of AIDS deaths, prolonging lives depends on controlling them. New treatments are helping.

Aug 1990The Language of Fractals

With fractal geometry, mathematicians can describe the beats of a dying heart or the birth of a storm cloud with the same ease that an architect can draw the blueprints for a house. They can also generate complex structures precisely, using only a few mathematical ``words.'' Fractal algorithms may help cut the complexity and cost of transmitting and storing images.

Aug 1990When the melting and freezing points are not the same

Freezing and melting points are not always one and the same. Experiments with atomic clusters --- small groups of atoms that share the properties of individual molecules and bulk materials --- show that these two temperatures can actually be very different. Depending on the available energy, clusters can simultaneously exist as solids and liquids, then jump abruptly to either state.

keywords: Atomic clusters; atomic clusters; freezing; Freezing point; freezing point; Liquid; liquid; Melting point; melting point; Solid; solid

thesaurus: Atomic clusters; Freezing; Melting point

Aug 1990Seed Dispersal by Ants

Many seeds get around by sticking to the fur (or clothes) of passing mammals. But a large number of plants have evolved seeds that are designed to be dispersed by ants. Instead of burrs, these seeds grow a tasty lump of fat. The ants carry the seeds home, eat the fat and discard the rest, which then germinates.

Aug 1990Global Warming Trends

One way to see if the earth is actually getting warmer is to check historical temperature records. A decade ago the authors began to do just that. They collected a hodgepodge of readings going back 300 years. Then they attempted to quantify the data. Their verdict: a 0.5-degree Celsius increase.

Aug 1990How to Monitor Ultraviolet Radiation from the Sun
Aug 1990Maya Art for the Record

Maya scholars owe a lot to a determined Englishwoman named Adela Catherine Breton. In 1900 she rode into the ruins of Chichen Itza where she spent the next eight years sketching and painting the fading murals and reliefs. Today her record is all that remains of many of those invaluable works of art. Other artists are now making similar copies of the last originals before they, too, are obliterated.

Aug 1990Amateur scientist
Sep 1990Energy for Planet Earth

Human beings depend on energy for their livelihood. As population and energy production grow so does the threat to the environment. Achieving a sustainable relationship between energy and the environment hinges on technological innovation and our ability to generate and use energy in ecologically sound ways.

keywords: CO2 emissions; Efficiency improvements; efficiency improvements; Energy requirements; energy requirements; energy resources; Energy sources; energy sources; Environment; environment; Fossil fuels; fossil fuels; Sustainable Earth; sustainable Earth; Delivered Energy; Earth Atmosphere --- Radiation; Energy Conservation; Energy Management; Energy Policy; Energy Resources --- Renewable; Energy Utilization; Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions; Global Warming; Horizontal Drilling; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; Three Dimensional Seismic Techniques

thesaurus: Energy resources

Sep 1990Energy for Motor Vehicles

The world's fleet of cars, trucks and buses, numbering 500 million, grows faster than the human population and consumes half of the world's oil. More efficient engines, alternative fuels and new transit systems promise to slow the growth in oil consumption and mitigate its environmental consequences.

keywords: Electric Vehicles; Electric vehicles; electric vehicles; Energy efficiency; energy efficiency; Energy Efficient Vehicle Design; Engine technology; engine technology; Ethanol; fuel; Fuel Economy; Fuels; fuels; Motor vehicles; motor vehicles; Nitrogen Oxides; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; Pollution reduction; pollution reduction; Prometheus Project; road vehicles; Stratified Charge Technology; Traffic flow; traffic flow; Transportation systems; transportation systems; Urban Planning --- Transportation; Vehicles; Volvo LCP 2000

thesaurus: Electric vehicles; Fuel; Road vehicles

Sep 1990Efficient Use of Electricity

The demand for electrically seems almost insatiable. But building new power plants is costly, time-consuming and can harm the environment. A promising solution --- and one the utilities themselves are pushing --- is greater efficiency. Lights and motors are a good place to begin.

keywords: Efficiency improvement; efficiency improvement; Electricity consumption; electricity consumption; Energy saving; energy saving; Lighting; lighting; Motors; motors; power utilisation; Refrigeration; refrigeration; Efficient Electricity Usage; Electric Lighting; Electric Motors; Electric Power Utilization; Energy Conservation; Energy Efficient Technologies; Energy Utilization; Fluorescent Lighting; United States Clean Air Act

thesaurus: Power utilisation

Sep 1990Energy for the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and China

The emerging democracies face the challenge of reconciling economic growth with an environmental imperative that the central planners chose to ignore. China, with its expanding population and heavy dependence on coal, faces similar hurdles. Economic reforms and new technology from the West can help.

keywords: Acid Rain; Carbon Dioxide --- Environmental Impact; China; Coal; coal; Cogeneration Plants; Desulphurization Equipment; Eastern Europe; Economics --- Fuel Consumption; Efficiency; Energy Intensity; Energy Resources; energy resources; Energy supply; energy supply; Energy use; energy use; Energy Utilization; Environmental protection; environmental protection; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Natural gas; natural gas; Nuclear power; nuclear power; Oil; oil; power utilisation; Process Automation; Soviet Union; Sulphur Dioxide Deposition; Technology --- Environmental Impact

thesaurus: Energy resources; Power utilisation

Sep 1990Energy for Buildings and Homes

Improvements during the 1970's and 1980's cut energy use in U.S. buildings by a third. Even more powerful are today's technologies, which range from advanced heating, cooling and lightning systems to superwindows and automated controls. They improve comfort and dramatically reduce operating costs.

keywords: air conditioning; Automated-control systems; automated-control systems; Building energy bills; building energy bills; Commercial buildings; commercial buildings; Compact fluorescent lights; compact fluorescent lights; fluorescent lamps; heating; home automation; HVAC systems; Light-colored buildings; light-colored buildings; lighting; Residential buildings; residential buildings; Shade trees; shade trees; Superwindows; superwindows; ventilation; Air Conditioning --- Efficiency; Automated Control Systems; Buildings; Commercial Building Energy Consumption; Energy Policy; Heating --- Efficiency; Johnson Controls; Microprocessor Chips --- Applications; Retrofitting; Smart Homes; Solar Radiation Reduction; Superwindows; Windows --- Energy Conservation

thesaurus: Air conditioning; Fluorescent lamps; Heating; Home automation; Lighting; Ventilation

Sep 1990Energy for Industry

Economic growth and energy use once marched in lockstep. Now industrial output is climbing while energy use declines. Incremental changes in processing --- including sensors and on-line control systems --- are the reason. Further savings, though, may require technological breakthroughs.

keywords: Cost optimisation; cost optimisation; Energy conservation; energy conservation; Industrial energy consumption; industrial energy consumption; Industrial energy supply; industrial energy supply; Industrial processes; industrial processes; industries; Materials recycling; materials recycling; power utilisation; Process refinement; process refinement; Economic Energy Optimization; Energy Utilization; Gradual Process Refinement; Industrial Energy Consumption; Industrial Engineering --- Recycling; Industrial Plants; Open Hearth Furnaces; Paper and Pulp Industry; Steelmaking --- Basic Oxygen Process; Thermodynamics --- Analysis

thesaurus: Industries; Power utilisation

Sep 1990Energy for the Developing World

The developing world faces a dilemma: it needs energy to meet its people's aspirations, yet producing vastly more energy is expensive and threatens the environment. New conservation-minded technologies that deliver more services for less energy may be the answer.

keywords: DEFENDUS scenario; developing countries; end-use technologies; energy conservation; energy consumption; energy requirements; energy resources; energy services; environmental damage; fossil fuels; generating capacity; Karnataka; southern India; wood; Biomass; Defendus Energy Strategies; DEFENDUS scenario; Defendus Scenarios; Developing countries; Efficient End Use Technologies; End-use technologies; Energy conservation; Energy consumption; Energy Management; Energy requirements; Energy Resources; Energy services; Energy Utilization; Environmental damage; Environmental Impact; Ethanol --- Distillation; Fossil fuels; Generating capacity; Global Carbon Emissions; Hydroelectric Dams; Karnataka; LRPPP; South America; Southern India; Wood

thesaurus: Energy resources

Sep 1990How to Resurrect a Cat from Its Grin
Sep 1990Energy from Fossil Fuels

Coal, oil and natural gas are versatile, accessible and affordable and thus dominate the world's fuel supply --- but at what cost to the environment? New technologies aim to minimize the unwanted impact of fossil fuels, buying time until other fuels are available.

keywords: Acid deposition; acid deposition; Air Pollution --- Nitrogen Oxides; Atmosphere; atmosphere; Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration; Carbon Dioxide --- Control; Clean Coal Technology Program; CO2; Coal; coal; Energy Utilization; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Impact; Environmental Protection; Environmental Stress; Fossil fuels; fossil fuels; Fossil Fuels --- Environmental Impact; Fossil-fuel combustion; fossil-fuel combustion; fuel; Global warming; global warming; Greenhouse gases; greenhouse gases; Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycles; Intercooled Steam Injected Gas Turbine Systems; Natural gas; natural gas; Oil; oil; Urban smog; urban smog

thesaurus: Fuel

Sep 1990Energy from Nuclear Power

Nuclear power should play a pivotal and expanded role in supplying world energy, the author says. Risks must be minimized by designing a new generation of safe reactors and agreeing to establish an international regulatory body to oversee security and the storage of waste.

keywords: Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technologies; Energy Conservation; Energy Utilization; Environmental demands; Hybrid Nuclear Reactors; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Tokamak Reactor Experiment; Nuclear Energy; Nuclear Fuels --- Reprocessing; Nuclear Industry; Nuclear power; Nuclear Power Plants --- Accident Prevention; Nuclear Reactors --- Wastes; Nuclear weapon proliferation; Safety; Tarapur Reactors; World Commission Of Environment and Development

thesaurus: Nuclear power

Sep 1990Energy from the Sun

Interest in solar-derived technologies is resurging in response to mounting environmental concerns, including the threat of climate change. Progress is occurring rapidly. Advances in wind, solar-thermal and biomass technologies will soon render them cost-competitive with gasoline and coal-generated electricity.

keywords: bioenergy conversion; Biomass; biomass; Biomass fuel; biomass fuel; H2 production; hydrogen economy; PV power systems; solar absorber-convertors; solar cell arrays; Solar cells; solar cells; Solar energy; solar energy; Solar thermal electric generation; solar thermal electric generation; Wind power; wind power; Altamont Wind Farms; Biomass; Electric Power Research Institute; Energy Resources; Hydrogen --- Energy Resources; Hydropower; Photovoltaic Cells; Power Generation --- Solar Energy; Solar Energy; Solar Natural Gas Hybrid Electric Power Plants; Solar Thermal Electric Technology; United States Department Of Energy; Wind Power

thesaurus: Bioenergy conversion; Hydrogen economy; Solar absorber-convertors; Solar cell arrays; Wind power

Sep 1990Energy in Transition

The relationship between energy and the world's economics has begun to change fundamentally. To manage that change, a two-pronged strategy is required based on ``no regrets'' and ``insurance policy'' actions. But steps must be taken soon, or the effectiveness of such actions will weaken.

keywords: Coal burning; Energy efficiency; Energy-society interaction; Environmental impacts; Natural gas; Oil; Biomass --- Energy Resources; Commercial Building Retrofitting; Ecological Threats; Energy Management; Energy Resources; Fossil Fuels --- Environmental Impact; Greenhouse Gases; Nuclear Power Plants; Renewable Energy Resources; Solar Energy --- Energy Resources

thesaurus: Energy resources

Oct 1990A Grandmaster Chess Machine

keywords: Chess computers; chess computers; computer games; Deep Thought; Exhibition match; exhibition match; games of skill; Grandmaster chess machine; grandmaster chess machine; History; history; Karpov; Kasparov; Searching engine; searching engine; VLSI single chip move generator; World champion; world champion

thesaurus: Computer games; Games of skill

Oct 1990A Grandmaster Chess Machine

Will a chess-playing computer defeat a grandmaster by the year 2000? ``No way,'' said world chess champion Gary K. Kasparov in 1988. But less than a year later, Deep Thought, a computer designed by the authors, did just that. Already under way is the construction of a successor machine that will be 1,000 times faster. Itmay be able to mount a serious challenge to Kasparov as early as 1992.

Oct 1990Parental Imprinting of Genes

When Gregor Mendel crossed wrinkled peas with round ones, all the progeny were round, regardless of whether the round pea plant was the male or the female. But some genes break that rule of classic genetics. Their expression depends on which parent they came from. Parentally imprinted genes play a role in some cancers and in such inherited disorders as Huntington's disease.

Oct 1990Ocean Acoustic Tomography

Oceanographers have borrowed a technique from physicians for studying deep-sea currents and temperatures. The method is tomography. Instead of X rays, researchers use sound to create three-dimensional images of the waters that cover 70 percent of the earth's surface and strongly influence its climate.

keywords: 10 KHz; 10 kHz; acoustic arrays; Currents; currents; Deep sound channel; deep sound channel; Ducted propagation; ducted propagation; Eddies; eddies; Ocean acoustic tomography; ocean acoustic tomography; oceanographic techniques; Pressure changes; pressure changes; Refraction; refraction; Temperature changes; temperature changes; Transmitter/receiver arrays; transmitter/receiver arrays; underwater sound

thesaurus: Acoustic arrays; Oceanographic techniques; Underwater sound

Oct 1990The Photorefractive Effect

Pass a laser beam through a crystal of barium titanate, and suddenly it fans out like a peacock's tail. Somehow the light alters the optical properties of the crystal. Such photorefractive materials are the basis of promising technologies that range from isolating moving images in biology experiments or military encounters to switching beams of light for superfast optical computers.

keywords: Nonlinear optical materials; nonlinear optical materials; nonlinear optics; Optical components; optical components; Optical computing; optical computing; Photorefractive effect; photorefractive effect; Refractive index; refractive index

thesaurus: Nonlinear optics; Photorefractive effect

Oct 1990Trends in Cosmology: Universal Truths
Oct 1990What Caused the Mass Extinction? an Extraterrestrial Impact

An Extraterrestial Impact, say Alvarez and Asaro. They and other investigators discovered iridium in the clays that mark the sudden disappearance of dinosaurs from the fossil record. Because iridium is rare in the earth's crust but abundant in some meteorites, they concluded that a giant meteorite collided with the earth, hurling megatons of debris into the atmosphere.

Oct 1990What Caused the Mass Extinction? a Volcanic Eruption

A. Volcanic Eruption was the culprit, argues Courtillot. He proposes that dust, carbon dioxide and other emissions from an episode of enormous volcanism that formed the basaltic Deccan Traps in India produced the climate changes that led to the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period. The iridium could, he says, just as easily have risen from the earth's mantle.

Oct 1990A Remote-Control Camera that Catches the Wind and Captures the Landscape
Oct 1990Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer

In theory, it is simple --- even elegant. Boron is concentrated in tumor tissue. Neutrons, which pass harmlessly through normal tissue, are captured by the boron. The boron nuclei then emit lethal radiation, killing the cancer. Problems, such as generating enough neutrons, have been daunting, but progress is being made.

keywords: B10; B neutron capture therapy; boron; Cancer therapy; cancer therapy; Intense radiation; intense radiation; Low-energy neutrons; low-energy neutrons; Malignant tissues destruction; malignant tissues destruction; Normal tissue sparing; normal tissue sparing; radiation therapy; reviews; Short-range radiation; short-range radiation; Stable isotope; stable isotope; Tumor cells killing; tumor cells killing

thesaurus: Boron; Radiation therapy; Reviews

Oct 1990Universal Truths

In June more than 30 prominent cosmologists, astronomers and physicists gathered for six days at an isolated resort in northern Sweden. Their topic: the origin of the universe. While most agreed the big bang theory is still sound, new data are challenging a more detailed scenario: the cold dark matter model. Here is a look at how cosmologists address the big questions.

Nov 1990Science, Technology and the Western Miracle

Two hundred and fifty years ago few Europeans enjoyed a standard of living in excess of the minimum required to sustain life. Then, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution, the economy took off. The heart of this miracle, the authors believe, is the close alliance between science as a body of knowledge and the advances of industrial technology driving the marketplace.

Nov 1990Black Holes in Galactic Centers

Mounting evidence suggests that dormant black holes lie at the center of many galaxies. In the youngest galaxies, active black holes may be the engine powering quasars that are brighter than 100 billion stars. The first quasars appeared soon after the birth of the universe --- so soon, in fact, that the accepted big bang theory may have difficulty explaining their origin.

keywords: Black holes; Galactic centers; Galactic nuclei; Galaxies; Quasars

thesaurus: Black holes; Galactic nuclei; Quasars

Nov 1990Gene Therapy

The first attempt to treat an inherited human disease by inserting a healthy gene into a patient is now under way. Although such therapies have the potential to treat some of the 4,000 known genetic disorders, many obstacles remain. The most challenging is to assure that therapeutic genes are expressed adequately and persistently in the body.

Nov 1990Trends in Materials: Diminishing Dimensions
Nov 1990The Meaning of Dreams

Freud thought dreams were the ``royal road'' to the unconscious. Others see dreams as the random static of a resting brain or as a mechanism for riding the mind of useless information. The author proposes a new view: dreams reflect an evolutionarily important memory process that allows animals to record and evaluate current experience to form strategies for survival.

Nov 1990A Compendium of Math Abuse from around the World
Nov 1990Knot Theory and Statistical Mechanics

Knots are fairly simple. Just take a piece of string and join both ends. Statistical mechanics, on the other hand, deals with huge, complex systems. Surprisingly, the two fields are intimately related. The author discovered the link while studying mathematical theories of quantum physics. His knot theory has already led to better understanding of how DNA twists during replication.

keywords: algebra; Algebraic relations; algebraic relations; Mathematical property; mathematical property; Polynomial invariant; polynomial invariant; Statistical mechanics; statistical mechanics; topology

thesaurus: Algebra; Statistical mechanics; Topology

Nov 1990A Roman Factory

In the south of France lie the ruins of a large mill complex, whose 16 waterwheels provided flour to the citizens of Arelate, the Roman predecessor of Arles. Ignored until 1940, the mill is rare evidence that the Roman Empire did not fall for want of mechanical power needed for industrial production.

Nov 1990The Mechanical Design of Insect Wings

Nothing can beat an insect for aerial acrobatics. A. fly, for example, can loop the loop, hover, reverse direction and land upside down, all in a fraction of a second. It owes that agility to ribbed wings that are subtly engineered, flexible airfoils. Insect wings have few, if any, technological parallels --- yet.

keywords: biomechanics; Elastic properties; elastic properties; Flexible airfoils; flexible airfoils; Insect wings; insect wings; Mechanical design; mechanical design; Mechanisms; mechanisms; Sails; sails; Structures; structures; zoology

thesaurus: Biomechanics; Zoology

Nov 1990Diminishing dimensions

Materials scientists are getting down to basics: they are manipulating matter in layers just an atom thick to form materials that will be the building blocks of complex electronic and optical devices. In these minuscule structures, electrons are trapped in limited dimensions and behave in strange ways. The promise is a new generation of computers and lasers.

keywords: Ballistic transistors; ballistic transistors; Computers; computers; KBE; Lasers; lasers; Quantum dots; quantum dots; Quantum wells; quantum wells; Quantum wires; quantum wires; semiconductor junction lasers; semiconductor quantum dots; semiconductor quantum wells; semiconductor quantum wires; Single electron device; single electron device

thesaurus: Semiconductor junction lasers; Semiconductor quantum dots; Semiconductor quantum wells; Semiconductor quantum wires

Dec 1990Letters
Dec 199050 and 100 Years ago
Dec 1990Science and the citizen
Dec 1990The birth of molecules (ultrafast photographic observations)

keywords: Birth; birth; Bond breaking; bond breaking; Bond formation; bond formation; Chemical bonds; chemical bonds; chemical reactions; Femtoseconds; femtoseconds; Final products; final products; high-speed optical techniques; Lasers; lasers; Molecular beams; molecular beams; Molecular reaction; molecular reaction; Molecules; molecules; photographic applications; Picosecond; picosecond; Shutter speed; shutter speed; Time resolution; time resolution; Transition states; transition states; Ultrafast motions; ultrafast motions

thesaurus: Chemical reactions; High-speed optical techniques; Photographic applications

Dec 1990Accidental Nuclear War

For now, at least, tensions have eased between the nuclear superpowers. But the chance of a nuclear exchange between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. remains a frightening possibility. In both nations, a missile could be launched accidentally or without the oversight of top officials. To prevent unintended Armageddon, those nations should place additional safeguards on nuclear arsenals.

keywords: command destruct system; control of nuclear weapons; launch readiness of nuclear forces; nuclear alerts; permissive action links (PALs); safeguards against unintended launch

Dec 1990The Surface of Venus

This portfolio of vivid radar images of Venus was sent back by the Magellan spacecraft. The project scientist analyzes features of the rugged terrain, sculpted by intense volcanism, geologic upheavals, impact cratering and even wind.

keywords: AD 1990; Magellan spacecraft; Mapping; mapping; mapping of Venus; radioastronomical observations; Surface features; surface features; Synthetic aperture radar; synthetic aperture radar; topography of Venus; Venus; volcanism on Venus

thesaurus: Radioastronomical observations; Venus

Dec 1990How Cells Maintain Stability

Living cells are protein factories that are vital to the survival of organisms. Thus, they too have elaborate strategies for survival. If environmental stress, such as a chemical or temperature, shuts down their protein-making machinery, cells undertake a series of intricate steps to resume production. A Soviet scientist presents his model of this process.

Dec 1990Trends in Immunology: The Body Against Itself
Dec 1990The Birth of Molecules

Since the 19th century, photographers have used split-second shutter speeds to stop action. But glimpsing the instant in which molecules react to form a product requires an exposure of a millionth of a billionth of a second. That instant bears the same relation to a second as a second does to 32 million years. Toachieve such ``exposures,'' the author uses extremely short pulses of laser light.

Dec 1990The Legacy of Gestalt Psychology

Most people have seen the picture that one moment looks like a vase, then suddenly shifts to two faces about to meet. But few realize that understanding this alternating image reflects a revolution in perception brought about by the Gestalt psychologists at the turn of the century. Today many of their ideas are accepted in the fields of education, learning and social psychology.

Dec 1990Frozen and Alive

Many animals survive the winter by staying warm. But some simply freeze solid. To prevent ice crystals from destroying delicate cell membranes, these creatures manufacture proteins that cause tiny crystals to form in the spaces between cells and produce a natural antifreeze to protect cellular interiors.

Dec 1990Fermat's Christmas Theorem is Explained in One Dickens of a Tale
Dec 1990The Emergence of Modern Humans

Did humanity evolve from a common ancestor and form racial groupings as it spread across the planet? Or did Homo sapiens arise at many different locations? Archaeological evidence from Africa supports the first theory. Now geneticists examining DNA in living populations are coming to the same conclusion.

Dec 1990The Body against Itself

Somehow the body distinguishes its own healthy cells from diseased ones. When that mechanism fails, the result is autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and insulin-dependent. Although the picture is not clear, researchers have found three ways the immune system may learn not to attack the body those discoveries are leading to promising treatments.

Dec 1990Science and business
Dec 1990Mathematical recreations
Dec 1990Books
Dec 1990Annual index
Dec 1990Essay
Jan 1991Letters
Jan 199150 and 100 years ago
Jan 1991The Future of Space Reconnaissance

During the cold war, the superpowers launched sophisticated spy satellites to monitor each other's weaponry. Lately such satellites have been directed to observing weapon proliferation in other nations, nonmilitary operations and domestic upheavals. This intelligence is so important that many other governments plan to join the space reconnaissance club.

Jan 1991Self-Organized Criticality

Just as the proverbial straw broke the camel's back, catastrophes, from earthquakes and avalanches to a stock market crash, can be triggered by a minor event. The authors argue that complex systems naturally evolve to a critical state. Their theory already has improved understanding of motion in the earth's crust, economies and ecosystems.

Jan 1991The Protein Folding Problem

More than 30 years ago it seemed that the forces that cause inactive, newly formed proteins to fold into their intricate, active state could be explained by the laws of chemistry and physics. But scientists are still unable to predict how a sequence of amino acids will coil. Solutions to the folding problem --- with their implications for biotechnology --- are getting nearer.

keywords: Amino acids; amino acids; Biotechnology; biotechnology; macromolecular configurations; Macromolecular structure; macromolecular structure; molecular biophysics; Molecular coiling; molecular coiling; Protein folding problem; protein folding problem; proteins; reviews

thesaurus: Macromolecular configurations; Molecular biophysics; Proteins; Reviews

Jan 1991Building the Cathedral in Florence

By ????. after more than a century of construction, the walls of Santa Maria del Fiore rose high over Florence. Still lacking, though, was a plan for a dome to cap the cathedral. Brunelleschi's design for a double-walled vault topped by an orb and a cross, completed in 1470, was an engineering triumph. His techniques foreshadowed modern structural engineering and his machines, the Industrial Revolution.

Jan 1991Trends in Computing: Calculating Reality
Jan 1991Worlds Around Other Stars

If life exists elsewhere in the cosmos, it most likely resides on the surfaces of distant planets. The search for other solar systems, which has been under way in earnest for more than half a century, has turned up some disappointments and some tantalizing clues. New and far more accurate instruments may soon produce the first positive sighting of a new world.

keywords: Astrometry; astrometry; Astronomical technique; astronomical technique; astronomical techniques; Extrasolar planets; extrasolar planets; IR excess; Planet formation; planet formation; planets; Proper motion; proper motion; Radial velocity; radial velocity; Radiation; radiation; Solar nebula; solar nebula; Spectra; spectra; stellar motion; stellar radiation; stellar spectra

thesaurus: Astrometry; Astronomical techniques; Planets; Solar nebula; Stellar motion; Stellar radiation; Stellar spectra

Jan 1991Aspirin

No drug is more ubiquitous than aspirin. Annually, Americans consume more than 16,000 tons of it. Yet, more than 200 years after aspirin was discovered in willow bark, investigators are only now figuring out why it has such a broad range of biological effects. Here are some of the most recent findings.

Jan 1991Tools for Computer Graphics Make an Invisible World Seem Less Alien
Jan 1991Coevolution of the Cuckoo and Its Hosts

The cuckoo is an accomplished parasite that tricks other birds into rearing its young. The hosts gain no benefit because the hatchling ejects their eggs from the nest. Both species engage in an evolutionary arms race --- the host attempting to thwart predation, the cuckoo developing subtle subterfuge.

Jan 1991Calculating Reality

From the plains of Wisconsin to the outskirts of Tokyo, a few maverick computer architects are scrambling to design the next generation of supercomputers. Their grail is a teraflops computer, a machine that can race through a trillion operations a second. On the way to that goal, powerful computation engines will permit scientists to model nature more closely.

keywords: computer modeling of complex systems; computing networks; gallium arsenide supercomputer; multiple-processor computing; parallel computing; pipelining; supercomputer design; teraflops supercomputer; vector processing

Jan 1991Mathematical recreations
Jan 1991Books
Jan 1991Essay
Feb 1991Letters
Feb 199150 and 100 years ago
Feb 1991Science and the citizen
Feb 1991Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the AIDS Era

The three classic sexually transmitted diseases --- gonorrhea, syphilis and chancroid --- have nearly disappeared in almost every industrialized nation. The exception is the U.S., where drug-resistant strains of these diseases are ravaging urban minority populations. The causes of this tragic epidemic are poverty, social disintegration, prostitution and drug addiction.

Feb 1991The Number of Families of Matter

Are the fundamental particles that form matter really fundamental? Researchers at the European laboratory for particle physics (CERN) and at the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) have found that these particles are the basis for just three ``families'' of matter. They arrived at the answer by studying the decay of supermassive particles called Z bosons.

keywords: intermediate boson mass; Mass width; mass width; unified field theories; Z bosons; Z lifetime

thesaurus: Intermediate boson mass; Unified field theories; Z bosons

Feb 1991The Physiology of Perception

A familiar face, a favorite smell or a friend's voice is instantly recognized. This rapid perception depends on the coordination of millions of neurons. How can such a small input stimulate so massive a response? Surprisingly, the author points to chaos --- hidden order in seemingly random activity that allows many neurons to switch abruptly from one task to another.

keywords: physiology, perception

Feb 1991Computers and Architecture

Computers are enhancing the creative process in architecture. Graphics software and algorithms create moving images that enable architects to ``walk through'' buildings before they are constructed.

keywords: Advanced graphics-rendering techniques; advanced graphics-rendering techniques; Aesthetic alternatives; aesthetic alternatives; architectural CAD; Architectural Design; Architecture; architecture; Computer Aided Architecture; Computer Aided Design --- Applications; Evaluation; Image Synthesis Algorithms; Mathematical Techniques --- Algorithms; Sketching; sketching

thesaurus: Architectural CAD

Feb 1991X-Ray Microscopes

Each development in microscopy has revealed a new way to view the world. The optical microscope illuminated single-cell organisms; the electron microscope provided views of minute structures and viruses. Now the X-ray microscope can render three-dimensional images of cells and other specimens in their natural state at10 times the resolution of optical microscopes.

keywords: Chemical analysis; chemical analysis; Fresnel Zone Plate; Microscopes; microscopes; Microscopic Examination --- Scanning Electron Microscopy; National Synchrotron Light Source (nsls); Phase Contrast X-Ray Microscopy; Resolution; resolution; X-Ray; X-ray apparatus; X-ray instruments; X-ray microscopes; X-Rays --- Applications

thesaurus: Microscopes; X-ray apparatus

Feb 1991The Echidna

It may well be the most reclusive of Australian animals, but the spiny anteater is no longer one of the least understood. The natural history and odd reproductive behavior of this egg-laying mammal are being observed in the field for the first time. Removing misconceptions about the life cycle of this relative of the platypus may provide ways to protect it.

Feb 1991Trends in Evolution: In the Beginning...
Feb 1991The Acoustics of the Harpsichord

Because of its limited dynamic range, the harpsichord was nearly driven into extinction by the piano. But its plucked strings and the design of the soundboard make it unique among stringed keyboard instruments. The authors studied 39 harpsichords, both old and new, to understand their acoustics.

keywords: Acoustics; acoustics; Harpsichord; harpsichord; musical acoustics; musical instruments; Swirling sound; swirling sound

thesaurus: Musical acoustics; Musical instruments

Feb 1991In the Beginning

In 1953 a simple experiment seemed to show that lightning could have sparked life on the earth. Since then, finding answers to the questions of how, when and where life began has become more complicated. New evidence is toppling once widely accepted ideas; a rash of recent theories has emerged. For now, the origin of life remains an intriguing mystery.

Feb 1991The True Story of how Theseus Found His Way out of the Labyrinth
Feb 1991Science and business
Feb 1991Mathematical recreations
Feb 1991Books
Feb 1991Essay
Mar 1991Letters
Mar 199150 and 100 years ago
Mar 1991Science and the citizen
Mar 1991Patenting Life

The last obstacle to patenting a nonhuman form of life fell in 1988, when the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a patent for the ``Harvard mouse.'' But the courts and lawmakers have not yet confronted many of the questions raised by granting patent protection to genetically altered animals, plants and microbes. The future of biotechnology depends on the wisdom of the answers.

Mar 1991The Tevatron

Since the first protons swept around the powerful collider at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in 1983, the Tevatron has confirmed a host of predictions about fundamental particles. Here is the story of the technical challenges of designing and building this 6.3-kilometer ring of superconducting magnets, told by the scientist who headed the decade-long project.

keywords: Antiprotons; antiprotons; Calorimeters; Computer displays; Elementary particles; elementary particles; Particle detectors; Photons; proton accelerators; Protons; protons; storage rings; Superconducting magnets; superconducting magnets; Superconducting supercollider; Synchrotrons; synchrotrons; Tevatron; Tevatron particle accelerator

thesaurus: Proton accelerators; Storage rings; Synchrotrons

Mar 1991What Controls the Cell Cycle

The way cells divide into two identical copies has been well known for nearly a century. But only now are scientists beginning to understand what orchestrates this marvelous process. The key seems to be a single protein called cdc2. Its discovery has profound implications for medicine, possibly leading to ways to heal damaged organs by inducing cell proliferation or to halt the growth of cancer.

Mar 1991Plateau Uplift and Climatic Change

The earth of 40 million years ago was a warm, wet place. Forests abounded; grasslands and deserts were rare. Then the planet began to cool. Regional climate extremes developed. Many have been postulated, including continental drift and diminishing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The authors offer a new theory: continental uplift created huge plateaus that altered circulation of the atmosphere.

Mar 1991Trends in Pharmacology: Rx for Addiction
Mar 1991Nonimaging Optics

In childhood, most of us learned that one way to get heat out of the sun is to focus its light to a pinpoint with a magnifying glass. What few realize is that the ability of lenses designed to make images to concentrate solar energy falls far below the theoretical maximum. Nonimaging optics that are simply funnels for light can achieve intensities higher than those at the sun's surface.

keywords: Compound parabolic concentrator; Edge-ray method; focusing; Geometric vector-flux; High-energy physics; high-energy physics; Nonimaging concentrator; nonimaging concentrator; Nonimaging concentrators; Nonimaging devices; nonimaging devices; Nonimaging optics; Optical devices; optical elements; Optics; Solar concentrators; Solar energy; solar energy; Solar furnace; solar furnace

thesaurus: Focusing; Optical elements

Mar 1991Tumbleweed

If there is a botanical metaphor for the rootless ways of the Old West, it is the tumbleweed. But when this immigrant Russian weed literally rolled through the Dakotas in the 1870s, the sod busters were not thrilled. In a matter of years this spiny thistle wreaked agricultural havoc across the plains states.

Mar 1991A Menu of Mathematical Morsels, Topological Tidbits and Puzzling Plums
Mar 1991Surveying Ancient Cities

Some important cities of ancient Greece lie buried beneath farmland. That is good news to these archaeologists. Rather than excavating, they build a surprisingly complete picture of long-term habitation simply by dating the debris, such as potsherds and roof tiles, that plowing churns to the surface.

Mar 1991Rx for addiction

Neuroscientists are making progress toward understanding the devastating and intractable problem of drug addiction. By deciphering the complex interplay of neurotransmitters and receptors, they are designing highly targeted drugs to treat addiction on a chemical and, eventually, genetic level. Their findings have implications for treating mental illnesses.

Mar 1991Science and business
Mar 1991Mathematical recreations
Mar 1991Brooks
Mar 1991Essay
Apr 1991The Real Cost of Energy

Gas prices only seem high. When you say ``fillerup,'' you pay but a fraction of the actual cost. Not included are the tens of billions (close to US$50 for each barrel of oil) the military spends annually to protect oil fields in the Persian Gulf. Then tack on the hidden costs of environmental degradation, health effects, lost employment, government subsidies and more. Sooner or later, the public pays the entire price.

Apr 1991The Structure of Quasicrystals

In 1984 scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology rapidly solidified an aluminum alloy. Instead of the expected amorphous, glassy material, the result was tiny grains that displayed a curious, fivefold symmetry. Now researchers are making progress in understanding the atomic structure of these unique forms of matter known as quasicrystals.

keywords: AlCuFe; AlCuLi; aluminium alloys; copper alloys; crystal symmetry; Diffraction properties; diffraction properties; Five fold symmetry; five fold symmetry; Glass model; glass model; iron alloys; lithium alloys; Penrose tiling model; Quasicrystal structures; quasicrystal structures; quasicrystals; Random-tiling model; random-tiling model

thesaurus: Aluminium alloys; Copper alloys; Crystal symmetry; Iron alloys; Lithium alloys; Quasicrystals

Apr 1991Molecular Zippers in Gene Regulation

Skin and liver cells are distinct because they produce different sets of proteins. Yet both types of cells carry the same set of genes. This researcher set out to find the mechanism that turns on key genes. In an interesting piece of detective work, he and others identified an intriguing class of regulatory proteins. Two of these proteins must ``zip'' together before they can activate the genes they control.

Apr 1991Trends in Linguistics: Hard Words
Apr 1991Why Tarzan and Jane Can Walk in Step with the Animals that Roam the Jungle
Apr 1991Collisionless shock waves (in space plasmas)

The sonic boom of a jet aircraft is caused by a shock wave carried along by molecules colliding in the air. In the near vacuum of space, particle collisions are rare. Yet, as the authors theorized years ago, shock waves do exist in space, transmitted through the tenuous plasma by electric and magnetic fields. These shock waves help explain some of the most violent phenomenon the universe.

keywords: Alfven wave; astrophysical plasma; Astrophysics; astrophysics; Bow shock; bow shock; Collisionless shock wave; collisionless shock wave; Frequency dispersion; frequency dispersion; Interplanetary space; interplanetary space; Magnetosphere; magnetosphere; Planet; planet; Plasma shock wave; plasma shock wave; plasma shock waves; Plasma wave; plasma wave; Rarefied plasma; rarefied plasma; solar wind; Solar wind comet interaction; solar wind comet interaction

thesaurus: Astrophysical plasma; Plasma shock waves; Solar wind

Apr 1991Hepatitis B Virus

The toll that this tiny, insidious virus exacts is enormous. It can cause serious acute infections, lie hidden for years in carriers who transmit it to others, even trigger cancer. It is also one of the first viruses to come under the powerful scrutiny of recombinant DNA technology. Its genome, structure and life cycle have been elucidated; diagnostic tests and vaccines have been developed.

Apr 1991Photochromic and Photosensitive Glass

Eyeglasses that darken in sunlight and lighten in the dark are just the most common example of glass that reacts to light. Otherapplications for photochromic and photosensitive glasses range from precision parts to microlenses and art.

keywords: Applications; applications; Colour change; colour change; Heat treatment; heat treatment; Latent image; latent image; optical glass; Photochromic glass; photochromic glass; photochromism; Photosensitive glasses; photosensitive glasses

thesaurus: Optical glass; Photochromism

Apr 1991How Dinosaurs Ran

If all you had to go by were footprints in mud and a few bones, you might conclude that humans do not run. Similarly, it is unclear whether dinosaurs plodded or galloped or pranced. With some physical principles from naval architecture and mechanical engineering, the author calculates that he could outrun Tyrannosaurus.

Apr 1991Hard Words

What's in a word? If it's tik, the answer is controversy. Linguists are at each other's throats over attempts to trace language to ancient roots. Some radicals believe that they can discern echoes of words not spoken for millennia and that it is possible to relate all languages to a single tongue spoken by the first humans. Conservatives think the radicals bark up the wrong tree.

keywords: `Mitochondrial Eve'; Amerind theory; language families and superfamilies; linguistic and genetic trees; linguistic research; monogenesis hypothesis; Nostratic hypothesis; origin of language

May 1991Letters
May 199150 and 100 years ago
May 1991Science and the citizen
May 1991Progress in Oral Rehydration Therapy

With each medical advance seeming to be increasingly high-tech and costly, oral rehydration therapy is a notable exception to the trend. The administration of a simple electrolyte solution made with readily available ingredients now saves one million children a year from death caused by diarrhea-induced dehydration. Recently it reduced fatalities during a cholera epidemic in Peru

May 1991Anyons

To the few physicists who first thought about them, anyons were mathematical curiosities that provided new insights into the theory of quantum mechanics. But experimental evidence accumulated over the past decade indicates these entities do exist. In fact, the behavior of anyons offers a compelling explanation for high-temperature superconductivity.

keywords: Anyons; anyons; Fractional quantized Hall effect; fractional quantized Hall effect; High temperature superconductivity; high temperature superconductivity; high-temperature superconductors; quantum Hall effect; quantum statistical mechanics; quasi-particles

thesaurus: High-temperature superconductors; Quantum Hall effect; Quantum statistical mechanics; Quasi-particles

May 1991Rene Jules Dubos

A childhood bout with rheumatic fever may have sent Rene Dubos on a lifelong exploration into the nature of health and disease. As a researcher at the Rockefeller Institute, he discovered the first clinically important antibiotic. As a philosopher, he formulated an ecological theory of disease that matured into a profound, influential view of our place on the earth.

May 1991Trends in Energy: Cleaning up Coal
May 1991The Silicon Retina

The formation of visual images in the retina of the eye depends on layers of interconnected cells. The functions of three of these layers --- photoreceptor, horizontal and bipolar cells --- can be duplicated by simple electronic devices etched onto a silicon chip. This artificial retina illuminates biological computation and has implications for computer vision and signal

keywords: artificial organs; Artificial retina; artificial retina; computer vision; digital signal processing chips; Engineering paradigm; engineering paradigm; eye; monolithic integrated circuits; Neural information processing; neural information processing; Real time outputs; real time outputs; Si chip

thesaurus: Artificial organs; Computer vision; Digital signal processing chips; Eye; Monolithic integrated circuits

May 1991The Genesis of Ores

Human history and technology have been shaped by metals. How did they become concentrated in minable deposits located so conveniently near the earth's surface? The author explains the mechanisms of fluid transport --- by magma, water and even air and wind --- responsible for the chemical and physical interactions that created bodies of metallic ores throughout geologic history.

keywords: Geochemistry --- Analysis; Geophysics --- Analysis; Geospheres; Metals and Alloys; Physiochemical Systems; Recovery; Supracrustal Systems

May 1991The Theory of Rigidity, or How to Brace Yourself against Unlikely Accidents
May 1991The Genetics of Thoroughbred Horses

The lineage of all magnificent Thoroughbred racehorses can be traced to a handful of animals imported from Africa and the Middle East in the 17th century. Just 10 horses contributed more than half of the genes in today's Thoroughbreds. Despite the wealth of breeding data, genetic studies have begun only recently.

May 1991Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East

When Paris was still a village, 10th-century Baghdad was a metropolis of 1. 5 million inhabitants. To support such urban centers,Muslim engineers developed sophisticated water and wind machine with valves, cranks and pistons. Many of these innovations influenced the development of modern machinery.

keywords: candle clocks; History; Islamic Mechanical Engineering; mechanical devices of medieval Islam; Mechanical Engineering; Medieval Islam; technology of medieval Islam; Water Clocks; water clocks; Water Distribution Systems --- Design; water pumps; Watermills; watermills and windmills; Wind Power --- Analysis; Windmills

May 1991Cleaning Up Coal

According to the percentages, coal is still King. Coal-fired power plants generate more than 50 percent of U.S. electricity. But every year those utilities also pour forth 70 percent of the sulfur dioxide and significant portions of other pollutants that cause acid rain and contribute to global warning. Now the U.S. is trying a novel market-based approach to reducing those emissions.

keywords: Air Pollution --- Acid Rain; Coal Combustion; Department of Energy (doe); Dry Sorbent Injection Technologies; Environmental Defense Fund (edf); Environmental Impact; Environmental Protection --- Analysis

May 1991Science and business
May 1991Mathematical recreations
May 1991Books
May 1991Essay
Jun 1991Nuclear Power in Space

Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites --- with nearly disastrous results. Now the U.S. government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. Here is their argument.

keywords: Artificial satellite; artificial satellite; artificial satellites; fission reactor safety; Nuclear power reactor; nuclear power reactor; Nuclear powered spacecraft; nuclear powered spacecraft; Radioactive pollution; radioactive pollution; Radioisotope thermoelectric generator; radioisotope thermoelectric generator; RTG; Space vehicle; space vehicle; space vehicle power plants; thermoelectric conversion; Thermoelectric power generator; thermoelectric power generator

thesaurus: Artificial satellites; Fission reactor safety; Radioactive pollution; Space vehicle power plants; Thermoelectric conversion

Jun 1991The Quasar 3C 273

In the 28 years since the first quasars were identified, astronomers have learned that they are the cores of extremely active galaxies. This quasar is one of the most energetic --- on an average day it shines as brightly as 1,000 galaxies, each containing 100 billion stars. Observations of 3C 273 are providing clues to the nature of these violent and puzzling objects.

keywords: 3C 273; Quasar; quasars

thesaurus: Quasars

Jun 1991Streptococcal M Protein

Just as a porcupine's quills thwart predators, filaments of proteins that coat some streptococcal bacteria deter the white blood cells that would normally ingest the organisms. These wispy M proteins rely on variability to evade antibodies that would target the microbes for destruction. The understanding of the protein's structure is suggesting new approaches to

Jun 1991Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Ozone Depletion

During the Antarctic winter, strange and often invisible clouds form in the stratosphere over the pole. These clouds of ice and frozen nitric acid play a crucial role in the chemical cycle responsible for the recent appearance of the annual ``ozone hole.'' Their chemistry removes compounds that would normally trap ozone-destroying free chlorine produced by the breakdown of CFCs.

keywords: Air pollution; air pollution; Atmosphere; atmosphere; atmospheric chemistry; Chemical composition; chemical composition; Chlorofluorocarbon; chlorofluorocarbon; clouds; O3; ozone; Ozone depletion; ozone depletion; Ozone hole; ozone hole; Ozonosphere; ozonosphere; Polar stratospheric cloud; polar stratospheric cloud; PSC; Stratosphere; stratosphere

thesaurus: Air pollution; Atmospheric chemistry; Clouds; Ozone; Stratosphere

Jun 1991Trends in Geophysics: Peering Inward

keywords: Convection; convection; Earth core; Earth interior; Earth mantle; Tectonics; tectonics

thesaurus: Earth core; Earth mantle; Tectonics

Jun 1991Early Bow Design and Construction

Asked to name the most crucial discoveries of early humans, most people would quickly come up with fire and the wheel. A third may well be the bow. It served as the principal weapon for hunting and warfare until the use of firearms became widespread in the 16th century. Bows were developed in virtually all cultures, and some achieved high levels of technological sophistication.

Jun 1991Laser Surgery

When surgeons operate, they may wield a laser instead of a scalpel. These blades of light do more than simply destroy tissue with heat: they can drive chemical reactions or create shock waves. Lasers are unclogging arteries, smashing kidney stones, and clearing secondary cataracts from the eye.

keywords: biomedical applications of lasers; health physics; Health physics; laser applications in medicine; laser as scalpel; Laser surgery; laser surgery; Medical application; medical application; medical laser types; medicine; Medicine; of medical lasers; precision of medical lasers; radiation therapy; surgery; thermal and nonthermal effects

thesaurus: Laser applications in medicine; Radiation therapy; Surgery

Jun 1991A Swift Trip over Rugged Terrain
Jun 1991Arthur Stanley Eddington

Einstein's theory of relativity was one of the century's great discoveries. But it was Eddington who headed the expedition that proved it correct. He advocated the idea of an expanding universe and was the first to infer the composition of stars. His exposition of revolutionary concepts still influences scientific thought.

Jun 1991Peering Inward

Beneath terra firma lies a dynamic world. Through clever observation and computer modeling, geophysicists are rapidly sharpening our view of the earth's restlessly seething insides. They are exploring the complex heat engine that drives the motion of the continents and maintains the geomagnetic field. The latest findings trace the earth's evolution and even offer a glimpse into its glimpse in distant future.

Jul 1991Science and the citizen
Jul 1991Opium, Cocaine and Marijuana in American History

A. year before Bayer introduced aspirin in 1899, the drugmaker coined another well-known name for a then popular remedy: heroin. Soon after, the social climate changed, and many mood-altering drugs were made illegal. The author argues that rational drug policy cannot be achieved without keeping such historical reversals in mind.

Jul 1991The Early Life of Stars

Our sun experienced a turbulent youth long before reaching maturity as a stable source of fusion energy. Astronomers are now piecing together this complex life cycle of stars. The process begins when clouds of interstellar gas coalesce into protostars discernible only in the infrared and culminates in one of the billions of optically visible stars.

keywords: Early life; early life; Nuclear fusion; nuclear fusion; Stars; stars; stellar evolution; Violent collisions; violent collisions

thesaurus: Stellar evolution

Jul 1991Stroke Therapy

Physicians have long helplessly stood by when strokes felled their patients. But recent insights into mechanisms that destroy nerve cells are leading to treatments that may minimize damage to the brain. Clinical trials of clot-dissolving drugs are showing promise, and tests of others that slow cell death are under way.

Jul 1991Optical Interferometry of Surfaces

The quality of many products, from photographic film and computer disks to bearings, depends on the microscopic structure of their surfaces. New techniques use computers to analyze optical interference patterns and display surface features as small as a few hydrogen atoms. These methods have already cut costs and improved product performance.

keywords: light interferometry; Optical interferometry; optical interferometry; Sensitive devices; sensitive devices; Surface texture; surface texture; surface topography measurement; Wave nature of light; wave nature of light

thesaurus: Light interferometry; Surface texture; Surface topography measurement

Jul 1991Biological Control of Weeds

No one knows for sure when an unwanted plant was first termed a weed, but the idea certainly precedes the writing of the Old Testament. These plants have been pulled up, plowed under and poisoned, but the age-old battle rages on. The latest ploy: enlisting such natural enemies of weeds as insects and fungi. Willthese new allies give humans the edge?

Jul 1991Trends in Transportation: Along for the Ride?

keywords: aircraft control; aircraft instrumentation; Computerised control systems; computerised control systems; Passenger aircraft; passenger aircraft

thesaurus: Aircraft control; Aircraft instrumentation

Jul 1991Copper-Alloy Metallurgy in Ancient Peru

When Francisco Pizarro and the conquistadores invaded Peru in the 16th century, they carted away tons of gold and silver. Yet they ignored the most ancient and sophisticated metallurgical tradition. For six centuries, copper alloys had been the mainstay of Peruvian technology and commerce.

Jul 1991The Austronesian Dispersal and the Origin of Languages

The word, it seems, was borne by farmers seeking new agricultural lands. The ancient diffusion of language through Polynesia is yet another example. Traveling great distances by boat, these societies spread their languages from Taiwan to Madagascar and Hawaii.

Jul 1991Insectoids Invade a Field of Robots
Jul 1991Along for the Ride?

Today's ``smart'' aircraft can virtually fly themselves to any point on the globe. Computerized navigation systems and flight controls are replacing pilots' Right Stuff with expertise in systems management. Airframe manufacturers insist these are the safest planes ever flown, but pilots are sometimes ill at ease in these ``glass cockpits.''

Aug 1991Antiscience Trends in the U.S.S.R.

The sweeping changes set in motion by Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of glasnost and perestroika have had an odd consequence: antiscience and antitechnology sentiment are on the rise in the Soviet Union. Just as American hippies reacted during the Vietnam years, the Soviets are responding to their social crisis by turning to extrasensory perception, extraterrestrials, astrology and mysticism.

Aug 1991The Human Telomere

In the language of genetics, TTAGGG means ``the end.'' This sequence of nucleotides repeats over and over at the tips of each chromosome, forming a protective cap that prevents the chromosome from being degraded or shortened during DNA replication. This same sequence has been found in all of some 100 vertebrate species tested so far, from fish to humans.

Aug 1991Tracking and Imaging Elementary Particles

A. single ``event'' at CERN's Large Electron-Positron Collider can produce 500,000 bits of digital data. Computers translate the information into striking images that help physicists interpret the complicated dynamics of elementary particles.

keywords: Electronic signals; electronic signals; LEP detectors; nuclear electronics; physics computing

thesaurus: Nuclear electronics; Physics computing

Aug 1991Biosensors

Take a component of banana pulp, crab antennae, cucumber leaves or rabbit muscle, then hook it into an electrical circuit or connect it to optical fibers. The result is a real-time sensor for biologically important substances, ranging from blood oxygen or glucose levels to drugs and environmental toxins. Many biosensors will soon become a routine part of medical diagnosis and monitoring.

Aug 1991Beewolves

Females of this group of common wasps are voracious predators that provide food for their larvae by loading sealed underground chambers with paralyzed bees, thus earning the name ``beewolves.'' Males simply mate --- and defend their territory aggressively. Like their prey, both adult sexes feed on nectar.

Aug 1991Trends in Biology: Smart Genes
Aug 1991Antichaos and Adaptation

If the tentative conclusions of this biophysicist and his colleagues are correct, there is more to evolution than natural selection. He argues that the mathematical idea of antichaos --- that disorder in complex systems can suddenly crystallize into order --- plays a crucial role in biology.

Aug 1991Smart Genes

The answer to why a rose is a rose, or what tells a liver cell to be a liver cell, is a ``sloppy'' genetic computer that instructs a gene when to turn on or off. These elaborate assemblages of proteins, known as transcription complexes, choreograph the forms and functions of cells by transmitting both intercellular and extracellular signals.

Aug 1991What in Heaven is a Digital Sundial?
Aug 1991Ordering chaos

keywords: chaos, order

Sep 1991Networks

As the diversity of computer applications increases the burgeoning flow of megabit traffic between machines will be accommodated by wider and smoother highways.

Sep 1991Communications, Computers and Networks

The transformation of civilization through the fusion of computing and communications technologies has been predicted for at least 50 years. Now the revolution has truly begun. The impact will be as profound as was the shift from an agrarian to an industrial society.

keywords: Civilization; civilization; Communications technologies; communications technologies; computer networks; Computing; computing; factory automation; Infrastructure; infrastructure; office automation; social aspects of automation

thesaurus: Computer networks; Factory automation; Office automation; Social aspects of automation

Sep 1991Networks

Just as the dirt roads of the early 20th century could not begin to handle today's traffic, so will current computer networks be unequal to the burgeoning flow of information. Advanced packet-switching systems and new schemes for interconnecting networks will help to prevent digital gridlock.

keywords: circuit switching; computer networks; distributed computing; interconnecting networks; Interconnecting networks; internetting; megabit traffic; Megabit traffic; network security; networking technology; packet switching; packet-switching systems; Packet-switching systems; protocol hierarchy; quality of service; Quality of service; security; Security

thesaurus: Computer networks; Packet switching

Sep 1991Networked Computing in the 1990s

Not so long ago, computers were electronic megaliths served by a white-coated elite. Today they are simple tools that are as common as pencils on desks or clipboards in factories. The next generation of computers will become active collaborators in the creation and acquisition of information.

keywords: Active collaborator; active collaborator; Flat screens; flat screens; Human interaction; human interaction; interactive devices; microcomputers; Microphones; microphones; personal computing; Productivity tool; productivity tool; Styli; styli; Wireless transmitters; wireless transmitters

thesaurus: Interactive devices; Microcomputers; Personal computing

Sep 1991The Computer for the 21st Century

The most useful, ordinary technologies are invisible. No one consciously reads a street sign or the floor indicator on an elevator. In the same way, the computer will become an integral part of office and domestic surroundings. It will be ubiquitous, woven into the fabric of daily life from the desktop to the light switch.

keywords: active badges; board computer; electronic chalk; embodied virtuality; pad computer; potential of information technology; tab computer; ubiquitous computing; Dynabooks; dynabooks; Information technology; information technology; Knowledge navigators; knowledge navigators; Laptop machines; laptop machines; microcomputers; office automation; Personal computers; personal computers; personal computing; social aspects of automation

thesaurus: Microcomputers; Office automation; Personal computing; Social aspects of automation

Sep 1991Products and Services for Computer Networks

The power of the computer and the capacity of the network will make possible a wide variety of products and services that give the consumer new opportunities at work and at play. The ultimate product may well be freedom from the conventional constraints of space and time.

keywords: Bandwidth developments; bandwidth developments; Computer networks; computer networks; Computing; computing; Services; services; telecommunication services

thesaurus: Computer networks; Telecommunication services

Sep 1991Computers, Networks and Public Policy: Common Law for the Electronic Frontier
Sep 1991Computers, Networks and Public Policy: Infrastructure for the Global Village
Sep 1991Computers, Networks and Public Policy: Civil Liberties in Cyberspace
Sep 1991Computers, Networks and Work

``Does anybody know...?'' Such public vulnerability on corporate electronic bulletin boards indicates how radically networks are changing the nature of work. Employees grow more open as well as less hierarchical and status conscious. Can management adapt to a more flexible and dynamic environment?

keywords: computer networks; electronic mail; manager-worker relations; nature of work; networked communication; sociology of computer conferences; Computer memory; computer memory; computer networks; Electronic mail; electronic mail; Networked organization; networked organization; office automation; Reporting relationships; reporting relationships; social aspects of automation; Task structures; task structures

thesaurus: Computer networks; Office automation; Social aspects of automation

Sep 1991Computers, Networks and the Corporation

By coordinating activities, the computer network has begun to change production and marketing, forcing redefinition of competitive advantage. In order to prevail in the changing environment, firms have begun to restructure their management, pushing strategic decisions downward in the organization.

keywords: Competitive advantage; competitive advantage; computer networks; Corporate structure; corporate structure; management; Management style; management style; Networked organisations; networked organisations; OA; office automation; social aspects of automation; Strategic decisions; strategic decisions

thesaurus: Computer networks; Management; Office automation; Social aspects of automation

Sep 1991Leaping into Lyapunov space
Sep 1991Computers, Networks and Education

Music comes from the musician, not the piano. So, too, the desire to learn comes from the student, not the computer. Computers in classrooms will not automatically improve education. Used wisely, though, they can be a force in education as potent as the advent of privately owned books in the Renaissance.

keywords: computer aided instruction; Easy-to-use computers; easy-to-use computers; Education; education; Educational environment; educational environment; human factors; Student centred environment; student centred environment

thesaurus: Computer aided instruction; Human factors

Sep 1991Infrastructure for the Global Village

forge new rules of the road for data highways that include strong protection of personal freedom.

keywords: computer networks; Government investment; government investment; government policies; High-capacity network; high-capacity network; High-speed networks; high-speed networks; Information age; information age

thesaurus: Computer networks; Government policies

Sep 1991Common Law for the Electronic Frontier

keywords: codes of conduct; Codes of conduct; CompuServe; computer bulletin boards; Computer bulletin boards; computer intruders; computer networks; cyberspace; Cyberspace; cyberspace law; data base protection; data manipulation; Electronic Information Exchange System; extraterritoriality; Extraterritoriality; global networks; Global networks; information; Information; information network; Information network; Internet Worm; legal jurisdiction; Legal jurisdiction; legislation; national laws; National laws; network security; ownership; Ownership; privacy and computers; Prodigy Services Company; rules for networks; software copyrighting; SWIFT

thesaurus: Computer networks; Legislation

Sep 1991Civil Liberties in Cyberspace

keywords: access to electronic media; civil liberties agenda; Civil liberties agenda; computer crime; computer intruders; computer networks; Computer networks; Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF); electronic media; Electronic media; First Amendment and computing; government policy on computer crime; legislation; network security; search and seizure policy; social institutions; Social institutions

thesaurus: Computer crime; Computer networks; Legislation

Oct 1991Fullerenes
Oct 1991Iron Deficiency

Although it is often overlooked, iron deficiency is the most widespread nutritional problem in the world. It is particularly severe in those developing countries where parasitic diseases compound the effects of inadequate diet. Prevention is the best solution to a condition that can irreversibly damage brain function and impair the immune system --- and that may even be fatal.

Oct 1991Fullerenes

The quest for ``buckyballs'' has been one of the hottest in chemistry. These hollow cages of carbon atoms were characterized in 1985 and dubbed ``buckminsterfullerenes'' after the inventor of the geodesic dome. Bulk quantities were made in 1990. With other materials, they form crystals having properties that range from superconductivity to ferromagnetism.

keywords: applications of fullerenes; buckminsterfullerene; C60 and C70 molecules; carbon clusters; round molecules; soccerball structure of fullerene; third form of pure carbon; atomic clusters; Buckminsterfullerene; buckminsterfullerene; Buckybabies; buckybabies; Bunnyball; bunnyball; C240; C32; C44; C50; C540; C58; C60; C60(OsO4)(4-tert-pyridine)2; C70; C960; carbon; Daedalus; Electronic structures; electronic structures; Fullerides; fullerides; Giant fullerenes; giant fullerenes; Hyperfullerene nested concentric structure; hyperfullerene nested concentric structure; molecular energy level calculations; platinum-burr ball (triethylphosphine2Pt6C60); Russian egg

thesaurus: Atomic clusters; Carbon; Molecular energy level calculations

Oct 1991End of the Proterozoic Eon

Microscopic, single-celled organisms inhabited the earth for nearly four billion years. Then, just 600 million years ago, the macroscopic ancestors of modern plants and animals suddenly appeared, signaling the end of the Proterozoic eon. What caused the abrupt change? Evidence suggests that a rapid increase in atmospheric oxygen made multicellular life possible.

Oct 1991How the Immune System Learns About Self

The immune system can identify and destroy hundreds of millions of foreign substances. Yet when it functions properly, it ignores the tissues of the body. How these specialized cells learn to tell ``self'' from ``nonself'' has been debated for decades. Now researchers have unraveled one of the processes: the deletion of immature clones of antiself cells by the thymus.

Oct 1991Trends in Environmental Technology: Soiled Shores
Oct 1991Natural Selection and Darwin's Finches

Charles Darwin despaired of ever seeing evolution taking place. The process, he believed, was so slow that only the long-term results could be observed. Fortunately, he was wrong. Numerous studies document natural selection in real time. A. classic example is the finches of the Galapagos, populations of which are altered significantly by a single season of drought.

Oct 1991The Origins of the Asteroids

In the 19th century the search for a ``missing'' planet ended in the discovery of asteroids. Today astronomers believe they are remnants of a planet that never formed. By studying the asteroids, investigators are revealing important clues to understanding the birth of the solar system.

keywords: Asteroid belt; Asteroids; Collisions; Composition; Discovery; Families; Light curves; Orbits; Origins; Rotation; Shapes; Size; Solar nebula

thesaurus: Asteroids; Solar nebula

Oct 1991Focused Ion Beams

Soldering irons are not much use on wires that are a mere micron in diameter. That is why most defective integrated circuits are simply discarded. But chip makers now have a new tool. Liquid-metal ion sources produce beams of charged ions that can machine and weld as well as implant dopants.

keywords: Analysis; analysis; Elemental composition; elemental composition; Focused ion beams; focused ion beams; integrated circuit technology; Integrated circuits; integrated circuits; ion beam applications; ion beam lithography; ion implantation; Liquid metal ion sources; liquid metal ion sources; Maskless implantation; maskless implantation; Micromachining; micromachining; Nanolithography; nanolithography; Optical masks; optical masks; Repair; repair; semiconductor doping; X-ray lithographic masks

thesaurus: Integrated circuit technology; Ion beam applications; Ion beam lithography; Ion implantation; Semiconductor doping

Oct 1991Soiled Shores

After the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the beaches of Prince William Sound were scrubbed, hosed, hoed, fertilized and bulldozed at a cost of US$2.5 billion. Some scientists assessing the effects of that effort conclude that no method worked very well; some did more harm than good. The massive spill in the Persian Gulf is likely to teach that sobering lesson once again.

Oct 1991Concentration: A Winning Strategy
Nov 1991Void Protein and Alzheimer's Disease
Nov 1991Firearms, Violence and Public Policy

Guns are the weapon of choice in more than 60 percent of the homicides committed annually in the U. S. Handguns in circulation now number more than 35 million. But many state and federal gun-control laws, such as the 1991 Brady bill, may be misdirected. They do little to restrict access to those weapons that are most often implicated in violent crime and fatal accidents.

Nov 1991The Nuclear Equation of State

The fiery death of an exploding star cannot be duplicated in any laboratory. Yet physicists know much about what happens to matter under such extreme conditions. Just as an equation can describe the states of water (solid, liquid, vapor) at various temperatures and pressures, so it can predict similar phases as matter breaks up into its ultimate constituents, quarks and gluons.

keywords: Big bang; big bang; High energy collision experiments; high energy collision experiments; Nuclear equation of state; nuclear equation of state; Nuclear matter; nuclear matter; nuclear structure theory; Plasma phase; plasma phase; Supernova; supernova

thesaurus: Nuclear matter; Nuclear structure theory

Nov 1991Amyloid Protein and Alzheimer's Disease

In Alois Alzheimer observed deposits of ``a peculiar substance'' in brains from patients who had suffered from senile dementia. Whether these amyloid plaques are a cause or an effect of Alzheimer's disease has long been debated. The author cites evidence that in at least some forms of the disease the protein is a causative agent. Understanding how the plaques form may lead to treatments.

Nov 1991Chromoskedasic Painting

The well-known chemistry of black-and-white photography has an unexpected dimension. An artist has found a way to produce full-color paintings by controlling the size of the silver particles so that they scatter light in particular wavelengths.

Nov 1991Trends in Astronomy: Mirroring the Cosmos
Nov 1991Microlasers

Compared with the transistors on a computer chip, the tiny red lasers in compact-disc players are clumsy behemoths. Researchers are closing the gap by making micron-scale lasers that promise eventually to be as minuscule as their electronic cousins. These efficient, low-power lasers may pave the way to optical computers and find applications from remote sensing to machine vision.

keywords: 2D optical switch array; Diode laser arrays; diode laser arrays; Diode lasers; diode lasers; Information processing; information processing; May 1989; Micro-lasers; micro-lasers; Micron-size lasers; micron-size lasers; Miniaturization; miniaturization; Optical communications; optical communications; Optical computers; optical computers; Optical computing; optical computing; optical information processing; optical switches; Semiconductor chip; semiconductor chip; semiconductor laser arrays; Single chip; single chip

thesaurus: Optical information processing; Optical switches; Semiconductor laser arrays

Nov 1991Cultured Cells for the Treatment of Disease

Replacing severely damaged skin with grafts obtained by growing a patient's own cells in the laboratory is now easing the painful and protracted healing of burns. The cell culture technique is also curing intractable ulcerations and may one day be applied to other tissues and organs, including blood vessels and liver cells.

Nov 1991Painting in Color without Pigments
Nov 1991Genes, Peoples and Languages

Evidence for the African genesis of humanity now correlates on three major fronts. Family trees based on an exhaustive analysis of human genetics trace the divergence of languages during successive waves of migration by ancient peoples. Both are supported by the archaeological record.

Nov 1991Mirroring the Cosmos

When the Hale Telescope was completed in 1947, many astronomers believed it would be the largest ever built. But thick, rigid mirrors are being replaced by multifaceted reflecting surfaces, lightweight honeycombs and flexible sheets of glass. Combined with optical technologies that cancel out atmospheric distortion, the new telescopes promise the clearest and brightest view yet of the heavens.

Dec 1991Homeless Families

More than one third of the nation's homeless are families --- often headed by young women --- and their numbers are growing. Each night, as many as 100,000 children sleep in shelters or in abandoned buildings or on the street. The author proposes new social policies that will prevent the physical and psychological devastation faced by these vulnerable victims of poverty.

Dec 1991Quantum Cosmology and the Creation of the Universe

Einstein's general relativity enabled cosmologists to describe the formation of matter and its coalescence into galaxies, stars and planets. But that theory cannot explain the events before the instant of creation. During the past decade, a group of cosmologists turned to the theories of quantum mechanics to fill the gap. Still missing is an observation, such as gravity waves, to verify their ideas.

Dec 1991Trends in Artificial Intelligence: Silicon Babies

keywords: artificial intelligence; Artificial-intelligence; artificial-intelligence; Automated reasoning; automated reasoning; Common sense; common sense; Integrated intelligent systems; integrated intelligent systems; Knowledge representation; knowledge representation; Machine sensing; machine sensing; Machine vision; machine vision; Mechanical creatures; mechanical creatures; Natural-language understanding; natural-language understanding; Perception; perception; Planning; planning; robots

thesaurus: Artificial intelligence; Robots

Dec 1991The Stem Cell

The red blood cells that transport oxygen, the platelets that promote clotting and the host of disease-fighting cells of the immune system are all progeny of a prolific resident of the bone marrow known as the stem cell. The ability to isolate, manipulate and store hematopoietic stem cells is leading to improved treatments for such ailments as cancer, aplastic anemia and some autoimmune diseases.

Dec 1991The Origin of Horseback Riding

The first horse broken to the bit probably lived on the vast grasslands of the Ukrainian steppes some 6,000 years ago. That finding, based on microscopic analysis of characteristic tooth wear caused by a bit, predates the accepted origin of horseback riding in the Middle East by three millennia. The horse may have played a greater role in the spread of language and culture than previously thought.

Dec 1991A Short Trek to Infinity
Dec 1991Chemical Fuels from the Sun

Direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity has shortcomings. The energy cannot be stored efficiently, and it is difficult to transport over long distances. But heat from the sun can be captured in environmentally benign chemical fuels that can be used and then re-formed through reversible reactions. One possibility being explored is syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

keywords: chemical energy conversion; Chemical fuels; chemical fuels; fuel; Solar energy; solar energy; solar energy conversion; Storage; storage; Transportation; transportation

thesaurus: Chemical energy conversion; Fuel; Solar energy conversion

Dec 1991The Brush Turkey

The homely image of a female bird sitting patiently on her nest does not fit these curious Australian fowl. They bury their eggs in carefully constructed compost heaps --- then they leave. The chicks emerge fully capable of surviving. Their adaptations are exceptions to many rules that govern avian development.

Dec 1991Sophie Germain

The obstacles to women in science pale today before those faced by Sophie Germain in 18th-century France. Yet this self-taught, middle-class woman would not be dissuaded from the pursuit of mathematics. Firm in the conviction that her work would withstand the test of time, Germain made significant contributions.

Dec 1991Silicon Babies

Artificial-intelligence researchers have found ways to automate reasoning and planning, provide computers with sight and other senses, and teach them to comprehend spoken commands. Now a small group of researchers are attempting to put all those skills into one package. They are trying to build ``integrated systems'' that they hope will function independently in the real world.

Jan 1992Plant Life in a CO2 Rich World
Jan 1992Plant Life in a CO2 World

Some plant scientists have argued that rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide could be a boon by causing plants to grow faster and become larger and more plentiful. Experiments with plants grown in carbon dioxide-rich environments point instead to small and costly increases in agricultural productivity that could be overshadowed by the harmful disruption of critical ecosystems.

Jan 1992Quantum Chaos

Chaos lurks in the most orderly systems of the observable universe, from the perturbations of a swinging pendulum to the jitters in the moon's orbit. Not altogether surprisingly, it also inhabits the seemingly smooth, wavelike realm of atoms and subatomic particles. In the quantum world, chaos reveals itself in the distribution of energy levels and the trajectories of scattering electrons.

keywords: atomic spectra; chaos; Energy levels; energy levels; Energy spectrum; energy spectrum; Quantum chaos; quantum chaos; quantum statistical mechanics; quantum theory; Wave pattern treatment; wave pattern treatment

thesaurus: Atomic spectra; Chaos; Quantum statistical mechanics; Quantum theory

Jan 1992How Cells Absorb Glucose

Glucose is both an important fuel and a chemical precursor for the carbon-based compounds in all living tissues. Yet the way this small sugar enters cells is far from simple. Glucose is channeled through the impermeable cell membrane by transporter proteins. Understanding how some of these proteins are mobilized by exposure to insulin may provide clues to diabetes.

Jan 1992Accretion Disks in Interacting Binary Stars

Among the most common features in the cosmos are the disks of matter that collect around some massive objects such as stars and black holes. By studying an unusual type of highly variable star, astronomers are learning about the dynamics of such accretion disks. This knowledge may help explain the behavior of newborn stars, quasars and violent phenomena near the galactic center.

keywords: Accretion disks; accretion disks; cataclysmic binary stars; Cataclysmic variable stars; cataclysmic variable stars; Disk instability model; disk instability model; Dwarf novae; dwarf novae; Interacting binary stars; interacting binary stars; Outbursts; outbursts; stellar models; TW Vir

thesaurus: Accretion disks; Cataclysmic binary stars; Dwarf novae; Stellar models

Jan 1992How Sea Turtles Navigate

From the instant sea turtle hatchlings first struggle into the surf, their course is set. Some individuals literally circle the oceans before returning years later to the site of their birth. Experiments suggest that a combination of cues from the earth's magnetic field and the steady seasonal pattern of waves are the sources of these seafaring navigators' biological maps and compass.

Jan 1992Trends in Parasitology: Living Together
Jan 1992Tribal Warfare

The notion that tribal societies are naturally fierce and warlike has been a fixture of the Western mind at least since the time of Thomas Hobbes. Actually, the author argues, it was the very presence of the European interlopers that escalated the native savagery by destabilizing indigenous cultures.

keywords: cultural Heisenberg effect; tribal structure; tribal warfare; Western contact with tribal peoples

Jan 1992Lightwave Communications: The Fifth Generation

Optical fibers doped with erbium and powered by tiny laser chips are revolutionizing the way signals are regenerated for transcontinental communications and for fast data transmission over fiber-optic networks. abstract2 = "Since the transmission capacity of optical-fiber communications systems has increased 10 times every four years. The most recent development is an amplifier made by doping a glass fiber with erbium. It boosts capacity 100-fold by replacing electro-optical ``repeaters'' that regenerate weakened signals."

keywords: Communications systems; communications systems; Efficient radiation source; efficient radiation source; Er doped fibre amplifiers; erbium; fibre lasers; Laser diode chip; laser diode chip; Laser pumping; laser pumping; Optical amplifier; optical amplifier; optical communication equipment; optical pumping; Transmission capacities; transmission capacities

thesaurus: Erbium; Fibre lasers; Optical communication equipment; Optical pumping

Jan 1992How to Generate Chaos at Home
Jan 1992Living Together

For all their clever adaptations, parasites have been regarded as uninteresting and unpleasant organisms that inhabited the darker recesses of biology. Now ecologists are looking at these ``degenerate'' creatures in a new light. The intimate associations that develop between host and parasite in their battle for survival may have fundamentally shaped the evolution of all living things.

Feb 1992Indochinese Refugee Families and Academic Achievement

Many refugees from Southeast Asia arrived in the U.S. with little more than the clothes on their backs and with no exposure to Western culture or knowledge of the English language. Yet their children display stunning scholastic achievement in American schools. The authors attribute this academic success to supportive families in which all members participate equally in the learning process.

Feb 1992Mud Volcanoes of the Marianas

Near the edge of the Mariana Trench, where the great Pacific plate of the earth's crust is being forced down into the mantle, mountains of green mud loom from the ocean floor. These unusual mud volcanoes have solved a geologic mystery. Their presence confirms a theory that water squeezed from descending plates reacts with the mantle, creating minerals that ooze back to the seafloor.

Feb 1992Cancer Cell Invasion and Metastasis

The deadly ability of cancer cells to spread throughout the body and invade healthy tissues is not purely a malign aberration. The complex process is a natural characteristic of many normal cells. Recent identification of regulatory genes and proteins that control metastasis has produced a promising class of synthetic drugs that may prevent or block the growth of secondary tumors.

Feb 1992The Mammals of Island Europe

Fifty million years ago the island that is now Europe was colonized by animals from Africa and the New World. Their extraordinarily detailed fossil images are engraved in the shale of an ancient lake bed near Messel in Germany.

Feb 1992Laser Trapping of Neutral Particles

Atoms normally zip along with Brownian abandon at speeds of several hundred miles an hour. Getting atoms to remain still for detailed study was impossible until researchers cooled them in an ``optical molasses'' of laser light. Since then, workers have created optical traps and tweezers, molecular fountains --- even an atomic trampoline. All are important tools for physics, chemistry and biology.

Feb 1992Trends in Consumer Electronics: Picture Perfect
Feb 1992Turquoise in Pre-Columbian America

Centuries before the arrival of the conquistadores, dazzling ornaments encrusted with turquoise already had great religious, social and economic significance in Mesoamerica. Yet the nearest deposits of this gemstone are 1,000 miles away. Trade routes extended to Nevada and Arizona, in the American Southwest.

Feb 1992Nikolai V. Timofeeff Ressovsky

Can a scientist be productive in a society that challenges human values? The life of Russian geneticist Timofeeff-Ressovsky offers some answers. He worked in Nazi Germany, was imprisoned by the Soviets and continued his research in a military laboratory. After receiving amnesty in 1955, he opposed the Lysenkoists.

Feb 1992The Kissing Number
Feb 1992Picture Perfect

As Europeans watched foreign competition ravage the U.S. electronics industry, they vowed that it would not happen there. They drew the line with high-definition television and set out to develop a uniquely European system. After a six-year government-industry effort, broadcasts are beginning. Will the rush into HDTV assure the technological competitiveness of a unified Europe?

Mar 1992Building a Market Economy in Poland

Disgruntled residents of the former Soviet Union, who were greeted on the new year by astonishing prices and virtually bare shelves, may take some comfort from the example of Poland. When similar economic shock therapy was administered in 1990, prices and unemployment also soared. That econom is imperiled by unprivatized industry, but affordable goods are available: entrepreneurs are flourishing.

Mar 1992The Patch Clamp Technique

Over the past 15 years researchers have learned an immense amount about the transmission of electrical and chemical signals by neurons and other cells. They owe their success to a simple technique that won the authors a 1991 Nobel Prize. By isolating a tiny section of membrane on a living cell, scientists can manipulate the pore-forming proteins that permit ions to enter or leave cells.

Mar 1992Textures and Cosmic Structure

A bugbear of the big bang theory is that it fails to explain how the matter in the initially smooth universe clumped into vast sheets and bubbles of galaxies. Cosmologists have proposed numerous theories, from inflation to cosmic strings. The latest explanation to be offered, called textures, builds on the theories of particle physics to derive testable predictions of cosmic structure.

Mar 1992Why Aromatic Compounds Are Stable

The closed-carbon rings of the aromatic compounds are built to endure. They are found in soot and meteorites and have been identified among the gases of distant nebulae. In industrial chemistry, aromatics are essential as solvents and as reagents for dyes and resins. Chemists have only recently understood their incredible stability by drawing on quantum mechanics and topology.

Mar 1992Spider Webs and Silks

Spider webs are marvels of engineering. The silks from which they are spun are highly variable materials whose properties are adapted to the design of these gossamer tension structures. The elaborate orb webs of the common garden cross spider, the heroine of E. B. White's Charlotte's Web, achieve remarkable effectiveness by turning to advantage an inherent weakness of silk --- its softness when wet.

Mar 1992Trends in Astrophysics: Catching the Wave
Mar 1992Infrared Video Cameras

The difference between images that capture light and those made from thermal radiation is like that between night and day. But there is more to infrared imaging than seeing in the dark. Video cameras based on silicon heat detectors can penetrate foul weather, monitor industrial processes and observe distant galaxies.

Mar 1992The Gundestrup Cauldron

Who created this ancient silver cauldron embellished with elephants and deities? Scholars have sought the answer since it was dug from a Danish peat bog a century ago. The author believes the cauldron was made in southeastern Europe by silversmiths of a transcultural caste whose ritual traditions can be traced to Asia.

Mar 1992Seeing Infrared
Mar 1992Catching the Wave

The gravitational waves that ripple the fabric of space have never been conclusively observed. A team of U.S. scientists hopes by the end of the decade to be the first to build a device that will detect these extremely weak undulations. If they succeed, their unique telescope may also illuminate black holes and detect unknown cosmic structures invisible in the electromagnetic spectrum.

Apr 1992The Multiregional Evolution of Humans

The reasoning behind a molecular clock is flawed, these paleoanthropologists assert. Fossil remains and artifacts speak eloquently of a web of interconnected lineages that gave rise to modern humans. Africans, Asians, Australian Aborigines and Europeans evolved roughly where they are found today.

Apr 1992The Recent African Genesis of Humans

By tracing DNA that is transmitted to successive generations only by mothers, these geneticists argue that everyone is descended from a single ``Eve'' who lived in Africa just 200,000 years ago. If they are right, modern humans must have recently emerged from Africa to populate the other continents.

Apr 1992Mountain Belts and the Supercontinent Cycle

When German meteorologist Alfred L. Wegener proposed the idea of continental drift in 1912, he claimed that all the continents were fragments of a single, ancient landmass called Pangaea. The authors believe such supercontinents have formed repeatedly in a tectonic cycle that lasts about 500 million years. They cite as evidence the location and structure of folded and volcanic mountain belts.

keywords: 500E6 to 700E6 y; 500E6 y; Composition of seawater; composition of seawater; Continental rifting; continental rifting; Evolution of life; evolution of life; Global climate; global climate; Mountain building; mountain building; Pangaea; Plate tectonics; plate tectonics; Supercontinent cycle; supercontinent cycle; tectonics; Thermal effects; thermal effects; Worldwide sea level; worldwide sea level

thesaurus: Tectonics

Apr 1992Superantigens in Human Disease

Most antigens trigger an orderly attack on an invader. But some proteins arouse the immune system to a destructive frenzy --- just a few hundred molecules stimulate a response that would require a billion copies of a normal antigen. These superantigens have been implicated in the toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning. Recent studies suggest they may also explain the lethality of AIDS.

Apr 1992Trends in Genetics: Hacking the Genome
Apr 1992The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

Forty years after scientists first began pursuing the controlled release of energy by forcing hydrogen atoms to merge in a magnetic vise, nuclear fusion is still the fuel of the future. Now researchers' hopes are resting on ITER, an international fusion reactor planned for completion in 2005. The most powerful tokamak designed, its goal is ignition --- achieving a self-sustaining fusion reaction.

keywords: Conceptual design; conceptual design; D-T fuel; Engineering knowledge; engineering knowledge; Experimental fusion power plant; experimental fusion power plant; fusion reactor theory and design; International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor; ITER; Scientific knowledge; scientific knowledge; Design Overview; First Walls; iter Program; Nuclear Energy --- International Cooperation; Nuclear Reactors, Fusion; Reviews; Tokamak Devices

thesaurus: Fusion reactor theory and design

Apr 1992Solid Acid Catalysts

By careful design, the tiny pores and cavities of solid acid catalysts shape many of the products made by the chemical industry, from drugs to fuel additives. Compared with traditional liquid catalysts, these compounds are safer to handle. They also minimize toxic by-products and are easier to keep out of the environment.

keywords: Acids; Aluminophosphates; Catalysis; Catalysts; Ions; Solid Acid Catalysts

Apr 1992All Paths Lead away from Rome
Apr 1992Phantom Limbs

For many amputees, the missing limb remains frighteningly real. These invisible appendages often seem to move and feel sensations of pressure, warmth or wetness. Some 70 percent of them are also a source of intractable pain. A new explanation of the cause of phantom limbs is stimulating research into treatments.

Apr 1992Hacking the Genome

Parsing the three billion nucleotides that make up the genetic totality of a human is one of the most ambitious scientific efforts ever undertaken. The information will be useless unless it is entered into data bases that provide answers to questions scientists have not yet thought of. Translating the code of DNA into the digital language of computers falls to a group of ``informatics'' workers.

May 1992Understanding the AIDS Pandemic

The only truly effective weapon against AIDS is altering sexual behavior. Mathematical models that untangle the complex relations between the biology of the AIDS infection in individuals and the transmission of the disease in communities provide some surprisingly counterintuitive revelations. These results should be considered in future educational and prevention programs.

May 1992Biological Roles of Nitric Oxide

One of the body's most versatile regulatory chemicals is not a complex protein but a simple, highly toxic inorganic molecule that persists for less than 10 seconds. Nitric oxide transmits messages between neurons, signals blood vessels to dilate and is the weapon of white blood cells against tumors and bacteria. Its intricate physiological functions have been revealed over the past five years.

May 1992Trends in Molecular Archaeology: Eloquent Remains
May 1992Planetary Nebulae

In 1785 the English astronomer William Herschel called these clouds of glowing gas planetary nebulae because they looked like ghostly planets. Astronomers now know that these nebulae are the last wisps of matter streaming into space from a dying star. The study of planetary nebulae illuminates the life cycle of sun-like stars and may provide clues to the ultimate fate of the universe.

keywords: Appearance; appearance; astronomical spectra; Central star; central star; Distances; distances; Dynamics; dynamics; Life cycle; life cycle; planetary nebulae; Planetary nebulae characteristics; planetary nebulae characteristics; Shapes; shapes; Spectra; spectra; stellar evolution

thesaurus: Astronomical spectra; Planetary nebulae; Stellar evolution

May 1992Blind Spots

Every child has made a dot on a piece of paper disappear by moving it into the blind spot of the eye. Here the author uses the blind spot to explore a sophisticated perceptual function: the ability of the brain to interpolate visual information.

keywords: Blind spot demonstration illustrations; blind spot demonstration illustrations; Brain visual image processing; brain visual image processing; Perceptual gaps compensation; perceptual gaps compensation; vision defects; visual perception

thesaurus: Vision defects; Visual perception

May 1992Watching the Death of a Star
May 1992Binary Optics

Advanced optics that make it possible to etch delicate circuits on semiconductors created the microelectronics revolution. Now those same photolithographic techniques are having an important impact on optics. Arrays of tiny lenses carved into silicon wafers promise machine vision systems that mimic biological sight and integrated optical processors for communications.

keywords: Binary optics; binary optics; etching; Focusing properties; focusing properties; High lens quality; high lens quality; Lens design; lens design; Lens fabrication; lens fabrication; Lens making; lens making; lenses; Optical elements; optical elements; Optical material; optical material; optical workshop techniques; Surface etched lens shapes; surface etched lens shapes; Binary Lenses; Binary Optics; Lenses; Microelectronics; Optics

thesaurus: Etching; Lenses; Optical workshop techniques

May 1992Why American Songbirds Are Vanishing

Pesticides were blamed when familiar birdsongs were suddenly stilled in the 1960s. The worst culprits were banned, but migratory songbirds continue to decline. The reasons, the author argues, are increased pressure from predators and parasites in North American nesting sites and deforestation of tropical wintering areas.

May 1992Heisenberg, Uncertainty and the Quantum Revolution

At the age of 25, Werner Karl Heisenberg formulated the theory that bears his name and established him as a seminal figure in 20th-century physics. Germany's youngest full professor, Heisenberg trained a generation of modern physicists who were dispersed throughout the world by Hitler's rise to power.

keywords: causality principle; gamma-ray microscope thought experiment; Heisenberg's uncertainty principle; matrix mechanics; quantum mechanics; Schroinger's wave equation; transformation theory

May 1992Eloquent Remains

Among those who listen to the long dead are a new breed of archaeologists. Instead of trowels and brushes, they wield the techniques of molecular biology to analyze residues of nucleic acids and proteins that remain in ancient mummies and bones. Their efforts promise to trace the divisions, migrations, extinctions and expansions that have marked the biological history of humanity.

May 1992Does metaphor impede or enrich scientific discourse?
Jun 1992Early Results from the Hubble Space Telescope

Even though its primary mirror is flawed and its solar panels have given Hubble the jitters, the orbiting observatory can still match the sensitivity and exceed the resolution of the best earthbound telescopes. In its first two years of operation it has returned a stream of spectacular images, from storms on Saturn to possible black holes, that are triggering a revision of modern astronomy.

Jun 1992Lipoprotein(a) in Heart Disease

The patient has low blood cholesterol levels, is not obese, does not smoke and does not suffer from high blood pressure. Yet a heart attack still occurs. The agent of heart disease in many individuals with low risk profiles may be a blood particle known as lipoprotein(a). Ironically, the ability of this substance to cause heart disease may be a side effect of its role in repairing damaged blood vessels.

Jun 1992Transgenic Crops

In the past decade, genetic engineering has accelerated the age-old process of breeding advantageous traits into crops. Genes that confer resistance to diseases and pests as well as tolerance to herbicides and spoilage or that enhance nutritiousness have been inserted into more than 50 species. Plant biotechnology is now poised to make important contributions to world agriculture.

Jun 1992The Codex Mendoza

To acquaint Charles V with his exotic subjects, the first Spanish viceroy in Mexico commissioned the last pre-Conquest Aztec artists to record their vanishing civilization. Completed in 1541, the magnificent Codex was captured by the French, sold to an Englishman and forgotten until 1831. The first modern edition was destroyed in the London blitz; a new edition has been completed by the authors.

Jun 1992Trends in Industrial Research: Redesigning Research
Jun 1992Single Electronics

Computers have become more powerful as the devices etched onto silicon chips have become tinier. Experiments have now verified the feasibility of what may be the ultimate miniaturization: devices that require the movement of just a single electron. Whereas today's most advanced chips contain 10 million devices per square centimeter, single electronics could cram 10 billion into the same space.

keywords: Continuous flow; continuous flow; Electric current; electric current; Fluid of charge; fluid of charge; Individual electrons; individual electrons; Novel electronic devices; novel electronic devices; quantum interference phenomena; Electric Current; Electric Space Charge; Electrons; Transistors; Tunnel Junctions

thesaurus: Quantum interference phenomena

Jun 1992Control of Rabies in Wildlife

Wild mammals are a major reservoir for the rabies virus, which causes 25,000 human deaths every year. An epidemic in raccoons has spread unchecked up the U.S. East Coast since the 1950s. The solution, these authors say, is vaccine-filled baits, which are controlling the transmittal of rabies by foxes in Europe and Canada.

Jun 1992The Riddle of the Vanishing Camel
Jun 1992Accounting for Environmental Assets

When governments calculating their economic performance fail to account for the depreciation of forests, fisheries, minerals or water caused by development, the balance sheets often show growth and prosperity. In reality, the result is usually impoverishment. The experience of Costa Rica is a case in point.

Jun 1992Redesigning Research

Prominent research laboratories, once the pride of U.S. industrial giants, have been sold, shuttered or simply given away. All too often, their important inventions made little or no contribution to the bottom line. But some companies are not ready to write off research. They are determined to reshape their research operations so that they serve the goals of the business. Can they succeed?

Jul 19921942: Physicists are the fair-haired boys of World War II
Jul 1992Building Molecular Crystals
Jul 1992Origins of Western Environmentalism

During the Age of Discovery, tropical islands became a powerful metaphor for the European idea of an untouched Eden. Those utopian images were soon shattered. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists employed by the companies exploiting colonial resources began to voice alarm over large-scale ecological changes. In doing so, they laid the foundation of modern environmentalism.

Jul 1992Building Molecular Crystals

From snowflakes to semiconductors, the orderly lattice of crystals is governed by the size and shape of constituent molecules and the forces between them. Researchers have now begun to understand the conditions that influence the structure of crystals as they form. The achievement makes feasible the design of materials that have specific electronic, optical and magnetic properties.

Jul 1992G Proteins

Like messages in a game of ``telephone,'' the signals between living cells are passed through a series of intermediates. Critical among them is a class of substances attached to the inner surface of the cell membrane, called G proteins. They play a central role in many cellular activities, from vision to cognition. Malfunctioning G proteins have been implicated in diseases such as cholera and cancer.

Jul 1992Genetic Algorithms

Computer programs that evolve in ways that resemble natural selection can solve complex problems even their creators do no fully understand. abstract-2 = "The consummate ability of species to adapt to an environment arose through natural selection. A group of computer programmers are emulating that process in the design of software. Programs based on genetic algorithms can evolve solutions to complex problems. They have demonstrated their practicability in designing jet turbines and controlling the flow in gas pipeline systems."

keywords: Complex problems; complex problems; Evolution; evolution; Genetic algorithms; genetic algorithms; learning systems; Natural selection; natural selection; Software; software

thesaurus: Genetic algorithms; Learning systems

Jul 1992Trends in Physics: Quantum Philosophy
Jul 1992Breath Tests in Medicine

Since the time of Hippocrates, physicians have known that the odors of breath can convey vital information. With modern analysis and understanding of metabolic processes, breath tests can diagnose diseases of the stomach, intestine and pancreas. They can also monitor exposure to industrial chemicals. Standardized apparatus is needed before such tests take a place beside the x-ray for routine screening.

Jul 1992Reproductive Strategies of Frogs

Frogs reproduce by laying eggs resembling those of fish. Yet frogs have managed to colonize niches throughout the terrestrial environment. To do so, they have developed a diversity of strategies that range from the improbable to the bizarre for ensuring that their eggs stay moist and that their young are nourished.

Jul 1992The Last Stone Ax Makers

The village of Langda on the cloud-shrouded slopes of New Guinea's central cordillera provides a priceless glimpse of Stone Age technology. There, skilled craftsmen, who lived in complete isolation from the modern world until 1984, fashion stone axes that resemble those first made 20,000 years ago.

Jul 1992Survival of the Finest Bits
Jul 1992Quantum Philosophy

The deeper physicists inquire into the mysterious world of quantum theory, the stranger it gets. New experiments continue to challenge the common notion of reality. Photons, neutrons, even objects large enough to be seen, lack from until they are observed. Observation can alter the outcome of experiments that have already occurred; measuring one entity can influence another far away.

Jul 1992Retrying the monkey trial in a kangaroo court
Jul 1992Sexism still lurks in the language of science
Aug 1992Dynamics of Kilauea Volcano

One of the longest volcanic eruptions in recorded history began in 1983. Lava flows from Kilauea have since added 120 hectares of new land to the island of Hawaii and covered 100 square kilometers. From a nearby cliff, the authors observed and analyzed these events. Their findings clarify the mechanisms of volcanism. The techniques they developed are helping to predict other eruptions.

keywords: AD 1983 01 02; Dynamics; dynamics; Eruption; eruption; Geological activity; geological activity; Hawaii; Hawaiian island chain; Internal structure; internal structure; Kilauea volcano; Magma reservoir; magma reservoir; Midplate vulcanic activity; midplate vulcanic activity; Surface features; surface features; Tectonics; tectonics; volcanology

thesaurus: Tectonics; Volcanology

Aug 1992Bacterial Endotoxins

Bacterial endotoxins are a two-edged sword. These cell-wall components of a major group of bacteria account for many symptoms of cholera, whooping cough and other diseases. But they can also enhance the immune response to other bacteria, viruses and even cancer. Recent findings may lead to ways of curbing the harmful effects of endotoxins and harnessing their disease-fighting capacity.

Aug 1992How Cosmology Became a Science

The big bang became the established explanation for the origin of the universe almost overnight, when Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson observed the faint signals of the cosmic background radiation in the 1960s. Their achievement relied on a rich legacy of theory and experiment that enabled big bangers to challenge successfully the earlier concept of a universe that had always existed.

Aug 1992Naked Mole Rats

These African rodents have been described as saber-toothed sausages, as baby walruses or simply as ugly. Naked mole rats are also fascinating creatures. Unlike most mammals, they practice the ``eusocial'' behavior typically observed in ants and termites. In mole rat burrows, only a few individuals breed; others care for the offspring. What are the genetic and evolutionary roots of this social organization?

Aug 1992Evolution Comes to Life

The curator of the American Museum of Natural History's new Hall of Human Biology and Evolution describes the daunting task of constructing lifelike figures of our distant ancestors, guided only by fragments of ancient bone.

Aug 1992Trends in Transportation: Air Trains
Aug 1992Paradoxes of Musical Pitch

Just as optical illusions can trick the eye, so various combinations of musical pitch can deceive the ear. Recent research shows that these auditory paradoxes may be related to the brain's processing of speech. The way individuals hear various sequences of tones seems peculiar to their particular language or dialect.

keywords: acoustic variables measurement; hearing; Key; key; Music; music; musical acoustics; Musical pitch; musical pitch; Paradoxical effects; paradoxical effects; Perception; perception; psychology; Speech; speech; Tones; tones

thesaurus: Acoustic variables measurement; Hearing; Musical acoustics; Psychology

Aug 1992Achieving Electronic Privacy

All of your electronic transactions, from credit card purchases to bank withdrawals, are creating a digital dossier of your life. The author proposes an encryption system that would allow individuals and institutions to take advantage of the benefits of computer communications while protecting privacy.

keywords: Blind signature; blind signature; Credentials; credentials; Credit card; credit card; credit transactions; Cryptographic invention; cryptographic invention; cryptography; data privacy; Database; database; Digital signature; digital signature; EFTS; Electronic cash; electronic cash; Electronic privacy; electronic privacy; Identification; identification; Numbers; numbers; Personal information; personal information; Representative; representative; Untraceable transactions; untraceable transactions; blind signature cryptography; digital credentials; digital signature; electronic privacy; private keys; public keys; secure digital pseudonyms; smart credit cards

thesaurus: Credit transactions; Cryptography; Data privacy; EFTS

Aug 1992The Interplanetary Olympics
Aug 1992Air Trains

In the 1960s, a handful of engineers devised what they believe is the answer to ground transportation needs for the next century: high-speed trains buoyed on magnetic fields. While Europe and Japan forged ahead, Washington zeroed out U.S. programs in the 1970s. Now, with the backing of an equally zealous senator, these aging visionaries may have a second chance to see whether maglev will fly.

Sep 1992Neurons for Computers
Sep 1992Science and the Citizen

Quantum gravity... Population politics... Gold bugs... The evidence for dark matter... First steps for artificial life... Profile: SSC architect Roy F. Schwitters.

Sep 1992Mind and Brain

The human brain is the most complex structure in the known universe. Genes and experience have jointly shaped its machinery; its design is the result of millions of years of evolution. Our survival depends on a deeper understanding of the marvelous biochemical happening that arises from it: the mind.

Sep 1992The Developing Brain

Remarkably precise connections between more than 100 billion neurons account for all the properties of the mind. Yet in the fetus this intricate wiring is only an approximation of that in the mature brain. The final linkages are shaped by stimulation of the newborn through such sensory experiences as touch, speech and images.

Sep 1992The Visual Image in Mind and Brain

There is a great deal more to vision than light meeting the eye. The world we see is literally an invention of the brain, actively constructed from a constantly changing flood of information. Seeing and understanding occur simultaneously through the synchronized activities of specialized areas in the visual cortex.

keywords: Blindness; blindness; brain; Cortex malfunctioning; cortex malfunctioning; neurophysiology; Vision; vision; Visual cortex; visual cortex; Visual image; visual image

thesaurus: Brain; Neurophysiology; Vision

Sep 1992Working Memory and the Mind
Sep 1992The Biological Basis of Learning and Individuality

Learning and memory --- the acquisition of knowledge and the retention of that information over time --- are being studied on the cellular and molecular level. These processes, which connect us to our past and are the key to individuality, engage a simple set of rules to strengthen connections between nerve cells.

Sep 1992Brain and Language

In the beginning, there were no words. Language arose and persisted because it is a superb means of communication. Three sets of interacting neural structures process language in the brain. One supports nonlanguage concepts, another assembles words and sentences, and a third mediates between the first two.

Sep 1992Working Memory and the Mind

Working memory has been called the blackboard of the mind. Its ability to combine moment-to-moment awareness and instantaneous retrieval of archived information is fundamental to language comprehension, learning and reason. Experiments with monkeys are identifying the key neural structures.

Sep 1992Sex Differences in the Brain

The different ways in which men and women approach intellectual problem solving have often been attributed to variations in experience. Evidence indicates that reproductive hormones alter brain function permanently during fetal development. Further research may explain the evolutionary significance of these changes.

Sep 1992Major Disorders of Mind and Brain

Schizophrenia and mania --- the most devastating maladies of the mind --- each afflict 1 percent of the population. Impressive advances in neuroscience and genetics are revealing the anatomic, biochemical and hereditary bases of these disorders. Research has already shaped the development of new therapies.

Sep 1992Aging Brain, Aging Mind

As we age, the neural structures involved in learning, memory and reasoning undergo a number of physical changes. Yet such alterations do not necessarily signal an inevitable slow march to mindlessness and mortality. Elderly individuals who remain in good health show only a subtle decline in cognitive function.

Sep 1992How Neural Net Works Learn from Experience

Networks of artificial neurons can learn to represent complicated information. Such neural networks may provide insights into the learning abilities of the human brain. abstract-2 = "Networks of artificial neurons modeled on conventional computers are helping explain the ability of the brain to process and retain information. These neural-network simulations have already ruled out many theories. They are now beginning to reveal how the brain accomplishes the remarkable feat of learning."

keywords: artificial neural networks; artificial neurons; Artificial neurons; back-propagation algorithm; Brain; brain; brain neurons; competitive learning; Information processing; information processing; Information retention; information retention; Learning; learning; neural nets; Neural networks; neural networks; population coding; principal-components learning; training neural networks

thesaurus: Brain; Neural nets

Sep 1992The Problem of Consciousness

Can consciousness, the most profound and puzzling facet of the mind, be probed experimentally? Are elusive mental events explainable as the behavior of interacting neurons? The authors argue that existing evidence already provides a glimpse of the nature of visual consciousness that can guide experimenters.

Sep 1992Science and Business

Ag biotech moves out of the lab and into the kitchen... Virtual reality meets the real world... The Analytical Economist: Options to the tyranny of economic growth.

Oct 1992Murder at Ghastleigh Grange
Oct 199250 and 100 Years Ago

1942: Why smashing atoms will never provide a source of energy.

Oct 1992Science and the Citizen

A complex metaphor; High-tech yard sale; Black programs, white lies; What the Hubble telescope sees; Questioning COBE; How milk triggers diabetes; Stowaway species; Automata autos; PROFILE: Physicist Hans A. Bethe.

Oct 1992How Many Species in Habit the Earth?

Nobody really knows. Estimates of the number of plant, animal and other species vary from three million to more than 30 million, but after more than 250 years of systematic research, taxonomists have catalogued fewer than two million. The author argues that an accurate census is crucial for efforts to preserve diversity and to manage the biological and physical resources of the planet.

Oct 1992Quantum Cryptography

The desire to communicate in total secrecy is probably as old as humankind. Myriad codes and ciphers have been devised only to be broken by mathematicians. Quantum physics may finally give the communicating parties a decisive edge. Because observing a quantum phenomenon perturbs that which is seen, any attempt at eavesdropping will alert the legitimate users.

keywords: code breaking; Heisenberg uncertainty principle; photon polarization; privacy amplification; public-key cryptography; quantum cryptographic devices; quantum key distribution; Vernam cipher

Oct 1992Mountain Sickness

As a Chinese archivist of the fifth century watched, his companion on the Silk Route struggled to breathe, fell and fainted, a froth dotting his lips. Death soon followed. Mountain sickness, which is caused by a lack of oxygen at high altitudes, has become more common as record numbers of people visit mountains to climb, ski and vacation. But the condition is treatable --- and preventable.

Oct 1992Histones as Regulators of Genes

Until recently, these proteins in the nuclei of cells were regarded as little more than passive spindles around which the crucial molecules of DNA wound. Their task turns out to be more complex: histones are vital participants in the expression and suppression of genes. Insights into their role should help explain how the process can go awry and lead to diseases such as cancer.

Oct 1992Singing Caterpillars, Ants and Symbiosis

The lumbering, plump precursor of the butterfly is a favorite comestible of many predators. So a few species have arranged for protection by ants. The caterpillars advertise their presence by ``singing'' with a vibratory organ. They then trick the ants into defending them by releasing a chemical that mimics an ant alarm signal and reward their fierce bodyguards by secreting a nutritious nectar.

Oct 1992Trends in Science Education: Teaching Real Science
Oct 1992Diamond Film Semiconductors

Diamonds may one day be a chip maker's best friend. The ability to produce thin sheets of diamond from a low-pressure gas is a significant step toward a new generation of fast, high-temperature circuits. But formidable fabrication problems must be overcome before diamond chips become a commercial reality.

keywords: C; diamond; Diamond film semiconductors; diamond film semiconductors; Electronic devices; electronic devices; elemental semiconductors; Epitaxial layers; epitaxial layers; Impurities; impurities; MOSFETs; semiconductor devices; semiconductor epitaxial layers; semiconductor growth; semiconductor thin films; Transistor; transistor; vapour deposition; vapour phase epitaxial growth

thesaurus: Diamond; Elemental semiconductors; Semiconductor devices; Semiconductor epitaxial layers; Semiconductor growth; Semiconductor thin films; Vapour deposition; Vapour phase epitaxial growth

Oct 1992Scavenging and Human Evolution

Should we identify with the lion or the hyena? The skills of hunting, so the theory runs, were a major factor in our evolution into hand-using, toolmaking lords of creation. The authors argue that the same course could have resulted from competing with hyenas and other scavengers for carcasses left by predators such as lions.

Oct 1992Teaching Real Science

Aversion to science is not just socially acceptable in elementary and high schools --- it has become positively hip. And the performance of U.S. students in math and science is abysmal. Now a group of educators believes it can revitalize science education with the establishment of innovative national standards. But this is hardly the first attempt at curriculum reform. Will it succeed?

Oct 1992Science and Business

The most dense data storage yet; Nanophase ceramics; Two-cycle green machine; Clinical sequencing; Isotope economics; Bulk buckytubes; The Analytical Economist: Do education vouchers make economic sense?

Oct 1992Mathematical Recreations

Tracking a murderer through a Hamiltonian network.

Oct 1992Books: The islanders who greeted Columbus; Zen astronomy
Oct 1992Essay: Gerard Piel: An important starting point for managing planet Earth
Nov 1992Letters

Hubble's enhanced image ... Defending expert witnesses.

Nov 199250 and 100 Years Ago

1942: The price of success in medicine is five years of life.

Nov 1992Science and the Citizen

For rent: Russian spy plane ... How bacteria resist drugs ... Stellar oscillations ... Too much industrial policy? ... Sneaker spill ... Controlling chaos pumps up a laser ... A cell transplant controversy ... Profile: Philosopher Karl Popper.

Nov 1992Health Care Forum
Nov 1992The Expansion, Rate and Size of the Universe
Nov 1992Health Care Reform

If any national issue rivals unemployment and the grim economic outlook, it is health care. More than 35 million Americans lack medical insurance, even though the U.S. spends more of its gross domestic product on health care than does any other developed nation. The solution, the author proposes, is a radically new structure that provides universal insurance and contains escalating costs.

Nov 1992The Expansion Rate and Size of the Universe

The holy grail of cosmology is an accurate determination of the Hubble constant, the rate at which the universe is expanding. Present measurements differ by a factor of two --- a door wide enough to accommodate several divergent hypotheses about the ultimate fate of the universe. New techniques that promise to refine the calculation should affect the entire field of extragalactic astronomy.

Nov 1992Linguistic Origins of Native Americans
Nov 1992The Risks of Software

Glitches in computer programs are annoying when they cost an hour's work. In critical applications, such as telephone networks, nuclear power plants or missile guidance systems, insidious faults can spell disaster. Since even the best proof cannot pinpoint the extent of vulnerability, the authors argue that the use of computers should be restricted wherever safety is a primary consideration.

keywords: Critical systems; critical systems; Dangerous chemical plant; dangerous chemical plant; economic and sociologic effects; safety; Safety systems; safety systems; Software reliability; software reliability; Uncertainty; uncertainty

thesaurus: Economic and sociologic effects; Safety; Software reliability

Nov 1992Trends in Micromechanics: Micron Machinations
Nov 1992Visualizing Biological Molecules

The form of a protein strongly influences its function, so creating accurate pictures of biological molecules is an important goal. It has been magnificently achieved by the power of the computer to create images that combine art and engineering.

keywords: Antibodies; antibodies; Biochemistry; biochemistry; biology computing; Chemical reaction; chemical reaction; chemistry computing; Complex molecules; complex molecules; Computer aided molecular design; computer aided molecular design; computer graphics; data visualisation; digital simulation; Drug design; drug design; Enzymes; enzymes; Foreign molecules; foreign molecules; macromolecules; Molecular biology; molecular biology; Molecular images; molecular images; Molecule dynamics; molecule dynamics; physics computing; Protein structures; protein structures; Scientific visualisation; scientific visualisation; computer graphics; molecular design; molecular images; NMR spectroscopy; scanning probe microscopy; visualizing biological molecules; x-ray crystallography

thesaurus: Biology computing; Chemistry computing; Computer graphics; Data visualisation; Digital simulation; Macromolecules; Physics computing

Nov 1992The Big Bang of Animal Evolution

About 600 million years ago a remarkable burst of evolutionary creativity simultaneously gave rise to the basic body plans of all modern, multicellular animals. Why fundamentally new designs for living creatures seem not to have emerged from the evolutionary cauldron since then is one of the great mysteries of biology. Several possible explanations for the stability come up short.

Nov 1992Sighting Cepheid Variables
Nov 1992Linguistic Origins of Native Americans

The first Native Americans to settle in the New World brought with them their genes and their languages. A comparative analysis of the many native tongues reveals three distinct language families, indicating that the Americas were originally populated by three successive waves of immigration from Asia.

Nov 1992Astronomy in the Age of Columbus

Columbus's discovery that a vast, unknown landmass lay between Europe and Asia vividly demonstrated that ancient knowledge of the world was woefully incomplete. The geographic revolution that followed paved the way for unorthodox astronomical ideas, including the sun-centered cosmology of Copernicus.

keywords: Columbus's geodesy; heliocentric doctrine; history of astronomy; planetary positions; spherical earth

Nov 1992Micron Machinations

Researchers are borrowing chip-making technology to produce an array of motors, gears and other mechanical parts so small as to be dwarfed by the point of a pin or held in the pincers of an ant. More than displays of technical virtuosity, these minuscule gadgets may have uses ranging from the fabrication of devices capable of extremely dense data storage to instruments for microsurgery.

Nov 1992Science and Business

Making work work ... More funds for Sematech? ... Biotechnology tackles second messengers ... Artificial intelligence in drug development ... A sound solution for refrigerators ... The Analytical Economist: When the poor are good credit risks.

Nov 1992The Amateur Scientist

Plotting the period of Cepheid variable stars.

Nov 1992Books

The first accountants ... Binding chemistry ... Structural failures.

Nov 1992Essay

Scientists, not M.B.A.'s, should be the captains of industry.

Dec 1992Letters to the Editor

A quantum experiment worth trying ... The Ahab of the top quark?

Dec 199250 and 100 Years Ago

1892: An ingenious way to view photographs in full color.

Dec 1992New Challenges for 1993

Science and technology proceed through a powerful dynamic in which answers breed yet more powerful questions. This past year discoveries about black holes, neurotransmitters, the origin of modern humans and many other subjects will propel basic research to deeper levels of inquiry. Demands for enhanced performance by users of computer networks, advanced materials and electronics will challenge the creativity of engineers.

Dec 1992Learning from Asian Schools

The high achievement of Asian students contrasts with the performance of their peers in the U.S. But the reasons for the difference have not been studied systematically. Now a comparison of urban schools in Asia and America leads the author to an astonishingly simple conclusion: Asians excel because school is enjoyable, parents expect performance, and professionalism in teaching is fostered.

Dec 1992Extremely Cold Antiprotons

The technology for capturing antimatter so that it can be scrutinized in the laboratory has advanced rapidly. Antiprotons cooled to energies one ten-billionth of those possible just six years ago can be stored for months. These trapped particles are already providing exceedingly accurate measurements of mass and charge. Soon researchers hope to produce the first antimatter atoms of hydrogen.

keywords: Antimatter atoms; antimatter atoms; Antiprotons; antiprotons; Au-plated Cu ring; CERN; Cooling; cooling; Cyclotron frequency; cyclotron frequency; Ion trap; ion trap; particle sources; particle traps; Slowing; slowing

thesaurus: Cooling; Particle sources; Particle traps

Dec 1992Trends in Biology: Why Do We Age?
Dec 1992Directed Molecular Evolution

When a horticulturist wants a redder rose and a cat fancier desires a fluffier Persian, they choose stocks that exemplify those traits and breed the progeny selectively. Similarly, techniques for amplifying, mutating and selecting the most promising macromolecules from large populations are enabling biochemists to imitate nature and direct the evolution of new drugs and catalysts.

Dec 1992Christmas in the House of Chaos
Dec 1992What Columbus ``Saw'' in 1492

Christopher Columbus set sail from Spain with a clear idea of his intended destination. When he found himself in quite another --- and unknown --- place, his observations of the land and its inhabitants were colored by his expectations and his desire to justify the expedition to his royal patrons. The result was a complicated, and sometimes contradictory, impression of the New World.

keywords: Columbus's preconceptions; Columbus's reports; medieval maps; mythical monsters; native Americans; New World

Dec 1992The Human Voice

Despite centuries of fascination with the voices of singers and actors, the nature of human vocalization remained largely a mystery. Over the past two decades, interdisciplinary collaborations and advances in technology have clarified the way vocal sounds originate and change. Improvements in diagnostic techniques and treatments for voice complaints have reduced the need for surgery.

Dec 1992Experimental Market Economics

It is no accident that economics is dubbed ``the dismal science.'' While other scientists conducted controlled experiments, economists had to infer the dynamics of the marketplace from prices and trading volume. Now computerized laboratories are illuminating the principles that govern trading decisions.

Dec 1992Meaning and Mind in Monkeys

Do utterances of monkeys reflect thought? The authors have concluded that the different alarm calls of vervet monkeys resemble human words in that they convey specific, semantic information. Yet monkeys apparently communicate without the knowledge or recognition of one another's mental state.

Dec 1992Why Do We Age?

Researchers probing one of the great mysteries of life are beginning to make solid progress. By creating unusually long-lived varieties of laboratory organisms, they are revealing some of the mechanisms that may contribute to deterioration and death --- and they are uncovering the genes that control those processes.

Dec 1992Mathematical Recreations

Combining order and chaos to decorate the Yule tree.

Dec 1992Book Reviews

The season's selections for young readers.

Dec 1992Essay

Why is English still the lingua franca of science?

Compiled by Dave Lo, based on Nelson H. F. Beebe's Bibliographies Page, © Scientific American